3. Suffixed form *ag-to-. ambassador, embassage, embassy, from Latin ambactus, servant, from Celtic *amb(i)-ag-to-, “one who goes around” (*ambi, around; see ambhi).
4. Suffixed form *ag-ti-, whence adjective *ag-ty-o-, “weighty.” axiom; axiology, chronaxie, from Greek axios, worth, worthy, of like value, weighing as much.
5. Possibly suffixed form *ag-ro-, driving, pursuing, grabbing. pellagra, podagra, from Greek agr, a seizing.
6. O-grade suffixed form *og-mo-, furrow, track, metaphorically “incised line.” ogham, from Old Irish Ogma (from Celtic *Ogmios), name of a Celtic god and traditional inventor of the ogham alphabet.
(Pokorny ag̑- 4.) See also derivative agro-.
A day (considered as a span of time). Oldest form *ah-, becoming *agh- in centum languages. a. day; daisy, today, from Old English dæg, day; b. Landtag, from Old High German tag, day; c. dawn, from Old English denominative dagian, to dawn. a–c all from Germanic *dagaz (with initial d- of obscure origin), day.
(Pokorny her- 7.)
Field. Probably a derivative of ag-. Oldest form *aro-, becoming *agro- in centum languages.
1. acre, from Old English æcer, field, acre, from Germanic *akraz.
2. agrarian; agriculture, peregrine, pilgrim, from Latin ager (genitive agr), earlier *agros, district, property, field.
3. agria, agro-; agrostology, onager, stavesacre, from Greek agros, field, and agrios, wild.
(In Pokorny a-4.)
To be master of, possess. Oldest form *2ei-, colored to *2ai-, becoming *ai- in satem languages and *aik- in centum languages.
1. ought1, owe, from Old English gan, to possess, from Germanic *aigan, to possess.
2. own, from Old English gen, one's own, from Germanic participial form *aiganaz, possessed, owned.
3. fraught, freight, from Middle Low German and Middle Dutch vrecht, vracht,“earnings,” hire for a ship, freight, from Germanic prefixed form *fra-aihtiz, absolute possession, property (*fra-,intensive prefix; see per1).
4. Reduplicated zero-grade (perfect) form *e-ik-, remade to *i-ik- (> *k-). Ganesh, from Sanskrit e, he rules over.
Copy. Oldest form *2eim-, colored to *2aim-.
1. Suffixed full-grade form *aim-olo-. emulate, emulous, from Latin aemulus, emulous.
2. Zero-grade form *im-.a. imitate; inimitable, from Latin imitre, to imitate, from suffixed form *im-eto-;b. image, imago, imagine, from Latin img, image. (Not in Pokorny; compare Hittite imma-,ritual substitute.)
To wish, desire. Oldest form *2eis-, colored to *2ais-. Suffixed form *ais-sk-. ask, from Old English scian, csian, to ask, seek, from Germanic *aiskn.
(Pokorny 1. ais- 16.)
Also ayu-. Vital force, life, long life, eternity; also “endowed with the acme of vital force, young.” Oldest forms *2eiw-, *2eyu-, colored to *2aiw-, *2ayu-.
Derivatives include no1, ever, medieval, age, and eon.
1a. no1, from Old English , ever; b. aught1, from Old English wiht, uht, anything, “ever a creature”; c. ever; every, never, from Old English fre (second element obscure), ever; d. aye2; nay, from Old Norse ei, ever. a, c, and d all from extended Germanic form *aiwi; b from Germanic *aiwi + *wihti, “ever a thing, anything” (*wihti-, thing; see wekti-). 2a. Suffixed form *aiw-o-. coeval, longevity, medieval, primeval, from Latin aevum, age, eternity; b. further suffixed form *aiwo-t(ti)-. age; coetaneous, from Latin aets (stem aetti-), age; c. further suffixed form *aiwo-t-erno-. eternal, eterne, eternity; sempiternal, from Latin aeternus, eternal.
3. Suffixed form *aiw-en-. eon, from Greek ain, age, vital force.
4. Zero-grade form *yu- (earlier *yu-) in compound *yu-gwi-es-, “having a vigorous life” (*gwi-es-, life; see gwei-). hygiene, from Greek hugis, healthy.
5. O-grade form *oyu-(earlier *oyu-). a. utopia, from Greek ou, not, variant of ouk, probably from a pre-Greek phrase *(ne) oyu (kwid), “(not on your) life” (ne, not, and *kwid, indefinite pronoun used as emphasizing particle; see ne and kwo-); b. Ayurveda, from Sanskrit yu, life, health, from suffixed form *oyu-s-.
(Pokorny ai- 17.) See also derivative yeu-.
Sharp. Oldest form *2e-, colored to *2a-, becoming *a- in satem languages and *ak- in centum languages.
Derivatives include acute, hammer, heaven, eager1, vinegar, acid, and oxygen.
1. Suffixed form *ak-y-. a.edge; selvage, from Old English ecg, sharp side, from Germanic *agj; b. egg2, from Old Norse eggja, to incite, goad, from Germanic *agjan.
2. Suffixed form *ak-u-. a. ear2, from Old English æhher, ar, spike, ear of grain, from Germanic *ahuz-; b. acicula, acuity, aculeate, acumen, acupuncture, acute, aglet, ague, eglantine, from Latin acus, needle; c. acerose, from Latin acus, chaff.
3. Suffixed form *ak-i-. acidanthera, from Greek akis, needle.
4. Suffixed form *ak-men-, stone, sharp stone used as a tool, with metathetic variant *ka-men-, with variants: a. *ka-mer-.hammer, from Old English hamor, hammer, from Germanic *hamaraz; b. *ke-men- (probable variant). heaven, from Old English heofon, hefn, heaven, from Germanic *hibin-, “the stony vault of heaven,” dissimilated form of *himin-.
5. Suffixed form *ak-on-,independently created in: a. awn, from Old Norse ögn, ear of grain, and Old English agen, ear of grain, from Germanic *agan; and b. paragon, from Greek akon, whetstone.
6. Suffixed lengthened form *k-ri-. acerate, acrid, acrimony, eager1; carvacrol, vinegar, from Latin cer, sharp, bitter.
7. Suffixed form *ak-ri-bhwo-. acerbic, exacerbate, from Latin acerbus, bitter, sharp, tart.
8. Suffixed (stative) form *ak--. acid, from Latin acre, to be sharp.
9. Suffixed form *ak-to-. acetabulum, acetic, acetum; ester, from Latin actum, vinegar.
10. Suffixed form *ak-m-. acme, acne, from Greek akm, point.
11. Suffixed form *ak-ro-.acro-; acrobat, acromion, from Greek akros, topmost.
12. O-grade form *ok- (from earlier *ok-) in suffixed form *ok-ri-.mediocre, from Latin ocris, rugged mountain.
13. Suffixed o-grade form *ok-su-. amphioxus, oxalis, oxygen, oxytone, oxyuriasis, paroxysm, from Greek oxus, sharp, sour.
(Pokorny 2. a- 18, 3. em- 556.)
1. ait; island, from Old English g, eg, island, from Germanic *auj, “thing on the water,” from *agwj.
2. aqua, aquarelle, aquarium, aquatic, aqui-, ewer, gouache; aquamarine, aquatint, aquavit, aqueduct, sewer1, from Latin aqua, water.
(Pokorny ak- 23.)
Beyond. Oldest form probably *2el-, colored to *2al-.
Derivatives include alarm, ultimate, else, alien, alibi, and parallel.
1. O-grade form *ol- (earlier *2ol-), “beyond.” a. Compound forms *ol-se-, *ol-so- (*so-, pronominal stem; see so-). alarm, alert, alfresco, alligator, El Niño, hoopla, lagniappe, langue d'oïl, lariat, voilà, from Latin ille (feminine illa, neuter illud), “yonder,” that, from Archaic Latin ollus; b. suffixed forms *ol-s, *ol-tero-. outré, ulterior, ultimate, ultra-, utterance2, from Latin uls, *ulter,ultr, beyond.
2. Suffixed form *al-tero-, “other of two.” a. alter, altercate, alternate, altruism; subaltern, from Latin alter, other, other of two; b. adulterate, adulterine, adultery, from Latin adulterre, to commit adultery with, pollute, probably from the phrase ad alterum, “(approaching) another (unlawfully)” (ad, to; see ad-); c. variant suffixed form *an-tero-, “other (of two).” other, from Old English ther, from Germanic *antharaz.
3. Suffixed form *al-eno-. Aranyaka, from Sanskrit araa-, foreign.
4. Extended form *alyo-,“other of more than two.” a. else; eldritch, from Old English el-, elles, else, otherwise, from Germanic *aljaz (with adverbial suffix); b. alias, alien; alibi, aliquot, hidalgo, from Latin alius, other of more than two; c. allo-; allegory, allelomorph, allelopathy, morphallaxis, parallax, parallel, trophallaxis, from Greek allos, other.
(Pokorny 1. al- 24, 2. an 37.)
To grow, nourish.
Derivatives include old, haughty, altitude, enhance, alumnus, coalesce, and prolific.
(I) Suffixed (participial) form *al-to-, “grown.”
1a. alderman, old, from Old English eald, ald, old; b. elder1, from Old English (comparative) ieldra, eldra, older, elder; c. eldest, from Old English (superlative) ieldesta, eldesta, eldest; d. Germanic compound *wer-ald- (see w-ro-). a–d all from Germanic *alda-.
2. alt, alto, haughty, hawser; altimeter, altiplano, altitude, altocumulus, altostratus, enhance, exalt, hautboy, from Latin altus, high (“grown tall”), deep.
(II) Suffixed form *al-mo-.alma mater, from Latin almus, nurturing, nourishing.
(III) Suffixed form *al-o-. adolescent, adult, alible, aliment, alimony, altricial, alumnus; coalesce, from Latin alere, to nourish, and alumnus, fosterling, step-child, originally a participle of alere (“being nourished,” < *al-o-mno-).
(IV) Suffixed (causative) form *ol-eye-. abolish, from Latin abolre, to retard the growth of, abolish (ab-, from; see apo-).
(V) Compound form *pro-al- (pro-, forth; see per1). proletarian, proliferous, prolific, from Latin prls, offspring.
(VI) Extended form *aldh-. althea, from Greek althein, althainein, to get well.
(Pokorny 2. al- 26.)
All. Germanic and Celtic root.
1. Suffixed form *al-na-. a. all; albeit, already, also, although, always, as, from Old English all, eall, eal-, al-,all; b. Althing, from Old Norse allr, all. Both a and b from Germanic *allaz.
2. Germanic *ala-, all, in compound *Ala-manniz (see man-1).
(In Pokorny 1. al- 24.)
White. Derivatives include elf, oaf, and albino.
1. Possibly Germanic *albiz,*albaz, elf, if meaning “white ghostly apparition.” a.elf, from Old English ælf, elf; b. oaf, from Old Norse alfr, elf; c. Oberon, from Old French Auberon, from a source akin to Old High German Alberich.
2. elfin, from Old English -elfen, elf, possibly from Germanic *albinj.
3. abele, alb, albedo, albescent, albino, albite, album, albumen, aubade, auburn; daub, from Latin albus, white.
(Pokorny albho- 30.)
In words related to sorcery, magic, possession, and intoxication. Suffixed form *alu-t-. ale, from Old English ealu, from Germanic *aluth-.
(Pokorny alu- 33.)
Also bhi. Around. Probably derived from *ant-bhi, “from both sides” (see ant-).
1. Reduced form *bhi. a. by1; abaft, but, from Old English bi, b, be, by; b. be-, from Old English be-, on all sides, be-, also intensive prefix; c. beleaguer, from Middle Dutch bie, by; d. bivouac, from Old High German bi, by, at. a–d all from Germanic *bi, *bi- (intensive prefix). 2a. Ember Day, from Old English ymbe, around; b. ombudsman, from Old Norse um(b), about, around; c. umlaut, from Old High German umbi, around. a–c all from Germanic *umbi. 3a. ambi-, from Latin ambi-, around, about; b. alley1, alley-oop, ambulance, ambulate, andante, funambulist, perambulate, preamble, from Latin amb-, around, about, in ambulre, to go about, walk (*alre, to go).
4. amphi-, from Greek amphi, around, about.
5. Celtic *ambi, around, in compound *amb(i)-ag-to- (see ag-).
(Pokorny ambhi 34.)
(I) Extended form *ana.
1a. on; acknowledge, alike, from Old English an, on, a, on, and prefixed on-; b. aloft, amiss, from Old Norse , in, on; c. anlage, anschluss, from Old High German ana-, on; d. onslaught, from Middle Dutch aen, on. a–d all from Germanic *ana, *an.
2. ana2, ana-, from Greek ana, on, up, at the rate of.
(II) Variant form *no. naprapathy, from Old Church Slavonic na, in, on, to, from Slavic *na.
(Pokorny 4. an 39.)
To breathe. Oldest form *2en1-, colored to *2an1-. Suffixed form *an-mo-. a.anima, animadvert, animal, animate, animato, animism, animosity, animus; equanimity, longanimity, magnanimous, pusillanimous, unanimous, from Latin animus, reason, mind, spirit, and anima, soul, spirit, life, breath; b. anemo-, anemone, from Greek anemos, wind.
(Pokorny 3. an()- 38.)
Tight, painfully constricted, painful. Oldest form *anh-, becoming *angh- in centum languages.
Derivatives include anger, hangnail, and quinsy.
1. agnail, hangnail, from Old English ang-nægl, “painful spike (in the flesh),” corn, excrescence (nægl, spike; see nogh-), from Germanic *ang-, compressed, hard, painful.
2. Suffixed form *angh-os-. anger, from Old Norse angr, sorrow, grief, from Germanic *angaz.
3. Suffixed form *angh-os-ti-. angst1, from Old High German angust, anxiety, from Germanic *angusti-.
4. anxious, from Latin angere, to strangle, torment.
5. Suffixed form *angh-os-to-. anguish, from Latin angustus, narrow.
6. quinsy, from Greek ankhein, to squeeze, embrace.
7. angina, from Greek ankhon, a strangling.
(Pokorny anh- 42.)
Spirit, demon. Oldest form *2e/onsu-, colored to *2a/onsu-.
1. Aesir; Asgard, from Old Norse ss, god, from Germanic *ansu-.
2. Suffixed zero-grade form *su-ro-. Ahura Mazda, Ormazd, from Avestan ahura-, spirit, lord.
(Pokorny ansu- 48.)
Front, forehead. Oldest form *2ent-, colored to *2ant-.
Derivatives include along, end, advance, and antique.
I. Inflected form (locative singular) *anti, “against,” with derivatives meaning in front of, before; also end.
1. un-2; along, from Old English and-, indicating opposition, from Germanic *andi- and *anda-.
2. end, from Old English ende, end, from Germanic *andja-.
3. ancient1, ante, ante-, anterior; advance, advantage, vanguard, from Latin ante, before, in front of, against.
4. anti-; enantiomer, enantiomorph, from Greek anti, against, and enantios, opposite.
5. Compound form *anti-kwo-,“appearing before, having prior aspect” (*kw-, appearance; see okw-). antic, antique, from Latin antquus, former, antique.
6. Reduced form *ti-.a. until, from Old Norse und, until, unto; b. elope, from Middle Dutch ont-, away from. Both a and b from Germanic *und-.
7. Variant form *anto-. Vedanta, from Sanskrit anta, end.
(II) Probable inflected form (ablative plural) *ant-bhi, “from both sides,” whence *ambhi, around. See ambhi-.
(Pokorny ant-s 48.)
Also ap-. Off, away.
Derivatives include off, ebb, awkward, puny, and compote.
1a. of, off, offal, from Old English of, æf, off; b. ebb, from Old English ebba, low tide; c. ablaut, from Old High German aba, off, away from; d. aft; abaft, from Old English æftan, behind, from Germanic *aftan-.a–d all from Germanic *af.
2. ab-1, from Latin ab, ab-, away from.
3. apo-, from Greek apo, away from, from.
4. Suffixed (comparative) form *ap(o)-tero-. after, from Old English æfter, after, behind, from Germanic *aftar-.
5. Suffixed form *ap-t-is-. eftsoons, from Old English eft, again, from Germanic *aftiz.6. Suffixed form *apu-ko-. awkward, from Old Norse öfugr, turned backward, from Germanic *afug-.
7. Possible variant root form *po(s), on, in. a. pogrom, from Russian po, at, by, next to; b. post-, posterior; postmortem, preposterous, puisne, puny, from Latin post, behind, back, afterward; c. apposite, apposition, apropos, component, compose, composite, composition, compost, compote, compound, contrapposto, depone, deposit, dispose, exponent, expose, expound, impose, impost1, impost2, interpose, juxtapose, oppose, position, positive, post2, post3, postiche, posture, preposition, propose, provost, punt3, reposit, suppose, transpose, from Latin pnere, to put, place, from *po-s(i)nere (sinere, to leave, let; of obscure origin).
(Pokorny apo- 53.)
Also ar-. To fit together. Oldest form *2er1-, colored to *2ar1-, with variant *2re1-, contracted to *r-.
Derivatives include army, harmony, inert, aristocracy, adorn, hatred, rite, arithmetic, and rhyme.
(I) Basic form *ar-.
1. Suffixed form *ar()-mo-. a. arm1, from Old English earm, arm, from Germanic *armaz; b. ambry, arm2, armada, armadillo, armature, armoire, army; alarm, disarm, gendarme, from Latin arma, tools, arms; c. armillary sphere, from Latin armus, upper arm.
2. Suffixed form *ar()-smo-. harmony, from Greek harmos, joint, shoulder.
3. Suffixed form *ar()-ti-. a. art1, artisan, artist; inert, inertia, from Latin ars (stem art-), art, skill, craft; b. further suffixed form *ar()-ti-o-. artiodactyl, from Greek artios, fitting, even.
4. Suffixed form *ar()-tu-. article, from Latin artus, joint.
5. Suffixed form *ar()-to-. coarctate, from Latin artus, tight.
6. Suffixed form *ar()-dhro-. arthro-; anarthrous, diarthrosis, dysarthria, enarthrosis, synarthrosis, from Greek arthron, joint.
7. Suffixed (superlative) form *ar()-isto-. aristocracy, from Greek aristos, best.
(II) Possibly suffixed lengthened o-grade form (or separate root) *r-dh-.
1. ordain, order, ordinal, ordinance, ordinary, ordinate, ordo; coordination, inordinate, subordinate, from Latin rd, order (originally a row of threads in a loom).
2. exordium, primordial, from Latin rdr, to begin to weave.
3. ornament, ornate; adorn, suborn, from Latin rnre, to adorn.
(III) Variant *r- (< *re-).
1. rate1, ratio, ration, reason; arraign, from Latin rr, to consider, confirm, ratify.
2. Suffixed form *r-dh-. a. (i) read, rede; dread, from Old English rdan, to advise; (ii) hatred, kindred, from Old English rden, -rden, condition. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *rdan; b. (i) rathskeller, from Old High German rt, counsel; (ii) riddle2, from Old English rdels(e), opinion, riddle. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *rdaz.
3. Zero-grade form *r-. Germanic *radam, number, in dialectal North and West Germanic compound *hund(a)-rada-(see dek).
(IV) Variant root form *2re1i-, with zero-grades *2r1i- and (metathesized) *2ri1-, the latter contracted to *r-.
1. Suffixed metathesized zero-grade form *r-tu-. rite, from Latin rtus, rite, custom, usage.
2. Suffixed unmetathesized zero-grade form *ri-dhmo-. arithmetic, logarithm, from Greek arithmos, number, amount.
3. rhyme, from a Germanic source akin to Old High German rm, number, series.
(Pokorny 1. ar- 55.)
To shine; white; the shining or white metal, silver. Oldest form *2(e)r-, colored to *2(a)r-, becoming *ar- in satem languages and *arg- in centum languages.
1. Suffixed form *arg-ent-. argent, argentine, from Latin argentum, silver.
2. Suffixed form *arg-i-l(l)-. argil, from Greek argillos, white clay.
3. Suffixed form *arg-u-ro-. litharge, pyrargyrite, from Greek arguros, silver.
4. Suffixed form *arg-i-n-. arginine, from Greek arginoeis, brilliant, bright-shining.
5. Suffixed form *arg-u-, brilliant, clear. argue, from Latin denominative arguere, to make clear, demonstrate (< *argu-yo-).
6. Suffixed zero-grade form *g-ro-,becoming *arg-ro-. agrimony, possibly from Greek argos, white (< *argros).
(Pokorny ar(e)-- 64.)
To burn, glow. Oldest form *2es-, colored to *2as-.
Derivatives include arson and azalea.
1. Extended form *asg-. ash1, from Old English æsce,asce, ash, from Germanic *askn-.
2. Suffixed form *s--. Ara, from Latin ra, altar, hearth.
3. Suffixed (stative) form *s--. a.arid, from Latin ridus, dry, parched, from rre, to be dry; b. ardent, ardor, arson, from Latin rdre, to burn, be on fire, from ridus, parched.
4. Extended form *asd-. a. zamia, from Greek azein, to dry; b. azalea, from Greek azaleos, dry.
(Pokorny s- 68.)
To go; with Germanic and Latin derivatives meaning a year (conceived as “the period gone through, the revolving year”). Suffixed form *at-no-. annals, annual, annuity; anniversary, biennium, decennium, millennium, perennial, quadrennium, quindecennial, quinquennium, septennial, sexennial, superannuated, triennium, vicennial, from Latin annus, year.
(Pokorny at- 69.)
1. Suffixed zero-grade form *tr-o-. atrabilious, from Latin ter (feminine tra), black (< “blackened by fire”).
2. Suffixed zero-grade form *tr-yo-. atrium, from Latin trium, forecourt, hall, atrium (perhaps originally the place where the smoke from the hearth escaped through a hole in the roof).
3. Compound shortened zero-grade form *atro-kw-, “black-looking” (*kw-, “looking”; see okw-). atrocious, from Latin trx, frightful.
4. Basic form *ter. zircon, from Old Persian *tar, fire (stem ç- attested in month name çiydiya,“(month) of fire-worship”), from Indo-Iranian *tar.5. Possibly, but obscurely related to this root is Sanskrit atharv, atharvan-, priest (-van-, possessive suffix): Atharva-Veda.
(Pokorny t(e)r- 69.)
To perceive. Compound forms *au-dh-,*awis-dh-, “to place perception” (*dh-, to place; see dh-).
1. Suffixed form *awisdh-yo- or *audh-yo-. audible, audience, audile, audio-, audit, audition, auditor, auditorium, auditory, oyez; obey, subaudition, from Latin audre, to hear.
2. aesthetic; anesthesia, from Greek aisthanesthai, to feel.
(Pokorny 8. a- 78.)
To increase. Oldest form *2eug-, colored to *2aug-. Variant *2weg- becoming *(a)weg-.
Derivatives include nickname, auction, and auxiliary.
1. eke1, from Old English acan, can, to increase; b. nickname, from Old English aca, an addition. Both a and b from Germanic *aukan.
2. Variant (metathesized) form *weg- (from *weg-), extended to *wegs-(o-grade *wogs-). a. wax2; woodwaxen, from Old English weaxan, to grow, from Germanic *wahsan; b. waist, from Old English *wæst, growth, hence perhaps waist, size, from Germanic *wahs-tu-.
3. Form *aug--. auction, augend, augment, author, authorize, from Latin augre, to increase.
4. augur; inaugurate, from Latin augur, diviner (< “he who obtains favorable presage” < “divine favor, increase”).
5. august, from Latin augustus, majestic, august.
6. Suffixed form *aug-s-. a. auxiliary, from Latin auxilium, aid, support, assistance; b. auxin, auxesis, from Greek auxein, auxanein, to increase.
(Pokorny aeg- 84.)
Derivatives include east, Easter, and aurora.
1a. east, from Old English ast, east (< “the direction of the sunrise”); b. ostmark, from Old High German stan, east. Both a and b from Germanic *aust-. 2a. eastern, from Old English asterne, eastern; b. Ostrogoth, from Late Latin ostro-, eastern. Both a and b from Germanic *austra-.
3. Easter, from Old English astre, Easter, from Germanic *austrn-, dawn.
4. Possibly in Latin auster, the south wind, formally identical to the Germanic forms in 2 and 3, but the semantics are unclear: Austro-
5. Probably suffixed form *auss-, dawn, also Indo-European goddess of the dawn. a. aurora, from Latin aurra, dawn; b. eo-, Eos; eosin, from Greek s, dawn.
(Pokorny aes- 86.)
Bird. Oldest form *2ewi-, colored to *2awi-.
Derivatives include aviation, bustard, ostrich, cockney, oval, and caviar.
1. avian, aviary, aviation; aviculture, avifauna, bustard, ocarina, osprey, ostrich, from Latin avis, bird.
2. Compound *awi-spek-,“observer of birds” (*spek-, to see; see spek-). auspice, from Latin auspex, augur.
(II) Possible derivatives are the Indo-European words for egg, *wyo-,*yyo-.
1a. cockney, from Old English g, egg; b. egg1, from Old Norse egg, egg. Both a and b from Germanic *ajja(m).
2. oval, ovary, ovate, ovi-, ovolo, ovule, ovum, from Latin vum, egg.
3. oo-, from Greek ion, egg.
4. caviar, from a source akin to Middle Persian khyak, egg, from Old Iranian *vyaka-,diminutive of *avya-.
(Pokorny aei- 86.)
An adult male relative other than one's father.
1. atavism, from Latin avus, grandfather.
2. avuncular, uncle, from Latin avunculus, maternal uncle.
3. ayah, from Latin avia, grandmother.
(Pokorny ao-s 89.)
1a. early, ere, or2, from Old English r, before; b. or2, from Old Norse r, before. Both a and b from Germanic *airiz.
2. erst, from Old English rest, earliest, from Germanic (superlative) *airistaz.
(Pokorny er- 1
A metal, copper or bronze. aeneous, era, from Latin aes, bronze, money.