Источник: Calvert Watkins, The American Heritage® Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2000.
Всего на *g- представлено 16 корней из словаря Кальверта Уоткинса (Калверта Воткинса).
To call, shout.
1. call, from Old Norse kalla, to call, from Germanic expressive form *kall-.
2. clatter, from Old English *clatrian, to clatter, from Germanic *klat-.
3. Expressive form *gall-. gallinaceous, gallinule, from Latin gallus, cock (< “the calling bird”; but probably also associated with Gallus, Gallic, as if to mean “the bird of Gaul,” the cock being archaeologically attested as an important symbol in the iconography of Roman and pre-Roman Gaul).
4. Suffixed form *gal-so-. glasnost, from Old Church Slavonic glas, voice.
5. Reduplicated form *gal-gal-. Glagolitic, from Old Church Slavonic glagol, word.
(Pokorny 2. gal- 350.)
To rejoice; also to have religious fear or awe. Oldest form *ge2u-, colored to *ga2u-, contracted to *gau- (before consonants) and *gw- (before vowels).
1. Suffixed extended form *gw-idh--. gaud, gaudy1, gaudy2, joy; enjoy, rejoice, from Latin gaudre, to rejoice.
2. Form (with nasal infix) *g-n-u-. ganoid, from Greek ganusthai, to rejoice.
(Pokorny gu- 353.)
Cold; to freeze.
Derivatives include chill, jelly, and glacier. .
1. chill, from Old English c(i)ele, chill, from Germanic *kaliz, coldness.
2. cold, from Old English ceald, cold, from Germanic *kaldaz, cold. 3a. cool, from Old English cl, cold, cool; b. keel3, from Old English clan, to cool, from Germanic *kljan, to cool. Both a and b from Germanic *kl-,cool.
4. Suffixed form *gel--. gelatin, gelation, jelly; congeal, from Latin gelre, to freeze.
5. Suffixed form *gel-u-.gelid, from Latin gel, frost, cold.
6. Probably suffixed zero-grade form *g-k-. glacé, glacial, glaciate, glacier, glacis; verglas, from Latin glacis, ice.
(Pokorny 3. gel()- 365.)
Tooth, nail. Oldest form *embh-,becoming *gembh- in centum languages.
Derivatives include comb, unkempt, and gem..
1. Suffixed o-grade form *gombh-o-. a. (i) comb, kame, from Old English comb, camb, comb; (ii) cam, from Dutch kam, cog, comb; (iii) unkempt, from Old English cemban, to comb, from Germanic denominative *kambjan, to comb. (i)–(iii) all from Germanic *kambaz, comb; b. gomphosis, from Greek gomphos, tooth, peg, bolt.
2. Suffixed zero-grade form *gbh-n-. oakum, from Old English -cumba, part of flax separated in hackling, oakum (“stuff combed off”; -, away, off).
3. Perhaps Germanic *kimb-. chime2, from Old English cim-,cimb-, rim (only in compounds), 4. Possibly suffixed form *gembh-m-. gem, gemma, gemmate, gemmule, from Latin gemma, bud, hence gem.
To marry. Oldest form *em1-, becoming *gem1- in centum languages. Suffixed zero-grade form *g-o-. gamete, gamo-, –gamous, –gamy, from Greek gamos, marriage.
Also gen-. To give birth, beget; with derivatives referring to aspects and results of procreation and to familial and tribal groups. Oldest form *en1-, becoming *gen1- in centum languages.
Derivatives include kin, king, jaunty, genius, pregnant, gingerly, and nature.
(I) Basic form *gen-.
1. Suffixed form *gen-es-. a. gender, general, generate, generation, generic, generous, genre, genus; congener, degenerate, engender, miscegenation, from Latin genus, race, kind; b. gene; allogeneic, genealogy, genocide, genotype, heterogeneous, syngeneic, from Greek genos and gene, race, family; c. –gen, –geny; epigene, from Greek suffix -gens, “-born.” 2. Suffixed form *gen()-yo-.a. genial1, genius; congenial, from Latin genius, procreative divinity, inborn tutelary spirit, innate quality; b. engine, ingenious, from Latin ingenium, inborn character (in-, in; see en).
3. Suffixed form *gen--. indigen, indigenous, from Latin indigena, born in (a place), indigenous (indu-, within; see en).
4. Suffixed form *gen-wo-. genuine, ingenuous, from Latin ingenuus, born in (a place), native, natural, freeborn (in-, in; see en).
5. Suffixed form *gen()-men-. germ, german2, germane, germinal, germinate, from dissimilated Latin germen, shoot, bud, embryo, germ.
(II) O-grade form *gon-, reduced to *gon- in suffixed form *gon-o-.
2. Harijan, from Sanskrit jana, offspring, child, person.
(III) Zero-grade form *g-.
1. Suffixed form *g-yo-. a. kin; kindred, from Old English cyn(n), race, family, kin; b. king, from Old English cyning, king, from Germanic *kuningaz, king. Both a and b from Germanic *kunjam, family.
2. Suffixed form *g-t-.a. kind2, from Old English cynd,gecynd(e), origin, birth, race, family, kind, from Germanic *kundjaz, family, race; b. kind1, from Old English gecynde, natural, native, fitting (ge-, collective prefix; see kom), from Germanic *kundiz, natural, native; c. suffixed form *g-ti-. (i) gens, genteel, gentile, gentle, gentry, jaunty; gendarme, from Latin gns (stem genti-), race, clan; (ii) genesis, –genesis, from Greek genesis, birth, beginning; d. kindergarten, Kriss Kringle, wunderkind, from Old High German kind, child, from Germanic secondary full-grade variant *kentham; e. suffixed form *g-to-. Jataka, from Sanskrit jta-, born (verbal adjective of janate, he is born).
3. Reduplicated form *gi-gn()-. genital, genitive, genitor, geniture, gent1, gingerly; congenital, primogenitor, primogeniture, progenitor, progeny, from Latin gignere (past participle genitus), to beget.
4. Reduced form *gn- in suffixed form *-gn-o-. benign, malign, from Latin benignus, good-natured, kindly (bene, well; see deu-2), and malignus, evil-natured, malevolent (male, ill; see mel-3).
5. Zero-grade form *g- becoming *gn-. pregnant1; impregnate, from Latin praegns, pregnant (prae-, before; see per1).
6. Suffixed form *g-sko-becoming *gn-sko-. naive, nascent, natal, nation, native, nature, née, Noël; adnate, agnate, cognate, connate, enate, innate, neonate, puisne, puny, renaissance, from Latin gnsc, nsc (past participle gntus, ntus), to be born.
7. Reduced form *g- in Sanskrit compound kmi-ja-(see kwmi-).
(Pokorny 1. en- 373.)
Knee; also angle. Oldest form *enu-,becoming *genu- in centum languages.
1. Variant form *gneu-. a. knee, from Old English cno, knee, from Germanic *knewam; b. kneel, from Old English cnowlian, to kneel, from Germanic *knewljan.
2. Basic form *genu-. geniculate, genuflect, from Latin gen, knee.
3. O-grade form *gonu. polygonum, pycnogonid, from Greek gonu, knee.
4. Suffixed variant form *gnw-y-. –gon, gonion; amblygonite, diagonal, goniometer, orthogonal, from Greek gni, angle, corner.
(Pokorny 1. enu-380.)
Jawbone, chin. Oldest form *enu-,becoming *genu- in centum languages.
1. Form *genw-. chin, from Old English cin(n), chin, from Germanic *kinnuz.
2. Basic form *genu-. genial2, from Greek genus, jaw, chin.
3. Suffixed variant form *gn-dho-. gnathal, gnathic, –gnathous; agnathan, chaetognath, from Greek gnathos, jaw.
4. Variant form *g(h)enu-. hanuman, from Sanskrit hanu, jaw.
(Pokorny 2. enu-381.)
To gather. Oldest form *2ger-.
1. Extended form *grem-. cram, from Old English crammian, to stuff, cram, from Germanic *kramm-.
2. Reduplicated form *gre-g-. gregarious; aggregate, congregate, egregious, segregate, from Latin grex (stem greg-), herd, flock.
3. Basic form *ger-, with suffixed o-grade form *gor--. agora1, agoraphobia, allegory, category, panegyric, from Greek ageirein, to assemble, and aguris,agor, marketplace.
(Pokorny 1. ger- 382.)
Derivatives include carve, crawl1, and program..
1. carve, from Old English ceorfan, to cut, from Germanic *kerban.
2. kerf, from Old English cyrf, a cutting (off), from zero-grade Germanic form *kurbiz.
3. Variant form *grebh-. a. crab1, from Old English crabba, a crab, from Germanic *krab(b)-; b. crayfish, from Old High German kerbiz, edible crustacean, from Germanic *krabiz-; c. perhaps Germanic *krab-. crawl1, from Old Norse krafla, to crawl.
4. Zero-grade form *gbh-. a. glamour, graffito, graft1, gram1, –gram, grammar, –graph, –grapher, graphic, –graphy; agrapha, agraphia, anagram, diagram, epigram, epigraph, graphite, iconography, paragraph, parallelogram, program, pseudepigrapha, Tetragrammaton, topography, from Greek graphein, to scratch, draw, write, gramma (< *gbh-m), a picture, written letter, piece of writing, and gramm, a line; b. landgrave, margrave, palsgrave, from Middle Dutch grve and Middle Low German grave, count, from West Germanic *grafa, a designation of rank, possibly borrowed from Greek grapheus, scribe.
(Pokorny gerebh- 392.)
To grow old. Oldest form *er2-, becoming *ger2- in centum languages.
1. Suffixed lengthened-grade form *gr-s-. ageratum, geriatrics, from Greek gras, old age.
2. Suffixed form *ger-ont-.geronto-, from Greek gern (stem geront-), old man.
(Pokorny er- 390.)
To cry hoarsely; also the name of the crane. Oldest form *ger2-.
Derivatives include crack, cranberry, and pedigree.
(I) Words meaning “to cry hoarsely”; also words denoting the crow.
1a. crow1, from Old English crwe, a crow; b. crow2, from Old English crwan, to crow; c. crack, from Old English cracian, to resound; d. cracknel, from Middle Dutch krken, to crack; e. crake, from Old Norse krka, a crow; f. croon, from Middle Dutch krnen, to groan, lament. a–f all from Germanic *kr-.
2. Possibly from this root (but more likely imitative) is Germanic *kur(r)-. cur, from Middle English curre, cur, akin to Old Norse kurra, to growl.
(II) Words denoting a crane.
1a. crane, from Old English cran, crane; b. cranberry, from Middle Low German kran, crane. Both a and b from Germanic *kran-, crane.
2. Extended form *gr-. Grus; pedigree, from Latin grs, crane.
3. Suffixed variant form *gr-k-. grackle, from Latin grculus, jackdaw.
4. Suffixed extended form *ger-no-. geranium, from Greek geranos, crane.
(Pokorny 2. ger- 383.)
To taste, choose. Oldest form *eus-,becoming *geus- in centum languages.
1a. choose, from Old English cosan, cesan, to choose, from Germanic *keusan; b. choice, from a Germanic source akin to Gothic kausjan, to test, taste, from Germanic causative *kausjan.
2. Zero-grade form *gus-. Valkyrie, from Old Norse Valkyrja, “chooser of the slain,” Valkyrie (valr, the slain; see wel-), from Germanic *kuz-.
3. Suffixed zero-grade form *gus-tu-. gust2, gusto; ragout, from Latin gustus, taste.
4. Suffixed zero-grade form *gus-to-, whence further suffixed (frequentative) form *gus-t--. gustation; degust, disgust, from Latin gustre, to taste.
(Pokorny eus- 399.)
To tear apart, cleave.
Derivatives include clever and hieroglyphic.
(I) Basic form *gleubh-.
1. cleave1, from Old English clofan, to split, cleave, from Germanic *kleuban.
2. Probably o-grade form *gloubh-. clever, from Middle English cliver, nimble, skillful, perhaps akin to East Frisian klüfer, klifer, skillful, and Old Norse kleyfr, easy to split, from Germanic *klaubri-.
(II) Zero-grade form *glubh-.1a. clove2, from Old English clufu, clove (of garlic); b. kloof, from Middle Dutch clove, a cleft; c. clevis, from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Norse klofi, a cleft. a–c all from Germanic *klub-, a splitting.
2.cleft, from Old English geclyft, fissure, from Germanic *klufti- (*klub-ti-).
3. glyph, glyptic; anaglyph, hieroglyphic, from Greek gluphein, to carve.
4. Suffixed zero-grade form *glubh-m-. glume, from Latin glma, husk of grain.
(Pokorny gleubh- 401.)
To know. Oldest form *ne3-, colored to *no3-, contracted to *n- (becoming *gn-in centum languages).
Derivatives include know, cunning, uncouth, ignore, noble, diagnosis, and narrate..
1. Variant form *gn-, contracted from *gn-. know; knowledge, acknowledge, from Old English cnwan, to know, from Germanic *kn(w)-.
2. Zero-grade form *g-. a. can1, con2, cunning, from Old English cunnan, to know, know how to, be able to, from Germanic *kunnan (Old English first and third singular can from Germanic *kann from o-grade *gon-); b.ken, kenning, from Old English cennan, to declare, and Old Norse kenna, to know, name (in a formal poetic metaphor), from Germanic causative verb *kannjan, to make known; c. couth; uncouth, from Old English cth, known, well-known, usual, excellent, familiar, from Germanic *kunthaz; d. kith and kin, from Old English cth(the), cththu, knowledge, acquaintance, friendship, kinfolk, from Germanic *kunthith.
3. Suffixed form *gn-sko-. notice, notify, notion, notorious; acquaint, cognition, cognizance, connoisseur, incognito, quaint, recognize, reconnaissance, reconnoiter, from Latin (g)nscere, cognscere, to get to know, get acquainted with.
4. Suffixed form *gn-ro-. ignorant, ignore, from Latin ignrre, not to know, to disregard (i- for in-, not; see ne).
5. Suffixed form *gn-dhli-. noble, from Latin nbilis, knowable, known, famous, noble.
6. Reduplicated and suffixed form *gi-gn-sko-. gnome2, gnomon, gnosis, Gnostic; agnosia, diagnosis, pathognomonic, physiognomy, prognosis, from Greek gignskein, to know, think, judge (verbal adjective gntos, known), with gnsis (< *gn-ti-), knowledge, inquiry, and gnmn, judge, interpreter.
7. Suffixed zero-grade form *g-ro-. narrate, from Latin narrre (< *gnarrre), to tell, relate, from gnrus, knowing, expert.
8. Suffixed zero-grade form *g-ti-. Zend-Avesta, from Avestan zainti-, knowledge (remade from *zti-).
9. Traditionally but improbably referred here are: a.note; annotate, connote, prothonotary, from Latin nota, a mark, note, sign, cipher, shorthand character; b. norm, Norma, normal; abnormal, enormous, from Latin norma, carpenter's square, rule, pattern, precept, possibly from an Etruscan borrowing of Greek gnmn, carpenter's square, rule.
(Pokorny 2. en- 376.)
Grain. Oldest form *-no-,becoming *g-no- in centum languages.
1a. corn1, from Old English corn, grain; b. kernel, from Old English derivative noun cyrnel, seed, pip; c. einkorn, from Old High German korn, grain. a–c all from Germanic *kornam.