Источник: Calvert Watkins, The American Heritage® Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2000.
Всего на *gh- представлено 25 корней из словаря Кальверта Уоткинса (Калверта Воткинса).
Also ghebh-. To give or receive.
Derivatives include give, able, malady, prohibit, duty, and endeavor..
1. Form *ghebh-. a. give, from Old English giefan, to give, and Old Norse gefa, to give; b. forgive, from Old English forgi(e)fan, to give, give up, leave off (anger), remit, forgive, from Germanic compound *far-geban, to give away (*far-, away; see per1). Both a and b from Germanic *geban.
2. Suffixed form *ghebh-ti-, something given (or received). gift, from Old Norse gipt, gift, a gift, from Germanic *giftiz.
3. O-grade form *ghobh-. gavel2, from Old English gafol, tribute, tax, debt, from Germanic *gab-ulam, something paid (or received).
4. Form *ghabh--. a. able, binnacle, habile, habit, habitable, habitant, habitat; avoirdupois, cohabit, exhibit, inhabit, inhibit, malady, prebend, prohibit, provender, from Latin habre, to hold, possess, have, handle (> habitre, to dwell); b. debenture, debit, debt, devoir, due, duty; endeavor, from Latin dbre, to owe (d-, away from; see de-).
(Pokorny ghabh- 407.) Compare kap-.
Goose. Oldest form *hans-,becoming *ghans- in centum languages.
1a. goose1; goshawk, from Old English gs (nominative plural gs), goose; b. gosling, from Old Norse gs, goose; c. gunsel, from Old High German gans, goose; d. gonzo, from Spanish ganso, goose, from a Germanic source akin to Old High German gans, goose. a–d all from Germanic *gans- (nominative plural *gansiz).
2. gander, from Old English ganra, gandra, gander, from Germanic *gan(d)rn-.
3. gannet, from Old English ganot, gannet, from Germanic *gantn-.
4. Suffixed form *ghans-er-. anserine; merganser, from Latin nser (< *hanser), goose.
5. Basic form *ghans-. chenopod, from Greek khn, goose.
To release, let go; (in the middle voice) to be released, go. Oldest form *he1-, contracted to *h- in satem languages and *gh- in centum languages.
Derivatives include heir and gait. .
1. go; ago, forego1, forgo, from Old English gn, to go, from Germanic variant form *gaian.
2. Suffixed form *gh-ro-. heir, hereditament, heredity, heritage; inherit, from Latin hrs, heir (? < “orphan” < “bereft”).
3. Possibly suffixed o-grade form *gh-ro-, “empty space.” a. –chore; anchorite, chorography, from Greek khros, place, country, particular spot; b. choripetalous, from Greek khris, khri, apart, separate.
4. Possible suffixed zero-grade form *gh-t(w)-. a. gait, gate2, from Old Norse gata, path, street; b. gantlet1, gauntlet2, from Old Swedish gata, lane. Both a and b from Germanic *gatwn-, a going.
5. Suffixed zero-grade form *gh-no-. Hinayana, from Sanskrit hna-, inferior, verbal adjective of jahti, he leaves, lets go (< reduplicated *ghe-gh-ti,*ghe-ghe-ti).
(Pokorny 1. h- 418.)
1. gable, from Old Norse gafl, gable, from Germanic *gablaz, top of a pitched roof.
2. Form *kephal-, dissimilated from *khephal-. cephalic, cephalo-, –cephalous; encephalo-, enkephalin, hydrocephalus, pachycephalosaur, from Greek kephal, head.
(Pokorny ghebh-el- 423.)
To unite, join, fit.
1. Lengthened o-grade form *ghdh-. good, from Old English gd, good, from Germanic *gdaz,“fitting, suitable.” 2. together, from Old English tgædere, together (t, to; see de-), from Germanic *gadur, “in a body.” 3. gather, from Old English gad(e)rian, to gather, from Germanic *gadurn, “to come or bring together.”
Theoretical base of *ghyem-, *ghiem-,winter. Oldest forms *hei-, *hyem-, *hiem-, becoming *ghei-, *ghyem-, *ghiem- in centum languages.
1. Form *ghiem-. hiemal, from Latin hiems, winter.
2. Suffixed variant form *gheim-ri-no-. hibernaculum, hibernate, from Latin hbernus, pertaining to winter.
3. Suffixed zero-grade form *ghim--y, “female animal one year (winter) old.” chimera, from Greek khimaira, she-goat.
(Pokorny 2. hei- 425.)
1a. yell, from Old English gellan, giellan, to sound, shout; b. yelp, from Old English gielpan, to boast, exult; c. nightingale, from Old English galan, to sing. a–c all from Germanic *gel-, *gal-.
2. Reduplicated form *ghi-ghl-. cichlid, from Greek kikhl, thrush, later also the name for a kind of wrasse (a sea fish that has bright colors and jagged waving fins, reminiscent of the plumage of a bird).
3. celandine, from Greek khelidwn, khelidn, the swallow.
(Pokorny ghel- 428.)
To shine; with derivatives referring to colors, bright materials, gold (probably “yellow metal”), and bile or gall. Oldest form *hel-, becoming *ghel- in centum languages.
Derivatives include gold, arsenic, melancholy, Hare Krishna, gleam, glimpse, and glide.
(I) Words denoting colors.
1. Suffixed form *ghel-wo-. yellow, from Old English geolu, yellow, from Germanic *gelwaz.
2. Suffixed variant form *ghl-ro-.chloro-; chlorite1, from Greek khlros, green, greenish yellow.
3. Suffixed variant form *ghlo-wo-.chloasma, from Greek khloos (< *khlo-wo-s), greenish color.
4. O-grade form *ghol-. podzol, from Russian zola, ashes (from their color).
5. Suffixed form *ghel-i-. Hare Krishna, Harijan, from Sanskrit hari-, tawny yellow.
6. Possibly suffixed zero-grade form *gh-wo- in Latin fulvus, tawny (with dialectal f- as in fel, gall): griseofulvin.
(II) Words denoting gold.
1. Suffixed zero-grade form *gh-to-. a. gold, from Old English gold, gold; b. gild1, from Old English gyldan, to gild, from Germanic denominative verb *gulthjan; c. guilder, gulden, from Middle Dutch gulden, golden; d. gowan, from Middle English gollan, yellow flower, possibly from a source akin to Old Norse gullinn, golden. a–d all from Germanic *gultham, gold.
2. Suffixed o-grade form *ghol-to-. zloty, from Polish zoto, gold.
3. Suffixed full-grade form *ghel-no-. arsenic, from Syriac zarnk, orpiment, from Middle Iranian *zarnik-, from Old Iranian *zarna-, golden.
(III) Words denoting bile.
1. Suffixed o-grade form *ghol-no-. gall1, from Old English gealla, gall, from Germanic *galln-, bile.
2. Suffixed o-grade form *ghol--. chole-, choler, cholera; acholia, melancholy, from Greek khol, bile.
3. Suffixed full-grade form *ghel-n-. felon2, from Latin fel, bile.
(IV) A range of Germanic words (where no preforms are given, the words are late creations).
1. gleam, from Old English glm, bright light, gleam, from Germanic *glaimiz.
2. glimpse, from Middle English glimsen, to glimpse, from a source akin to Middle High German glimsen, to gleam.
3. glint, from Middle English glent, a glint, and glenten, to shine, from a source akin to Swedish dialectal glinta, to shine.
4. glimmer, from Middle English glimeren, to glimmer, from a source akin to Swedish glimra, glimmer.
5. glitter, from Old Norse glitra, to shine.
6. glitz, from Old High German glzan, to sparkle.
7. glisten, from Old English glisnian, to shine.
8. glister, from Middle Dutch glinsteren or Middle Low German glisteren, to shine.
9. glass, glaze, glazier, from Old English glæs, glass, from Germanic *glasam, glass.
10. glare1, from Middle English glaren, to glitter, stare, from a source akin to Middle Low German glaren, to glisten, from Germanic *glaz-.
11.gloss1, from a source perhaps akin to Icelandic glossi, a spark.
12. glance2, from Old High German glanz, bright.
13. gleg, from Old Norse glöggr, clear-sighted.
14. glad1, from Old English glæd, shining, joyful, from Germanic *gladaz.
15. glee; gleeman, from Old English glo, sport, merriment, from Germanic *gleujam.
16a. gleed, from Old English gld, ember; b. glogg, from Old Norse glodh, ember. Both a and b from Germanic *gl-di-.
17a. glow, from Old English glwan, to glow; b. glower, from Middle English gloren, to gleam, stare, probably from a source akin to Norwegian dialectal glora, to gleam, stare; c. gloat, from a source perhaps akin to Old Norse glotta, to smile (scornfully). a–c all from Germanic *gl-.
18. gloaming, from Old English glm, twilight, from Germanic *gl-m-.
19. Possibly distantly related to this root is Germanic *gldan, to glide. a. glide, from Old English gldan, to slip, glide; b. glissade, from Old French glier, to glide; c. glitch, from Old High German gltan, to glide; d. glede, from Old English glida, kite (< “gliding, hovering bird”), from derivative Germanic *glidn-.
20. glib, from a source possibly akin to Middle Low German glibberich, slippery.
(Pokorny 1. hel- 429.)
Also ghed-. To seize, take.
Derivatives include get, guess, prison, comprehend, surprise, and prey..
1a. get, from Old Norse geta, to get; b. beget, from Old English beg(i)etan, to get, beget, from Germanic compound *bigetan, to acquire (*bi-, intensive prefix; see ambhi); c. forget, from Old English forg(i)etan, to forget, from Germanic compound *fer-getan, “to lose one's hold,” forget (*fer-,prefix denoting rejection; see per1). a–c all from Germanic *getan.
2. guess, from Middle English gessen, to guess, from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Swedish gissa, to guess, from Germanic *getisn, “to try to get,” aim at.
3. Basic form *ghend-. prehensile, prehension, prison, prize2, prize3, pry2; apprehend, apprentice, apprise, comprehend, comprise, emprise, enterprise, entrepreneur, impresario, misprision1, pregnable, pregnant1, reprehend, reprieve, reprisal, reprise, surprise, from Latin prehendere, prndere, to get hold of, seize, grasp (pre-, prae-, before; see per1).
4. Form *ghed-. predatory, prey, spree; depredate, osprey, from Latin praeda, booty (< *prai-heda, “something seized before”; prai-, prae-, before; see per1).
(Pokorny ghend- 437.)
To grasp, enclose; with derivatives meaning “enclosure.” Oldest form *her-, becoming *gher- in centum languages.
Derivatives include orchard, kindergarten, courteous, choir, and choral..
1. Suffixed zero-grade form *gh-dh-. a. gird1, girt1, from Old English gyrdan, to gird, from Germanic *gurdjan; b. girdle, from Old English gyrdel, girdle; c. girth, from Old Norse gjördh, girdle, girth.
2. Suffixed o-grade form *ghor-to- or (in Germanic) *ghor-dho-, an enclosure. a. (i) yard2; orchard, from Old English geard, enclosure, garden, yard; (ii)garth; Asgard, from Old Norse gardhr, enclosure, garden, yard; (iii)kindergarten, from Old High German garto, garden; (iv) garden, jardinière, from Old North French gart, garden; (v) hangar, from Old French hangard, shelter, possibly from Germanic *haimgardaz (*haimaz, home; see tkei-); vi Germanic compound *midja-gardaz (see medhyo-). (i)–(vi) all from Germanic *gardaz; b. horticulture, ortolan, from Latin hortus, garden.
3. Prefixed and suffixed zero-grade form *ko(m)-gh-ti- (*ko(m)-, collective prefix, “together”; see kom). cohort, cortege, court, courteous, courtesan, courtesy, courtier, curtilage, curtsy, from Latin cohors (stem cohort-), enclosed yard, company of soldiers, multitude.
4. Perhaps suffixed o-grade form *ghor-o-. carol, choir, choral, chorale, choric, chorister, chorus, hora; choragus, Terpsichore, from Greek khoros, dancing ground (? perhaps originally a special enclosure for dancing), dance, dramatic chorus.
(Pokorny 4. her- 442, herdh- 444.)
To like, want. Oldest form *her-,becoming *gher- in centum languages.
1. Suffixed form *gher-n-. yearn, from Old English giernan, gyrnan, to strive, desire, yearn, from Germanic *gernjan.
2. Possibly extended form *ghr-. a. greedy, from Old English grdig, hungry, covetous, greedy, from Germanic *grdiga-,hungry, formed from *grduz, hunger; b. catachresis, chresard, chrestomathy, from Greek khrsthai, to lack, want, use, from khr, it is necessary.
3. Suffixed zero-grade form *gh-to-. hortative; exhort, from Latin hortr, to urge on, encourage (< “to cause to strive or desire”).
4. Suffixed zero-grade form *gh-i-. charisma; Eucharist, from Greek kharis, grace, favor.
5. Suffixed zero-grade form *gh-yo-. chervil, from Greek khairein, to rejoice, delight in.
(Pokorny 1. her-440.)
Gut, entrail. Oldest form *her2-, becoming *gher2- in centum languages.
1. Suffixed form *gher-no-. yarn, from Old English gearn, yarn, from Germanic *garn, string.
2. Suffixed form *gher-n-. hernia, from Latin hernia, “protruded viscus,” rupture, hernia.
3. Suffixed o-grade form *ghor-d-. chord2, cord, cordon; harpsichord, hexachord, tetrachord, from Greek khord, gut, string.
4. O-grade form *ghor-. chorion, from Greek khorion, intestinal membrane, afterbirth.
5. Possible suffixed zero-grade form *gh-u-. haruspex, from Latin haruspex, “he who inspects entrails,” diviner (-spex, “he who sees”; see spek-), but perhaps borrowed from Etruscan.
(Pokorny 5. her-443.)
Hand. Oldest form *hes-,becoming *ghes- in centum languages.
1. Suffixed form *ghes-r, stem *ghes-(e)r-. chiro-; chirurgeon, enchiridion, surgeon, surgery, from Greek kheir, hand.
2. Suffixed form *ghes-to-. press2, presto; imprest, from Latin praest, at hand, perhaps from prefixed form *prai-ghes-to- (*prai-, before; see per1).
(Pokorny 1. hesor-447.)
Seen by some as a base for words meaning “thousand.” Oldest form *heslo-, becoming *gheslo- in centum languages.
1. Suffixed form *ghesl-yo-. chiliad, kilo-, from Greek khlioi, thousand.
2. mil1, mile, millenary, millesimal, milli-, milliary, millime, million; milfoil, millefleur, millennium, millepore, millipede, per mil, from Latin mlle, thousand, which has been analyzed as *sm-, “one” + a form *ghsl-, but is of obscure origin.
To pour, pour a libation. Oldest form *heu-,becoming *gheu- in centum languages.
Derivatives include gut, funnel, fusion, and refund1.
(I) Extended form *gheud-.
1. Zero-grade form *ghud-. gut, from Old English guttas, intestines, from Germanic *gut-.
2. Nasalized zero-grade form *ghu-n-d-. foison, fondant, fondue, font2, found2, funnel, fuse2, fusile, fusion; affusion, circumfuse, confound, confuse, diffuse, effuse, infuse, perfuse, profuse, refund, refuse1, refuse2, suffuse, transfuse, from Latin fundere, to melt, pour out.
(II) Extended form *gheus-.1a. gust1, from Old Norse gustr, a cold blast of wind, from Germanic suffixed form *gustiz; b.gush, from Middle English gushen, to gush, perhaps akin to Icelandic gusa, to gush. Both a and b from Germanic zero-grade form *gus-.
2. geyser, from Old Norse geysa, to gush, from Germanic suffixed o-grade form *gausjan. 3a. Suffixed zero-grade form *ghus-mo-. chyme; ecchymosis, from Greek khmos, juice; b. suffixed zero-grade form *ghus-lo-. chyle, from Greek khlos, juice.
(III) Suffixed form *gheu-ti-. futile, from Latin ftilis, “(of a vessel) easily emptied, leaky,” hence untrustworthy, useless.
(IV) Basic form *gheu-. choanocyte, parenchyma, from Greek khein, to pour, with o-grade noun khoan, funnel.
(Pokorny heu- 447.)
To call, invoke. Oldest form *heu()-,becoming *gheu()- in centum languages. Suffixed zero-grade form *ghu-to-, “the invoked,” god. a. god, from Old English god, god; b. giddy, from Old English gydig, gidig, possessed, insane, from Germanic *gud-iga-, possessed by a god; c. götterdämmerung, from Old High German got, god. a–c all from Germanic *gudam, god.
(Pokorny hau- 413.)
Stranger, guest, host; properly “someone with whom one has reciprocal duties of hospitality.” 1. Basic form *ghos-ti-. a. (i) guest, from Old Norse gestr, guest; (ii) Gastarbeiter, from Old High German gast, guest. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *gastiz; b. host2, hostile, from Latin hostis, enemy (< “stranger”).
2. Compound *ghos-pot-, *ghos-po(d)-, “guest-master,” one who symbolizes the relationship of reciprocal obligation (*pot-,master; see poti-). hospice, hospitable, hospital, hospitality, host1, hostage, hostel, hostler, from Latin hospes (stem hospit-), host, guest, stranger.
3. Suffixed zero-grade form *ghs-en-wo-. xenia, xeno-, xenon; axenic, euxenite, pyroxene, from Greek xenos, guest, host, stranger.
(Pokorny ghosti-s 453.)
To grow, become green. Contracted from *ghre1-.
1. O-grade form *ghr-. grow, from Old English grwan, to grow, from Germanic *gr(w)an.
2. Suffixed o-grade form *ghr-n-yo-. green, from Old English grne, green, from Germanic *grnjaz, green.
3. Suffixed zero-grade form *ghr-so-. grass, graze1, from Old English græs, grass, from Germanic *grasam, grass.
(Pokorny (ghr-) 454.)
To seize, reach.
1. Zero-grade form *ghbh-.Satyagraha, from Sanskrit gbhti, ghti, he seizes.
2a. grasp, from Middle English graspen, to grasp; b. grab1, from Middle Dutch or Middle Low German grabben, to seize. Both a and b from parallel (imitative) Germanic creations with base *grab-,*grap-.
(Pokorny 1. ghrebh- 455.)
To dig, bury, scratch.
1. O-grade form *ghrobh-. a. (i) grave3, engrave, from Old English grafan, to dig, engrave, scratch, carve; (ii) graben, from Old High German graban, to dig; (iii) gravlax, from Swedish grava, to bury; (iv) gravure, from Old French graver, to engrave. (i)–(iv) all from Germanic *graban; b. grave1, from Old English græf, trench, grave, from Germanic *grabam.
2. grub, from Old English *grybban, to dig, from Germanic *grub(b)jan (with secondary ablaut).
3. groove, from Middle Dutch groeve, ditch, from Germanic *grb.
(Pokorny 2. ghrebh- 455.)
To walk, go. Suffixed zero-grade form *ghdh-yo-.a. gressorial; aggress, congress, degression, digress, egress, ingredient, ingress, introgression, pinnigrade, plantigrade, progress, regress, retrograde, retrogress, tardigrade, transgress, from Latin grad (past participle gressus), to walk, go; b. grade, gradual, graduate, gree; centigrade, degrade, degree, from Latin gradus (< deverbative *grad-u-), step, stage, degree, rank.
(Pokorny ghredh- 456.)
To rub. Oldest form *hre1i-, with variant (metathesized) form *hrei1-, whence zero-grade *hri1-, contracted to *hr- (becoming *ghr- in centum languages).
1. grisly, from Old English grislc, terrifying, from Germanic *gris-, to frighten (< “to grate on the mind”).
2. grime, from Middle English grime, grime, from a source akin to Middle Dutch grme, grime, from Germanic *grm-, smear.
3. Extended form *ghrs-. chrism, Christ, christen, Christian; Christmas, cream, Kriss Kringle, from Greek khrein, to anoint.
(Pokorny ghri- 457.)
1. grind, from Old English grindan, to grind, from Germanic *grindan.
2. grist, from Old English grst, the action of grinding, from Germanic *grinst-, a grinding.
3. fraise, frenulum, frenum; refrain1, from Latin frendere, to grind.
4. Sometimes but improbably regarded as from this root (in variant form *ghrend-) is Greek khondros, granule, groats, hence cartilage: chondro-; hypochondria, mitochondrion.
(Pokorny ghren- 459.)
Wild beast. Oldest form *hwer-,becoming *ghwer- in centum languages.
1. Suffixed form *ghwer-o-. feral, ferine, fierce, from Latin ferus, wild.
2. Compound *ghwero-kw-, “of wild aspect” (*-kw-, “-looking”; see okw-). ferocious, from Latin ferx (stem ferc-), fierce.
3. Lengthened-grade form *ghwr-. treacle; baluchithere, chalicothere, dinothere, eutherian, indricothere, megathere, theropod, from Greek thr, wild beast.
(Pokorny hr- 493.)
Shame, also pudenda. Expressive root, found only in Tocharian (in the literal meaning) and Germanic.
1. wife; hussy, from Old English wf, woman, from Germanic *wbam, woman (with semantic weakening from the original meaning; for the semantics, compare the histories of pudendum and cunt).
2. woman, from Old English compound wf-man(n), “woman-person, wife person,” female (as opposed to wæpen-man(n), “weapon-person,” male, with clear sexual overtones). (Not in Pokorny; compare Tocharian B kwpe and Tocharian A kip, female pudenda.)