Источник: Calvert Watkins, The American Heritage® Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2000.
Всего на *dh- представлено 20 корней из словаря Кальверта Уоткинса (Калверта Воткинса).
To set, put. Contracted from *dhe1-.
Derivatives include deed, doom, fashion, defeat, feckless, sacrifice, satisfy, face, and synthesis.
(I) Basic form *dh-.1. Suffixed form *dh-ti-, “thing laid down or done, law, deed.” deed; indeed, from Old English dd, doing, deed, from Germanic *ddiz.2. Suffixed form *dh-k-. theca, tick3; amphithecium, apothecary, apothecium, bibliotheca, bodega, boutique, cleistothecium, endothecium, perithecium, from Greek thk, receptacle. 3. Basic form *dh-. bard2, purdah, from Old Persian d-, to place. 4. Suffixed form *dh-to-, set down, created, in Old Iranian compound *khvat-dta- (see s(w)e-).
(II) O-grade form *dh-.
1. do1; fordo, from Old English dn, to do, from Germanic *dn.
2. Suffixed o-grade form *dh-men-. abdomen, from Latin abdmen, belly, abdomen, perhaps “part placed away, concealed part” (ab-, away; see apo).
3. Suffixed o-grade form *dh-mo-. a. doom, from Old English dm, judgment (< “thing set or put down”); b.–dom, from Old English -dm, abstract suffix indicating state, condition, or power; c. Old Norse -dmr, condition, in compound hrdmr (see k-); d. Duma, dumka, from Russian Duma, Duma, from a Germanic source akin to Gothic dms, judgment; e. deem, from Old English dman, to judge, from Germanic denominative dmjan.a–e all from Germanic dmaz.
4. Suffixed o-grade form *dh-t- in compound *sakro-dht- (see sak-).
(III) Zero-grade form *dh-..
1a. Prefixed form *kom-dh-. abscond, incondite, recondite, sconce2, from Latin condere, to put together, establish, preserve (*kom, together; see kom); b. prefixed and suffixed form *kom-dh()-yo-. condiment, salmagundi, from Latin condre, to season, flavor; c. compound *kred-dh- (see kerd-); d. compound suffixed form *gw-dh()-o- (see gwer-2).
2. Suffixed zero-grade form dh-k-.a. –facient, fact, faction1, –faction, factitious, factitive, factor, factory, faena, fashion, feasible, feat1, feature, fetish, –fic, –fy, hacienda; affair, affect1, affect2, affection, amplify, artifact, artifice, beatific, benefaction, benefic, benefice, beneficence, benefit, chafe, comfit, confect, confetti, counterfeit, defeasance, defeat, defect, deficient, discomfit, edifice, edify, effect, efficacious, efficient, facsimile, factotum, feckless, forfeit, infect, justify, malefactor, malfeasance, manufacture, misfeasance, modify, mollify, nidify, notify, nullify, officinal, orifice, perfect, petrify, pluperfect, pontifex, prefect, proficient, profit, putrefy, qualify, rarefy, rectify, refect, refectory, rubefacient, sacrifice, satisfy, spinifex, suffice, sufficient, surfeit, tubifex, tumefacient, vivify, from Latin facere (< *fak-yo-), to do, make, and Latin combining form -fex (< *-fak-s), “maker”; b. façade, face, facet, facial, facies; deface, efface, surface, from Latin derivative facis, shape, face (< “form imposed on something”); c. office, from Latin compound officium (< *opi-fici-om), service, duty, business, performance of work (*opi-, work; see op-); d. further suffixed form *dh-k-li-. facile, facilitate, faculty, difficulty, from Latin facilis (< Archaic Latin facul), feasible, easy.
3. Suffixed zero-grade form *dh-s- (probably identical with zero-grade of dhs-). nefarious, from Latin fs, divine law, right.
4. multifarious, omnifarious, from Latin -friam, adverbial suffix, as in bifriam, in two places, parts, double, from *dwi-dh()-, “making two” (*dwi-, two; see dwo-).
5. Reduplicated form *dhi-dh-. thesis, thetic; anathema, antithesis, diathesis, epenthesis, epithet, hypothecate, hypothesis, metathesis, parenthesis, prosthesis, prothesis, synthesis, from Greek tithenai, to put, with zero-grade noun thesis (*dh-ti-), a placing, and verbal adjective thetos (*dh-to-), placed.
6. Suffixed zero-grade form *dh-m. thematic, theme, from Greek thema, “thing placed,” proposition.
7. Reduplicated form *dhe-dh-. samhita, sandhi, from Sanskrit dadhti, he places (past participle -hita-, from suffixed zero-grade *dh-to-).
8. Reduced form *dh- in compound *au-dh- (see au-).
(Pokorny 2. dh- 235.)
To burn, warm.
1. Suffixed o-grade (causative) form *dhogwh-eyo-. foment, fomite, from Latin fov, to warm, cherish, foment.
2. Suffixed basic form dhegwh-r-. tephra, from Greek tephr, ash.
(Pokorny dhegh- 240.)
To suck. Contracted from *dhe1(i)-.
Derivatives include female, fawn2, fetus, fennel, and affiliate..
1. Suffixed reduced form *dh-mn-. female, feme, feminine; effeminate, from Latin fmina, woman (< “she who suckles”).
2. Suffixed reduced form *dh-to-. fawn2, fetal, fetus; effete, feticide, superfetate, from Latin ftus, pregnancy, childbearing, offspring, with adjective ftus, fta, pregnant.
3. Suffixed reduced form *dh-kwondo-. fecund, from Latin fcundus, fruitful.
4. Suffixed reduced form *dh-no-. fennel, finochio; fenugreek, sainfoin, from Latin fnum, faenum, hay (< “produce”).
5. Probably suffixed zero-grade form *dh-lyo- (< *dhi-lyo-). filial, filiate, fils1; affiliate, hidalgo, from Latin flius, son, and flia, daughter (but these are conceivably from the root bheu-).
6. Suffixed reduced form *dh-lo-. fellatio, from Latin flre, fellre, to suck.
7. Suffixed reduced form *dh-l-k-. felicitate, felicity; felicific, infelicity, from Latin flx, fruitful, fertile, lucky, happy.
8. Suffixed reduced form *dh-l-. endothelium, epithelium, mesothelium, from Greek thl, nipple.
9. Suffixed reduced form *dh-l-u-. theelin, from Greek thlus, female.
(Pokorny dh(i)- 241.)
To form, build. Oldest form *dheih-,becoming *dheigh- in centum languages.
Derivatives include dairy, lady, dough, and paradise..
1.dairy, from Old English dge, bread kneader, from Germanic *daigjn-.
2. lady, from Old English compound hlfdige, mistress of a household (< “bread kneader”; hlf, bread, loaf), from Germanic *dg-.
3. Suffixed o-grade form *dhoigh-o-.a. dough, from Old English dg, dough; b. teiglach, from Old High German teic, dough. Both a and b from Germanic *daigaz.
4. Suffixed zero-grade form *dhigh-r-. figure, figurine; configure, disfigure, prefigure, transfigure, from Latin figra, form, shape (< “result of kneading”).
5. Nasalized zero-grade form *dhi-n-gh-. fainéant, faint, feign, feint, fictile, fiction, figment; effigy, from Latin fingere, to shape.
6. Probable nasalized zero-grade form *dhi-n-g(h)-. thigmotaxis, thixotropy, from Greek thinganein, to touch.
7. Suffixed o-grade form *dhoigh-o-. paradise, from Avestan daza-, wall (originally made of clay or mud bricks).
(Pokorny dheih- 244.)
To hold firmly, support.
Derivatives include infirmary and throne..
1. Suffixed form *dher-mo-. farm, fermata, firm1, firm2, firmament; affirm, confirm, furl, infirm, infirmary, from Latin firmus, firm, strong.
2. Perhaps extended form *dhergh-, seen by some as the source of Latin fortis, strong, but this is more likely from bhergh-2.
3. Suffixed zero-grade form *dhr-ono-. throne, from Greek thronos, seat, throne (< “support”).
4. Suffixed form *dher-m. dharma, from Sanskrit dharma, statute, law (< “that which is established firmly”).
5. Suffixed form *dher-eno-. dharna, from Prakrit dharaa, a holding firm.
6. Suffixed o-grade form *dhor-o-. sirdar, tahsildar, zamindar, from Iranian dra-, holding, whence Persian -dr.
(Pokorny 2. dher- 252.)
To venture, be bold. O-grade form *dhors- and zero-grade form *dhs-. dare, durst, from Old English dearr and durst, first and third person singular present and past indicative of durran, to venture, respectively from Germanic *dors- and *durs-.
(Pokorny dhers- 259.)
Root of words in religious concepts. Contracted from *dhe1s-. Possibly an extension of dh-.
Derivatives include feast, fanatic, atheism, and enthusiasm..
1. Suffixed form *dhs-y-. fair2, feria, from Latin friae (< Archaic Latin fsiae), holidays.
2. Suffixed form *dhs-to-. feast, –fest, festal, festival, festive, festoon, fete, fiesta; Oktoberfest, from Latin fstus, festive.
3. Suffixed zero-grade form *dhs-no-. fanatic; profane, from Latin fnum, temple.
4. Suffixed zero-grade form *dhs-o-. theo-; apotheosis, atheism, enthusiasm, henotheism, pantheon, polytheism, tiffany, from Greek theos (< *thes-os), god.
a. dew, from Old English daw, dew;
b. sundew, from Middle Dutch dau, dew; c. Germanic compound *melith-dauwaz (see melit-). a–c all from Germanic *dauwaz, dew.
(Pokorny 1. dheu- 259.)
To die. Also dheu- (oldest form *dheu2-).
1. Suffixed o-grade form *dhou-to-. dead, from Old English dad, dead, from Germanic *daudaz.
2. Suffixed o-grade form *dhou-tu-. death, from Old English dath, death, from Germanic *dauthuz.
3. Suffixed o-grade form *dhow-yo-. die1, from Old Norse deyja, to die.
4. Extended zero-grade form *dhui-,metathesized to *dhwi-, contracted to *dhw-, whence suffixed form *dhw-no-. dwindle, from Old English dwnan, to diminish, languish, from Germanic *dwnan.
(Pokorny 2. dheu- 260.) Compare dheu-.
Also dheubh-. Deep, hollow.
1. deep, depth, from Old English dop, deep, from Germanic *deupaz.
2. dip, from Old English dyppan, to immerse, dip, from Germanic expressive denominative *duppjan.
3. Parallel root form *dheubh-. dive, from Old English dfan, to dip, and dfan, to sink, dive, from Germanic verb *dbjan, from *deub-, *dub-.
4. Suffixed parallel root form *dhbh-(o)n-, with expressive variants. python, Python, Typhon, from Greek Pthn and Tuphn, mythical monsters, from *dhub(h)-n- and *b(h)ud(h)-n-, which already in Indo-European were doublets by inversion, referring to “bottom,” “foundation,” “depths,” and the mythological monsters that inhabited them.
(Pokorny dheu-b- 267.)
To close, finish, come full circle. Oldest form *dheu2-. Probably related to dheu-2, “to die..
1. Suffixed zero-grade form *dh-no- (< *dhu-no-), enclosed, fortified place; hill-fort. a. (i) down1, down3, from Old English dn, hill; (ii) dune, from Middle Dutch dne, sandy hill. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *dnaz, possibly from *dh-no-;b. town, from Old English tn, enclosed place, homestead, village, from Germanic *tnaz, fortified place, borrowed from Celtic *d-no-, hill, stronghold.
2. Suffixed form *dh-nes- (< *dhu-nes-). funeral, from Latin fnus, funeral.
(In Pokorny 4. dheu- 261.)
To produce something of utility.
1. doughty, from Old English dyhtig, dohtig, strong (< “productive”), from Germanic extended form *duht-.
2. Suffixed form *dheugh-os-. Heptateuch, Hexateuch, Pentateuch, from Greek teukhos (< *theukhos), gear, anything produced, tool, container, scroll.
(Pokorny dheugh- 271.)
Earth. Oldest form *dhhem-,becoming *dhghem- in centum languages.
Derivatives include bridegroom, chameleon, and homicide..
1. Suffixed zero-grade form *(dh)gh-on-, “earthling.” bridegroom, from Old English guma, man, from Germanic *gumn-.
2. O-grade form *dh(e)ghom-. chthonic; autochthon, from Greek khthn, earth.
3. Zero-grade form *dhgh-. chamaephyte, chameleon, chamomile, germander, from Greek khamai, on the ground.
4. Suffixed o-grade form *(dh)ghom-o-. humble, humiliate, humility, humus1, omerta; exhume, inhume, transhumance, from Latin humus, earth.
5. Suffixed o-grade form *(dh)ghom-on-, “earthling.” a. homage, hombre1, hominid, homo1, homunculus, ombre; bonhomie, homicide, from Latin hom, human being, man; b. human, humane, from Latin hmnus, human, kind, humane (in part from dhghem-).
6. Suffixed form *(dh)ghem-y-. chernozem, sierozem, zemstvo, from Old Russian zem, land, earth.
7. Full-grade form *(dh)ghem-. zamindar, from Persian zamn, earth, land.
(Pokorny hem- 414.)
Yesterday. Oldest form *dhh(y)es-, becoming *dhgh(y)es- in centum languages. Suffixed (comparative) form *(dh)ghes-ter-.yester-, yesterday, from Old English geostran, giestran, “yester-,” from Germanic *ges-ter-.
(Pokorny hés 416.)
To stick, fix..
1a.dike1, ditch, from Old English dc, trench, moat; b. dig, from Middle English diggen, to dig, from a source perhaps akin to Old French digue, trench. Both a and b from Germanic *dk-.
2. fibula, fichu, finca, fishgig, fix, fixate, fixity, fixture; affix, antefix, crucify, infibulate, infix, microfiche, prefix, suffix, transfix, from Latin fgere, to fasten, fix, and from fbula, clasp (shortened from *fvibula, from fvere, archaic variant of fgere).
(Pokorny dhig- 243.)
To draw, glide. Oldest form *dhre-,becoming *dhreg- in centum languages.
1. drink, from Old English drincan, to drink, from nasalized Germanic form *drenkan, to draw into the mouth, drink.
2. drench, from Old English drencan, to soak, from nasalized o-grade Germanic causative form *drankjan, “to cause to drink.” 3. drown, from a Scandinavian or late Old English source similar to Old Norse drukkna, to drown, from Germanic zero-grade suffixed form *drunk-nn.
(Pokorny dhre- 273.)
To drive, push; snow.
1. drive, drove2, from Old English drfan, to drive, rush, from Germanic *drban.
2. drift, from Middle English drift, drove, herd, akin to Old Norse drift, snowdrift, and Middle Dutch drift, herd, from Germanic zero-grade suffixed form *driftiz.
(Pokorny dhreibh- 274.)
To fall, flow, drip, droop.
Derivatives include dreary and drowse..
1. Extended form *dhreus-. drizzle, from Old English -drysnian (in gedrysnian, to pass away, vanish), from zero-grade Germanic derived verb *drus-inn.
2. Extended o-grade form *dhrous-. a. dreary, from Old English dror, flowing blood, from Germanic *drauzaz;b. drowse, from Old English drsian, to be sluggish, from Germanic *drsjan.
3. Extended zero-grade form *dhrub-. a. drop, from Old English dropa, drop, from Germanic *drupan;b. droop, from Old Norse drpa, to hang down, from Germanic *drpn, to let fall; c. drip, from Middle English drippen, to drip, drop, from an unattested Old English *dryppan or another source akin to Old English droppa, drop, from Germanic geminated *drupp-;d. Germanic *drup-, to drip, in compound *obisdrup- (see upo-).
4. Suffixed zero-grade form *dhrubh-yo-. lithotripter, lithotrity, from Greek thruptein, to crumble.
Daughter. Oldest form *dhug2ter-. daughter, from Old English dohtor, daughter, from Germanic *dohtr.
(Pokorny dhug(h)ter- 277.)
Door, doorway (usually in plural). Originally an ablauting noun *dhwor, *dhur-, in the plural, designating the entrance to the enclosure (*dhwor-o-)surrounding the house proper.
Derivatives include forest and foreign..
1. Zero-grade form *dhur- in suffixed forms *dhur-s (accusative plural) and *dhur-o- (neuter). door, from Old English duru, door (feminine, originally plural), and dor, door (neuter), respectively from Germanic *durunz and *duram.
2. Suffixed o-grade form *dhwor-ns (accusative plural). farouche, foreign, vicar forane, from Latin fors, (toward) out of doors, outside.
3. Suffixed o-grade form *dhwor-ois (locative plural). forest; afforest, faubourg, foreclose, forfeit, from Latin fors, (being) out of doors.
4. Suffixed o-grade form *dhwor-o-. forensic, forum, from Latin forum, marketplace (originally the enclosed space around a home).
5. durbar, from Old Persian duvara-, door, gate.
6. Zero-grade form *dhur-. thyroid, from Greek thur, door.