Индоевропейские корни на *d (Уоткинс)

> Индоевропейские корни на *D
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Этимологические словари-источники: Покорного | Старостина | Коблера | Уоткинса
Словари древних и.-е. языков: Авест. | Вен. | Гот. | Др.-греч. | Др.-ирл. | Др.-макед. | Др.-перс. | Иллир. | Лат. | Оск. | Пали | Прус. | Др.-инд. | Ст.-слав. | Тохар. | Умбр. | Фрак. | Фриг. | Хетт. | Ятв.

Словарь Уоткинса: A, B, Bh, D, , E, G, , Gh, Gʷh, I(Y), K, , L, M, N, O, P, R, S, T, U(W).

Источник: Calvert Watkins, The American Heritage® Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2000.

Всего на *d- представлено 27 корней из словаря Кальверта Уоткинса (Калверта Воткинса).

*d-
To divide. Oldest form *de2-, colored to *da2-, contracted to *d-. Derivatives include democracy, epidemic, demon, and time.
(I) Suffixed form *d-mo-, perhaps “division of society.” deme, demos, demotic; demagogue, demiurge, democracy, demography, endemic, epidemic, pandemic, from Greek dmos, people, land.
(II) Variant *dai-, from extended form *dai-, with zero-grade *d- (< *di-, metathesized from *di-).
1. Root form *dai-. geodesy, from Greek daiesthai, to divide.
2. Suffixed form *dai-mon-, divider, provider. daimon, demon, from Greek daimn, divinity.
3. Suffixed variant form *d-ti-.a. tide1; eventide, from Old English td, time, season; b. tide2, from Old English denominative tdan, to happen (< “to occur in time”); c. tiding, from Old Norse tdhr, occurring; d. Yahrzeit, Zeitgeist, from Old High German zt, time. a–d all from Germanic *tdiz, division of time.
4. Suffixed variant form *d-mon-. time, from Old English tma, time, period, from Germanic *tmn-.
(Pokorny d : d- 175.)
*dail-
To divide. Northern Indo-European root extended from *da()i- (see d-).
1. deal1, from Old English dlan, to share, from Germanic *dailjan.
2a. dole1, from Old English dl, portion, lot; b. filler2, from Old High German teil, part. Both a and b from Germanic *dailaz.
3.ordeal, from Old English ordl, trial by ordeal, from Germanic prefixed form *uz-dailjam, “a portioning out,” judgment (*uz-, out; see ud-).
4. firkin, from Middle Dutch deel, part, from Germanic *dailiz.
(In Pokorny d : d- 175.)
*daiwer-
Husband's brother. levirate, from Latin lvir, husband's brother.
(Pokorny dir 179.)
*dakru-
Tear. Oldest form *daru-,becoming *dakru- in centum languages.
1a. tear2, from Old English tar,tehher, tear; b. train oil, from Middle Dutch trane, tear, drop. Both a and b from Germanic *tahr-, *tagr-.
2. Suffixed form *dakru-m-. lachrymal, from Latin lacrima (Archaic Latin dacruma), tear.
(Pokorny daru- 179.)
*de-
Demonstrative stem, base of prepositions and adverbs.
1. Form *d (possibly instrumental). a. (i) to, too, from Old English t, to; (ii) tsimmes, from Old High German zuo, ze, to; (iii) tattoo1, from Middle Dutch toe, to, shut. (i)–(iii) all from Germanic *t; b. Italic *d in compound *kwm-d (see kwo-).
2. Form *d (possibly instrumental), perhaps source of forms meaning “from, out of.” a. de-, from Latin d, d-, from; b. deteriorate, from Latin dterior, worse, from suffixed form *d-tero-;c. compound *d-bel-i- (see bel-); d. Celtic *d, from, in compound *eks-d-sedo- (see sed-).
(Pokorny de- 181.)
*deik-
To show, pronounce solemnly; also in derivatives referring to the directing of words or objects. Oldest form *dei-, becoming *deik- in centum languages. Derivatives include teach, toe, addict, preach, judge, revenge, and disk.
(I) Variant *deig-.
1. O-grade form *doig-.a. teach, from Old English tcan, to show, instruct, from Germanic *taikjan, to show; b. (i) token, from Old English tcen, tcn, sign, mark; (ii) betoken, from Old English tcnian, to signify; (iii) tetchy, from Gothic taikns, sign; (iv) tachisme, from Old French tache, teche, mark, stain. (i)–(iv) all from Germanic *taiknam.
2. Zero-grade form *dig-. digit, from Latin digitus, finger (< “pointer,” “indicator”).
(II) Basic form *deik-.
1. Possibly o-grade form *doik-. toe, from Old English t, tahe, toe, from Germanic *taihw.
2. Basic form *deik-. dictate, diction, dictum, ditto, ditty; addict, benediction, condition, contradict, edict, fatidic, herb bennet, indict, indiction, indite, interdict, juridical, jurisdiction, maledict, malison, predict, valediction, verdict, veridical, voir dire, from Latin dcere, to say, tell.
3. Suffixed zero-grade form *dik--. abdicate, dedicate, preach, predicament, predicate, from Latin dicre, to proclaim.
4. Agential suffix *-dik-. a. index, indicate, from Latin index, indicator, forefinger (in-, toward; see en); b. judge, judicial; prejudice, from Latin idex (< *yewes-dik-), judge, “one who shows or pronounces the law” (is, law; see yewes-); c. vendetta, vindicate; avenge, revenge, from Latin vindex (first element obscure), surety, claimant, avenger.
5. deictic, deixis; apodictic, paradigm, policy2, from Greek deiknunai, to show, and noun deigma (*deik-m), sample, pattern.
6. Zero-grade form *dik-. disk; dictyosome, from suffixed form *dik-skos, from Greek dikein, to throw (< “to direct an object”).
7. Form *dik-. dicast; syndic, theodicy, from Greek dik, justice, right, court case.
(Pokorny dei- 188.)
*deik-
To show, pronounce solemnly; also in derivatives referring to the directing of words or objects. Oldest form *dei-, becoming *deik- in centum languages. Derivatives include teach, toe, addict, preach, judge, revenge, and disk.
(I) Variant *deig-.
1. O-grade form *doig-.a. teach, from Old English tcan, to show, instruct, from Germanic *taikjan, to show; b. (i) token, from Old English tcen, tcn, sign, mark; (ii) betoken, from Old English tcnian, to signify; (iii) tetchy, from Gothic taikns, sign; (iv) tachisme, from Old French tache, teche, mark, stain. (i)–(iv) all from Germanic *taiknam.
2. Zero-grade form *dig-. digit, from Latin digitus, finger (< “pointer,” “indicator”).
(II) Basic form *deik-.
1. Possibly o-grade form *doik-. toe, from Old English t, tahe, toe, from Germanic *taihw.
2. Basic form *deik-. dictate, diction, dictum, ditto, ditty; addict, benediction, condition, contradict, edict, fatidic, herb bennet, indict, indiction, indite, interdict, juridical, jurisdiction, maledict, malison, predict, valediction, verdict, veridical, voir dire, from Latin dcere, to say, tell.
3. Suffixed zero-grade form *dik--. abdicate, dedicate, preach, predicament, predicate, from Latin dicre, to proclaim.
4. Agential suffix *-dik-. a. index, indicate, from Latin index, indicator, forefinger (in-, toward; see en); b. judge, judicial; prejudice, from Latin idex (< *yewes-dik-), judge, “one who shows or pronounces the law” (is, law; see yewes-); c. vendetta, vindicate; avenge, revenge, from Latin vindex (first element obscure), surety, claimant, avenger.
5. deictic, deixis; apodictic, paradigm, policy2, from Greek deiknunai, to show, and noun deigma (*deik-m), sample, pattern.
6. Zero-grade form *dik-. disk; dictyosome, from suffixed form *dik-skos, from Greek dikein, to throw (< “to direct an object”).
7. Form *dik-. dicast; syndic, theodicy, from Greek dik, justice, right, court case.
(Pokorny dei- 188.)
*dek-
To take, accept. Oldest form *de-, becoming *dek- in centum languages. Derivatives include decent, paradox, and disdain..
1. Suffixed (stative) form *dek--. decent, from Latin decre, to be fitting (< “to be acceptable”).
2. Suffixed (causative) o-grade form *dok-eye-. a. docent, docile, doctor, doctrine, document, from Latin docre, to teach (< “to cause to accept”); b. dogma, dogmatic; Docetism, doxology, heterodox, orthodox, paradox, from Greek dokein, to appear, seem, think (< “to cause to accept or be accepted”).
3. Suffixed form *dek-es-.a. décor, decorate, from Latin decus, grace, ornament; b. decorous, from Latin decor, seemliness, elegance, beauty.
4. Suffixed form *dek-no-. dainty, deign, dignity; condign, dignify, disdain, indign, indignant, indignation, from Latin dignus, worthy, deserving, fitting.
5. Reduplicated form *di-dk-ske-. disciple, discipline, from Latin discere, to learn.
6. dowel, pandect, synecdoche, from Greek dekhesthai, to accept.
7. Suffixed o-grade form *dok-o-. diplodocus, from Greek dokos, beam, support.
(Pokorny 1. de- 189.)
*dek
Ten. Oldest form *de, becoming *dek in centum languages. Derivatives include ten, December, decimate, dean, hundred, century, and hecatomb.
(I) Basic form *dek.
1a. ten, from Old English ten, ten; b. Old Norse tjan, ten, in compound ttjn (see okt(u)). Both a and b from Germanic *tehun.
2. eighteen, fifteen, fourteen, nineteen, seventeen, sixteen, thirteen, from Old English suffix -tne, -tne,-tne, ten, -teen, from Germanic *tehan.
3. deci-, decimal, decimate, decuple, decurion, dicker, dime; December, decemvir, decennary, decennium, decussate, dozen, duodecimal, octodecimo, sextodecimo, from Latin decem, ten.
4. denarius, denary, denier2, dinar, from irregular Latin distributive dn, by tens, ten each (formed by analogy with nn, nine each).
5. dean, deca-, decade, doyen; decagon, Decalogue, dodecagon, from Greek deka, ten.
(II) Germanic *tigu-, ten, decad (of uncertain formation, as though < *deku-), in compound *twgentig (see dwo-).
(III) Ordinal number *dekto-. tenth, tithe, from Old English teogotha, totha, tenth, from Germanic *teguntha-.
(IV) Suffixed zero-grade form *-dk-t, reduced to *-kt, and lengthened o-grade form *-dkm-t, reduced to *-kont.
1. nonagenarian, octogenarian, Septuagint, sexagenary, from Latin -gint, ten times.
2. Pentecost, from Greek *-konta, ten times.
(V) Suffixed zero-grade form *dk-tom, hundred, reduced to *ktom.
1. hundred, from Old English hundred, from dialectal North and West Germanic *hund(a)-rada- (-rada-, from Germanic *radam, number; see ar-), from Germanic *hundam, hundred.
2. Germanic compound *ths-hundi, “swollen hundred,” thousand (see teu-).
3. cent, cental, centas, centavo, centenarian, centenary, centesimal, centi-, centime, centner, centum, century, qindarka; centennial, cinquecento, percent, quattrocento, seicento, sen2, seniti, sexcentenary, trecento, from Latin centum, hundred.
4. hecatomb, hecto-, from Greek hekaton, a hundred (? dissimilated from *hem-katon, one hundred; *hem-, one; see sem-1).
5. stotinka, from Old Church Slavonic sto, hundred.
6. satem, from Avestan satm, hundred.
(Pokorny de 191.) See also compound root wkt.
*deks-
Right (opposite left); hence, south (from the viewpoint of one facing east). Oldest form *des-,becoming *deks- in centum languages. Suffixed form *deks(i)-tero-. destrier, dexter, dexterity, dextro-; ambidextrous, from Latin dexter, right, on the right side.
(In Pokorny 1. de- 189.) Compare ner-1.
*del-1
Long. Derivatives include linger, Lent, longitude, and lunge.
(I) Probably extended and suffixed zero-grade form *dlon-gho-.1a. long1; along, longshore, from Old English lang, long, long; b. langlauf, from Old High German lang, long; c. belong, from Old English gelang, along; d. long2, from Old English denominative langian, to grow longer, yearn for, from Germanic *langn; e. linger, from Old English lengan, to prolong (possibly influenced by Old Norse lengja, to lengthen), from Germanic *langjan, to make long; f. Lombard, from Latin compound Longobardus, Langobardus (with Germanic ethnic name *Bardi). a–f all from Germanic *langaz, long.
2a. length, from Old English lengthu, length; b. Lent, from Old English lengten, lencten, spring, Lent, from West Germanic *langitinaz, lengthening of day; c. ling1, from Middle English lenge,ling, ling, from a Low German source akin to Dutch lenghe, linghe, “long one.” a–c all from Germanic abstract noun *langith.
3. linguiça, longeron, longitude, lounge; eloign, elongate, longevity, lunge, oblong, prolong, purloin, from Latin longus, long.
(II) Possibly suffixed variant form *d-gho-. dolichocephalic, dolichocranial, from Greek dolikhos, long.
(Pokorny 5. del- 196.)
*del-2
To recount, count. O-grade form *dol-.
1. tell1, from Old English tellan, to count, recount, from Germanic *taljan.
2. tall, from Old English getæl, quick, ready, from West Germanic *(ge-)tala-.
3a. tale, from Old English talu, story; b. Taal2, from Middle Dutch tle, speech, language. Both a and b from Germanic *tal.
4. talk, from Middle English talken, to talk, from a source probably akin to Old English denominative talian, to tell, relate.
5. Perhaps Greek dolos, ruse, snare: dolerite, sedulous.
(Pokorny 1. del- 193.)
*dem-
House, household. Derivatives include dome, domestic, and timber..
1. Suffixed o-grade form *dom-o-, *dom-u-, house. a. dome, domestic, domicile; major-domo, from Latin domus, house; b. suffixed form *dom-o-no-. dame, Dan2, danger, Dom, domain, dominate, dominical, dominie, dominion, domino1, domino2, don1, Donna, dungeon; belladonna, duende, madam, Madame, Mademoiselle, madonna, predominate, from Latin dominus, master of a household (feminine domina).
2. Possibly suffixed lengthened-grade form *dm-. dome, from Greek dma, house.
3. Compound *dems-pot-,“house-master” (*-pot-, powerful; see poti-). Despina, despot, from Greek despots, master, lord, and feminine despoina, lady, queen, mistress (< *dems-pot-nya).
4. Root form *dem(2)-, to build (possibly a separate root). a. timber, from Old English timber, building material, lumber, from Germanic *timram; b. toft, from Old Norse topt, homestead, from Germanic *tumft.
(Pokorny dem- 198.)
*dem-
To constrain, force, especially to break in (horses). Oldest form *dem2-.
1. Suffixed o-grade form *dom()-o-. tame, from Old English tam, domesticated, from Germanic *tamaz.
2. O-grade form *dom-. daunt; indomitable, from Latin domre, to tame, subdue.
3. Zero-grade form *d-. adamant, diamond, from Greek damn, to tame (> adams, unconquerable, from *-d-nt-).
(Pokorny (dem-) 199.)
*dent-
Tooth. Originally *1d-ent-, “biting,” present participle of ed- in the earlier meaning “to bite..
1. O-grade form *dont-. tooth, from Old English tth, tooth, from Germanic *tanthuz.
2. Zero-grade form *dt-. tusk, from Old English tsc, tx, canine tooth, from Germanic *tunth-sk-.
3. Full-grade form *dent-. dental, dentate, denti-, denticle, dentist; dandelion, edentate, edentulous, indent1, indenture, trident, from Latin dns (stem dent-), tooth.
4. O-grade variant form *dont-, ultimately becoming odont- in Greek. –odon, –odont, odonto-; ceratodus, mastodon, from Greek odn, odous, tooth.
(In Pokorny ed- 287.)
*der-
To split, peel, flay; with derivatives referring to skin and leather.
1. tear1, from Old English teran, to tear, from Germanic *teran.
2. tart1, from Old English teart, sharp, severe, from Germanic *ter-t-.
3. Suffixed zero-grade form *d-tom, “something separated or discarded.” turd, from Old English tord, turd, from Germanic *turdam, turd.
4. Reduplicated form *de-dr-u-. tetter, from Old English tet(e)r, eruption, skin disease.
5. derris, from Greek derris, leather covering.
6. Suffixed form *der-m. –derm, derma1, –derma, dermato-; epidermis, from Greek derma, skin.
7. dahl, dhurrie, from Sanskrit darati, he splits.
(Pokorny 4. der- 206.)
*derk-
To see. Oldest form *der-,becoming *derk- in centum languages. Suffixed zero-grade form *dk-on(t)-. dragon, dragoon, drake2, tarragon; rankle, from Greek drak, serpent, dragon (< “monster with the evil eye”).
(Pokorny der- 213.)
*deru-
Also dreu-. To be firm, solid, steadfast; hence specialized senses “wood,” “tree,” and derivatives referring to objects made of wood. Derivatives include tree, trust, betroth, endure, and druid..
1. Suffixed variant form *drew-o-. a. tree, from Old English trow, tree, from Germanic *trewam; b. truce, from Old English trow, pledge, from Germanic *treuw.
2. Variant form dreu-. a. true, from Old English trowe, firm, true; b. trow, from Old English trowian, trwian, to trust; c. trig1, from Old Norse tryggr, firm, true; d. troth, truth; betroth, from Old English trowth, faith, loyalty, truth, from Germanic abstract noun *treuwith; e. trust, from Old Norse traust, confidence, firmness, from Germanic abstract noun *traustam; f. tryst, from Old French triste, waiting place (< “place where one waits trustingly”), probably from a source akin to Old Norse denominative treysta, to trust, make firm. a–f all from Germanic *treuwaz.
3. Variant form *drou-. tray, from Old English trg, trg, wooden board, from Germanic *traujam.
4. Suffixed zero-grade form *dru-ko-. a. trough, from Old English trog, wooden vessel, tray; b. trug, from Old Norse trog, trough. Both a and b from Germanic *trugaz.
5. Suffixed zero-grade form *dru-mo-. a. trim, from Old English trum, firm, strong; b. shelter, from Old English truma, troop. Both a and b from Germanic *trum-.
6. Variant form *derw-. tar1, from Old English te(o)ru, resin, pitch (obtained from the pine tree), from Germanic *terw-.
7. Suffixed variant form *dr-ro-. dour, duramen, duress, durum; dura mater, endure, indurate, obdurate, from Latin drus, hard (many of whose English derivatives represent a semantic cross with Latin drre, to last long; see deu-).
8. Lengthened zero-grade form *dr-. drupe, dryad; dryopithecine, germander, hamadryad, from Greek drs, oak.
9. Reduplicated form *der-drew-,dissimilated with suffix in *der-drew-on. dendro-, dendron; philodendron, rhododendron, from Greek dendron, tree.
10. druid, from Latin druides, druids, probably from Celtic compound *dru-wid-, “strong seer” (*wid-, seeing; see weid-), the Celtic priestly caste.
11. O-grade form *doru-. deodar, from Sanskrit dru, wood, timber.
(Pokorny deru- 214.)
*deu-1
To lack, be wanting.
1. Possibly suffixed form *deu-s-. a. tire1, from Old English torian,tyrian, to fail, tire (< “to fall behind”), from Germanic *teuzn; b. deontology, from Greek dein, to lack, want.
2. Suffixed form *deu-tero-. deutero-; deuteragonist, deuterium, Deuteronomy, from Greek deuteros, “missing,” next, second.
(Pokorny 3. deu- 219.) (For suffixed zero-grade form *du-s-,combining form of *dew-es-, a lack, see dus-.)
(In Pokorny 3. deu- 219.)
*deu-2
To do, perform, show favor, revere. Derivatives include embellish and dynamite..
1. Suffixed form *dw-eno-. bonbon, bonito, bonny, bonus, boon2, bounty; bonanza, bonhomie, debonair, from Latin bonus, good (< “useful, efficient, working”).
2. Adverbial form *dw-en. benediction, benefaction, benefactor, benefic, beneficence, benefit, benevolent, benign, herb bennet, from Latin bene, well.
3. Diminutive *dw-en-elo-. beau, beauty, belle; beldam, belladonna, belvedere, embellish, from Latin bellus, handsome, pretty, fine.
4. Possibly suffixed zero-grade form *dw-eye-. beatitude; beatific, beatify, from Latin bere, to make blessed.
5. Possible (but unlikely for formal and semantic reasons) suffixed zero-grade form *du-n-. dynamic, dynamite, dynast, dynasty; aerodyne, from Greek dunasthai, to be able.
(Pokorny 2. (deu-)218.)
*deu-
Also dwa-. Long (in duration). Oldest form *deu2- with variant (metathesized) *dwe2-, the latter colored to *dwa2- and contracted to *dw-. Suffixed zero-grade form *d-ro- (< *du-ro-). durable, durance, duration, during; perdurable, thermoduric, from Latin drre, to last.
(In Pokorny 3. deu- 219.)
*deuk-
To lead. Derivatives include wanton, team, duke, subdue, and educate..
1a. tug; wanton, from Old English ton, to pull, draw, lead; b. Zugunruhe, zugzwang, from Old High German ziohan, to pull. Both a and b from Germanic *teuhan.
2. Suffixed zero-grade form *duk--. tow1, taut, from Old English togian, to draw, drag, from Germanic *tugn.
3. Suffixed o-grade form *douk-eyo-. tie, from Old English *tegan, tgan, to bind.
4. Suffixed o-grade form *douk-mo-. team, from Old English tam, descendant, family, race, brood, team, from Germanic *tau(h)maz.
5. teem1, from Old English tman,teman, to beget, from Germanic denominative *tau(h)mjan.
6. Basic form *deuk-. doge, douche, ducal, ducat, duce, duchess, duchy, duct, ductile, duke; abducens, abduct, adduce, aqueduct, circumduction, con3, condottiere, conduce, conduct, deduce, deduct, educe, endue, induce, introduce, produce, redoubt, reduce, seduction, subduction, subdue, traduce, transducer, from Latin dcere, to lead.
7. Suffixed zero-grade form *duk--. educate, from Latin ducre, to lead out, bring up (- < ex-, out; see eghs).
(Pokorny deuk- 220.)
*dlegh-
To engage oneself. European root found in Celtic, Germanic, Slavic, and possibly Latin.
1a. play, from Old English plegian, to exercise oneself, play; b. pledge; frankpledge, replevin, from Late Latin plevium (> Old French plevir, to pledge), pledge, guarantee; c. plight2, from Old English pliht, danger, peril, from Germanic derivative noun *plehti-. a–c from Germanic *plegan, probably altered (by dissimilation) from *tlegan.
2. Zero-grade form *dgh-. indulge, from Latin indulgre, to indulge, explained by some as from prefixed and suffixed stative form *en-dgh-- (*en-, in; see en).
(Pokorny dhgh- 271.)
*dgh-
Tongue. Oldest form *dhu2-, contracted to *dh-, becoming *dgh- in centum languages.
1a. tongue, from Old English tunge, tongue; b. biltong, from Middle Dutch tonghe, tongue. Both a and b from Germanic *tungn-.
2. language, languet, ligula, ligule, lingo, lingua, linguine, linguist; bilingual, from Latin lingua (< Archaic Latin dingua), tongue, language.
(Pokorny dh 223.)
*d-
To give. Oldest form *de3-, colored to *do3-, contracted to *d-. Derivatives include betray, surrender, vend, dose, and antidote..
1a. Zero-grade form *d-. dado, date1, dative, datum, die2; add, betray, edition, perdition, render, rent1, surrender, tradition, traitor, treason, vend, from Latin dare, to give; b. Greek dosis, something given (see 4 below).
2. Suffixed form *d-no-. donation, donative, donor; condone, pardon, from Latin dnum, gift.
3. Suffixed form *d-t(i)-.a. dot2, dowager, dower, dowry; endow, from Latin ds (genitive dtis), dowry; b. dacha, from Russian dacha, gift, dacha, from Slavic *datja;c. samizdat, from Russian samizdat, samizdat, from dat', to give.
4. Suffixed form *d-ro-. lobster thermidor, Pandora, from Greek dron, gift.
5. Reduplicated form *di-d-. dose; anecdote, antidote, apodosis, epidote, from Greek didonai, to give, with zero-grade noun dosis (< *d-ti-), something given.
(Pokorny d- 223.)
*dus-
Bad, evil; mis- (used as a prefix). Derivative of deu-1. dys-, from Greek dus-, bad.
(Pokorny dus- 227.)
*dwo-
Two. Derivatives include twilight, biscuit, between, combine, diploma, and doubt.
(I) Variant form *duwo.
1a. two, from Old English tw, two (nominative feminine and neuter); b. twain; twayblade, from Old English twgen, two (nominative and accusative masculine). Both a and b from Germanic *twa, two.
2. twelfth, twelve, from Old English twelf, twelve, and twelfta, twelfth, from Germanic compound *twa-lif-, “two left (over from ten),” twelve (*-lif-, left; see leikw-).
(II) Adverbial form *dwis and combining form *dwi-.
1a. twibill, twilight, from Old English twi-, two; b. zwieback, zwitterion, from Old High German zwi-, twice. Both a and b from Germanic *twi-.
2. bi-1, bis; balance, barouche, bezel, biscuit, bistort, from Latin bis (combining form bi-), twice.
3. di-1, from Greek dis (combining form di-), twice.
4. twist, from Old English -twist, divided object, fork, rope, from Germanic *twis.
5. twice, from Old English twige, twiga, twice, from Germanic *twiyes.
6. twenty, from Old English twntig, twenty, from Germanic compound *twgentig,“twice ten” (*-tig, ten; see dek).
7.twine, from Old English twn, double thread, from Germanic *twhna, double thread, twisted thread.
8. between, betwixt, twixt, from Old English betwonum and betweox, betwix, between, from Germanic compounds *bi-twhna and *bi-twisk, “at the middle point of two” (bi, at, by; see ambhi).
9. twill, from Old English twilic, woven of double thread, from Germanic compound *twilic-, “two-threaded fabric.” 10. Suffixed form *dwis-no-. a. twin, from Old English twinn, getwinn, two by two, twin, from Germanic *twisnaz, double; b. bi-1, binal, binary; combine, pinochle, from Latin bn, two by two, two each.
11. Suffixed form *dwi-ko-. twig1, from Old English twigge, a branch, from Germanic *twig(g)a, a fork.
12. Compound *dwi-plo-, twofold (*-plo-, -fold; see pel-2). diplo-, diploe, diploid, diploma; anadiplosis, diplodocus, from Greek diploos, diplous, twofold.
13. Suffixed reduplicated form *dwi-du-mo-. didymium, didymous; epididymis, from Greek didumos, double, the testicles.
14. Suffixed form *dwi-gha. dichasium, dicho-, from Greek dikha, in two.
(III) Inflected form *duw.
1.deuce1, dozen, dual, duet, duo, duo-; duodecimal, duumvir, from Latin duo, two.
2. duad, dyad; dodecagon, hendiadys, from Greek duo, du, two.
(IV) Variant form *du-.
1. Compound *du-plo-, twofold (*-plo-, -fold; see pel-2). double, doublet, doubloon, duple, from Latin duplus, double.
2. Compound *du-plek-,twofold (*-plek-, -fold; see plek-). duplex, duplicate, duplicity; conduplicate, from Latin duplex, double.
3. Suffixed form *du-bhw-io-. doubt, dubious; redoubtable, from Latin dubius, doubtful (< “hesitating between two alternatives”), and dubitre, to be in doubt.
(Pokorny d(u) 228.)
*dyeu-
To shine (and in many derivatives, “sky, heaven, god”). Zero-grades *dyu- and *diw-. Derivatives include Tuesday, divine, jovial, Jupiter, diary, dismal, journey, and psychedelic.
(I) Basic form *dyeu-, Jove, the name of the god of the bright sky, head of the Indo-European pantheon.
1. Jove, jovial; Sangiovese, from Latin Iovis, Jupiter, or Iov-, stem of Iuppiter, Jupiter.
2. July, from Latin Ilius, “descended from Jupiter” (name of a Roman gens), from derivative *iou-il-.
3. Vocative compound *dyeu-pter, “O father Jove” (*pter-,father; see pter-). Jupiter, from Latin Iuppiter, Ipiter, head of the Roman pantheon.
4. Dione, Zeus; dianthus, Dioscuri, from Greek Zeus (genitive Dios), Zeus.
(II) Noun *deiwos, god, formed by e-insertion to the zero-grade *diw- and suffixation of (accented) -o-.
1a. Tiu, Tuesday, from Old English Tw (genitive Twes), god of war and sky; b. Tyr, from Old Norse Tr, sky god. Both a and b from Germanic *Twaz.
2. deism, deity, Deus, joss; adieu, deific, from Latin deus, god.
3. diva, divine, from Latin dvus, divine, god.
4. Dis, Dives, from Latin dves, rich (< “fortunate, blessed, divine”).
5. Suffixed zero-grade form *diw-yo-, heavenly. Diana, from Latin Dina, moon goddess.
6. Devi; deodar, Devanagari, from Sanskrit deva, god, and deva-, divine.
7. Asmodeus, from Avestan dava-, spirit, demon.
(III) Variant *dy- (< *dye-). dial, diary, diet2, dismal, diurnal, journal, journey; adjourn, circadian, meridian, postmeridian, quotidian, sojourn, from Latin dis, day.
(IV) Variant *dei-. psychedelic, woolly adelgid, from Greek dlos (< *deyalos), clear.
(Pokorny 1. dei- 183.)

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