Источник: Calvert Watkins, The American Heritage® Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2000.
Всего на *e- представлено 20 корней из словаря Кальверта Уоткинса (Калверта Воткинса).
To eat; original meaning “to bite.
1a. eat, from Old English etan, to eat; b. etch, from Old High German ezzen, to feed on, eat; c. ort, from Middle Dutch eten, to eat; d. (i) fret1, from Old English fretan, to devour; (ii) frass, from Old High German frezzan, to devour. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic compound *fra-etan, to eat up (*fra-, completely; see per1). a–d all from Germanic *etan.
2. edacious, edible, escarole, esculent, esurient; comedo, comestible, obese, from Latin edere, to eat.
3. prandial, from Latin compound prandium, lunch, probably from *prm-(e)d-yo-,“first meal,” *prm-, first; see per1).
4. Suffixed form *ed-un--. anodyne, pleurodynia, from Greek odun, pain (< “gnawing care”).
5. Samoyed, from Russian -ed, eater.
(Pokorny ed- 287.) See also derivative dent-.
(I) Nominative form of the personal pronoun of the first person singular. Oldest form *e, becoming *eg in centum languages.
(For oblique forms see me-1).
1. I, from Old English ic, I, from Germanic *ek.
2. Extended form *eg. ego, egoist, egotism, from Latin ego, I.
(Pokorny e- 291.)
Out. Oldest form *ehs, becoming *eghs in centum languages.
Derivatives include strange, and extreme. .
1. Variant *eks. a. ex1, ex-, from Latin ex, ex-,out of, away from; b. ecto-, ex-, exo-, exoteric, exotic; electuary, lekvar, synecdoche, from Greek ex, ek, out of, from.
2. Suffixed (comparative) variant form *eks-tero-. a. estrange, exterior, external, extra-, strange, from Latin exter, outward (feminine ablative exter,extr, on the outside);
b. further suffixed (superlative) form *eks-t(e)r-mo-. extreme, from Latin extrmus, outermost (*-mo-, superlative suffix).
3. Suffixed form *eghs-ko-. eschatology, from Greek eskhatos, outermost, last.
4. Celtic *eks-, out (of), in compound *eks-d-sedo- (see sed-).
5. samizdat, from Russian iz, from, out of, from Balto-Slavic *iz.
(Pokorny ehs 292.)
To drink. Suffixed lengthened-grade form *gwh-r-yo-. a. inebriate, ryegrass, from Latin brius, drunk; b. Latin compound sbrius (see s(w)e-). (Not in Pokorny; compare Hittite ekuzi, he drinks, and Greek nphein, to be sober (< “not drink,” *ne-gwh-).)
To go. Oldest form *1ei-, zero-grade *1i-.
Derivatives include ambition, perish, sudden, transit, ion, initial, janitor, and January.
1. Full-grade form *ei-. a.adit, ambient, ambition, circuit, coitus, comitia, exit, introit, issue, obituary, perish, praetor, preterit, sedition, subito, sudden, trance, transient, transit, transitive, from Latin re, to go; b. ion; anion, cation, dysprosium, from Greek ienai, to go; c. Ramayana, from Sanskrit eti, he goes (< Indo-Iranian *ai-ti), and abstract noun ayanam, a going, way.
2. Suffixed zero-grade form *i-t-. a. Further suffixed form *i-t-yo-. commence, initial, initiate, from Latin initium, entrance, beginning (in-, in; see en); b. count2, county; concomitant, constable, viscount, from Latin comes (stem comit-), companion (< “one who goes with another”; com-, with; see kom).
3. Suffixed form *i-ter. errant, eyre, itinerant, itinerary, from Latin iter, journey.
4. Extended form *y- (< *1ya2-, colored from earlier *1ye2-) in suffixed forms *y-no-,*y-nu-. a. janitor, January, Janus, from Latin inus, archway, and Inus, god of doors and of the beginning of a year; b. Hinayana, Mahayana, from Sanskrit ynam, way (in Buddhism, “mode of knowledge,” “vehicle”).
(Pokorny 1. ei- 293.)
In words denoting passion.
1. Suffixed form *eis--. irascible, irate, ire, from Latin ra, anger.
2. Suffixed zero-grade form *is-()ro-, powerful, holy. hieratic, hiero-; hierarch, hierarchy, hierodule, hieroglyphic, hierophant, from Greek hieros, “filled with the divine,” holy.
3a.iron, from Old English se(r)n, ren, iron; b. gisarme, spiegeleisen, from Old High German sarn, san, iron. Both a and b from Germanic *sarno-, “holy metal” (possibly from Celtic).
4. Suffixed o-grade form *ois-tro-, madness. estrus; estrogen, estrone, from Greek oistros, gadfly, goad, anything causing madness.
5. Suffixed form *eis-mo. Asmodeus, from Avestan ama-, anger.
(Pokorny 1. eis- 299.)
Horse. Probably to be segmented *ekw-o-, a suffixed form akin to the lengthened o-grade adjective ku-, swift. Oldest form *ewo-, becoming *ekwo- in centum languages.
1. equestrian, equine, equitant, equitation; equisetum, from Latin equus, horse.
1. Extended form *el-in-, elbow. a. ell2, from Old English eln, forearm, cubit, from Germanic *elin; b. elbow, from Old English elnboga, elbow, from Germanic compound *elino-bugn-, “bend of the forearm,” elbow (*bugn-, bend, bow; see bheug-); c. ulna, from Latin ulna, forearm.
2. Extended o-grade form *ol-en-. uilleann pipe, from Old Irish uilenn, elbow.
3. Extended lengthened o-grade form *l-en-. olecranon, from Greek len, elbow.
4. Extended basic form *el-in-.arshin, from Old Persian aran-, ell, from Indo-Iranian *aratn(i)-, probably from a variant *el-etn- of *el-in-.
(Pokorny 8. el- 307.)
To take, distribute.
1. ademption, example, exemplary, exemplify, exemplum, exempt, impromptu, peremptory, preemption, premium, prompt, pronto, ransom, redeem, redemption, sample, vintage, from Latin emere, to obtain, buy.
2. sumptuary, sumptuous; assume, consume, presume, resume, subsume, from Latin smere (< *sus(e)m-), to take, obtain, buy (sus-, variant of sub-, up from under; see upo).
(Pokorny em- 310.)
Derivatives include inner, entrails, industry, and dysentery.
1a. in1 (preposition), from Old English in, in; b. in1 (adverb), from Old English inn, into, inne, inside; c. inn, from Old English inn, habitation, inn; d. tsimmes, from Old High German in, in; e. inner, from Old English innera, farther in, inner, from Germanic (comparative) *inn(e)ra; f. (i) ben, from Old English binnan, within; (ii) bilander, from Middle Dutch binnen, within (be, by; see ambhi + innan, in, within). Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *innan. a–f all from Germanic *in.
2. en-1, in-2, from Latin in, in-, in, into.
3. en-2; enkephalin, parenchyma, parenthesis, from Greek en, en-.
4. Suffixed form *en-t(e)ro-. a. intro-; introduce, introit, intromit, introrse, introspect, from Latin intr, inward, within; b. enter, intra-; intrados, from Latin intr, inside, within; c. interim, intrinsic, from Latin interim, meanwhile, with ablative suffix -im, and intrnsecus, on the inside, from int(e)rim + secus, alongside (see sekw-1).
5. Suffixed form *en-ter. entrails, inter-, interior, intern, internal, from Latin inter, inter-, between, among.
6. intima, intimate2, from Latin (superlative) intimus, innermost (*-mo-, superlative suffix).
7. Extended form *en-do. a. industry, from Latin industrius, diligent (Archaic Latin indostruus; *stru-, to construct; see ster-2); b. indigent, from Latin indigre, to be in need (egre, to be in need). Both a and b from indu-, within, from Archaic Latin endo;c. endo-, from Greek endon, endo-, within.
8. Suffixed form *en-tos. a. dedans, intestine, intine, intussusception, from Latin intus, within, inside; b. ento-, from Greek entos, within.
9. Suffixed form *en-tero-.a. enteric, entero-, enteron; dysentery, exenterate, mesentery, from Greek enteron, intestine; b. atoll, perhaps ultimately from Sanskrit antara-, interior.
10. Extended form *ens. a. episode, from Greek eis, into; b. suffixed form *ens-. esoteric, esotropia, from Greek es, within.
11. Possibly suffixed zero-grade form *-dha. and, from Old English and, and, from Germanic *anda, *unda.
(Pokorny 1. en 311.)
Also opi. Near, at, against.
1. ob-, from Latin ob, ob-, before, to, against.
2. epi-, from Greek epi, on, over, at.
3. opisthobranch, opisthognathous, from Greek opisthen, behind, at the back.
4. Zero-grade form *pi, on, in Greek piezein (see sed-).
5. oblast, from Russian oblast', oblast, from Old Church Slavonic ob, on.
6. Reduced prefixal form *op- in *op-wer-yo- (see wer-4).
7. duopsony, opsonin, from Greek *ops, extra on the side, with, in noun opson, condiment, cooked food.
(Pokorny epi 323.)
To move, set in motion. Oldest form *1er-.
(I) Basic form *er-.
1. Probably Germanic *ar-,*or-, *art(a), to be, exist. are1, art2, from Old English eart and aron, second person singular and plural present of bon, to be.
2. Perhaps Germanic suffixed form *er-n-os-ti-. earnest1, from Old English eornoste, zealous, serious.
3. Uncertain o-grade suffixed form *ori-yo-. orient, origin, original; abort, from Latin orr, to arise, appear, be born.
4. Suffixed o-grade form *or-sm-. hormone, from Greek horm, impulse, onrush.
(II) Enlarged extended form *rei-s-.
1. rise; arise, from Old English rsan, from Germanic *rsan;
2. Suffixed o-grade (causative) form *rois-ye-. a. rear2, from Old English rran, to rear, raise, lift up; b. raise, from Old Norse reisa, to raise. Both a and b from Germanic *raizjan.
(Pokorny 3. er- 326; ergh-339.)
Earth, ground. Extended form *ert-. a.earth, from Old English eorthe, earth; b. aardvark, aardwolf, from Middle Dutch aerde, eerde, earth. Both a and b from Germanic *erth.
(Pokorny 4. er- 332.)
To row. Oldest form *1er1-.
1. Variant form *r- (contracted from *re1-, from earlier *1re1-). a. row2, from Old English rwan, to row, from Germanic *r-; b. suffixed form *r-tro-. rudder, Rus, Russian, Russky, from Old English rther and Old Norse rdhr, steering oar, both from Germanic *rthra, rudder; c. suffixed form *r-smo-. bireme, remex, trireme, from Latin rmus, oar.
2. Oldest variant form *1re1- becoming *er- in Greek. trierarch, from Greek trirs, trireme.
(Pokorny 1. er- 338.)
To be in motion.
1. Variant form *rs-. race2, from Old Norse rs, rushing, from Germanic *rs-.
2. Suffixed form *ers--. err, erratic, erratum, erroneous, error; aberration, from Latin errre, to wander.
3. Possible zero-grade form *s-i-. rishi, from Sanskrit i, poet, seer.
(Pokorny 2. ere-s- 336.)
To be. Oldest form *1es-, zero-grade *1s-.
Derivatives include yes, soothe, sin1, essence, absent, and proud.
1. Athematic first person singular form *es-mi. am1, from Old English eam, eom, am, from Germanic *izm(i).
2. Athematic third person singular form *es-ti. is, from Old English is, is, from Germanic *ist(i).
3. Optative stem *s-. yes, from Old English gse, yes, from se, may it be (so) (ga, yea; see i-), from Germanic *sijai-.
4. Suffixed zero-grade (participial) form *1s-ont-,becoming *sont-, being, existing, hence real, true. a.sooth, soothe, from Old English sth, true, from Germanic *santhaz; b. suffixed (collective) zero-grade form *st-y-, “that which is.” sin1, from Old English synn, sin, from Germanic *sun(d)j, sin (< “it is true,” “the sin is real”); c.suttee; bodhisattva, Satyagraha, from Sanskrit sat-, sant-, existing, true, virtuous.
5. Basic form *es-. entity, essence; abessive, absent, adessive, essive, improve, inessive, interest, ossia, present1, present2, proud, quintessence, represent, stover, from Latin esse, to be.
6. Basic form *es-. –ont, onto-; –biont, Homoiousian, Parousia, schizont, from Greek einai (present participle ont-, being), to be (in pareinai, to be present).
7. Suffixed form *es-ti-. swastika, from Sanskrit svasti, well-being (su-, good; see (e)su-).
(Pokorny es- 340.) See also extension (e)su-.
Good. Oldest form *1(e)su-. Originally suffixed form of es-.
1. eu-, from Greek eu-, well, combining form of eus, good.
2a. swastika, from Sanskrit svasti, well-being, good luck (-asti, being; see es-); b. nainsook, from Sanskrit sukha-, running easily (said of a chariot), pleasant (“having good axle-holes”; kham, axle-hole). Both a and b from Sanskrit su-, good.
(Pokorny esu-s 342.)
1. endue, indument, from Latin induere, to don (ind-, variant of in-, in, on; see en).
2.exuviae, from Latin exuere, to doff (ex-, off; see eghs).
3. reduviid, from Latin reduvia, fragment (red-, back, in reverse; see re-).
(Pokorny 2. eu- 346.) See also extension wes-2.
Udder. Related to w-r-.
1. Suffixed zero-grade form *dh-. udder, from Old English der, udder, from Germanic *dr-.
2. Suffixed o-grade form *oudh-. exuberant, exuberate, from Latin adjective ber, fertile, derived from ber,“breast.”
(Pokorny udh- 347.)
To leave, abandon, give out, whence nominal derivatives meaning abandoned, lacking, empty. Oldest form *1eu2-, zero-grade *1u2-, with variant form *1we2-, colored and contracted to *w-.
1. Suffixed form *w-no-. a. wane; wanton, from Old English wanian, to lessen (from Germanic *wann), and wan-, without; b. want, from Old Norse vanta, to lack, from North Germanic *wanatn.
2. Suffixed form *w-no-. vain, vanity, vaunt; evanesce, vanish, from Latin vnus, empty.
3. Extended form *wak-. vacant, vacate, vacation, vacuity, vacuum, void; avoid, devoid, evacuate, from Latin vacre (variant vocre), to be empty.
4. Extended and suffixed form *ws-to-. waste; devastate, from Latin vstus, empty, waste.