Источник: Calvert Watkins, The American Heritage® Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2000.
Всего на *gwh- представлено 6 корней из словаря Кальверта Уоткинса (Калверта Воткинса).
To heat, warm.
Derivatives include brand, brandy, forceps, and fornicate. .
1. Zero-grade form *gwhr-. a. burn1, from Old English beornan,byrnan (intransitive) and bærnan (transitive), to burn; b. brimstone, from late Old English brynstn, “burning mineral,” sulfur (stn, stone; see stei-); c. brindled, from Old Norse brenna, to burn. a–c all from Germanic *brennan (intransitive) and brannjan (transitive), formed from *brenw- with nasal suffix and analogical vocalism.
2a. brand, from Old English brand, piece of burning wood, sword; b. brandy, from Dutch branden, to burn, distill; c. brandish, from Old French brand, sword; d. brandade, from Old Provençal brand, sword. a–d all from Germanic *brandaz, a burning, a flaming torch, hence also a sword.
3. Suffixed form *gwher-m(n)o-. therm, –therm, thermo-, –thermy; hypothermia, lobster thermidor, from Greek thermos, warm, hot, and therm, heat.
4. O-grade form *gwhor-. forceps, forcipate, from Latin forceps, pincers, fire tongs (< “that which holds hot things”; -ceps, agential suffix, “-taker”; see kap-).
5. Suffixed o-grade form *gwhor-no-. a. Fornax, furnace, hornito, from Latin furnus, fornus, fornx, oven; b. probably Latin fornix, arch, vault (< “vaulted brick oven”): fornicate, fornix.
6. Suffixed zero-grade form *gwh-to-, heated, likely source of Sanskrit ghtam, ghee, clarified butter: ghee.
(Pokorny gher- 493, bh(e)reu- 143.)
Thread, tendon. Contracted from *gwhi-. Suffixed form *gwh-slo-. filament, filar, filaria, file1, fillet, filose, filum; defile2, enfilade, filiform, filigree, filoplume, filovirus, profile, purfle, from Latin flum, thread.
(Pokorny ghei- 489.)
To smell, breathe. Contracted from *gwhre1-. breath, breathe, from Old English brth, odor, exhalation, from Germanic suffixed form *br-thaz.
(Pokorny ghr- 495.)
1. frantic, frenetic, frenzy, –phrenia, phreno-; phrenitis, from Greek phrn, the mind, also heart, midriff, diaphragm.
2. Extended zero-grade root form *gwhr-d-. phrase; holophrastic, metaphrase, paraphrase, periphrasis, from Greek phrazein, to point out, show.
(Pokorny ghren- 496.)
To ask, pray.
1. Suffixed form *gwhedh-yo-. bid, from Old English biddan, to ask, pray, from Germanic *bidjan, to pray, entreat.
2. bead, from Old English bed(u), gebed, prayer (ge-,intensive and collective prefix; see kom), from Germanic *bidam, entreaty.
3. Suffixed form *gwhedh-to-. infest, manifest, from Latin -festus, probably in nfestus, hostile (< *-gwhedh-to-, “inexorable”; *-, not; see ne), and perhaps in manifestus, caught in the act, red-handed (manus, hand; see man-2).
(Pokorny ghedh- 488, 2. bhedh- 114.)
To strike, kill.
Derivatives include bane, fence, and offend. .
1. O-grade form *gwhon-. a. bane, from Old English bana, slayer, cause of ruin or destruction; b. autobahn, from Middle High German ban, bane, way, road (< “strike” in a technical sense like “swath”). Both a and b from Germanic suffixed form *ban-n-.
2. Suffixed zero-grade form *gwh-ty-. a. gun, from Old Norse gunnr, war; b. gonfalon, from Italian gonfalone, standard, from Germanic compound *gund-fann-, “battle flag” (*fann-, flag; see pan-). Both a and b from Germanic *gundj, war, battle.
3. Suffixed form *gwhen-do-. a. defend, defense, fence, fend, from Latin dfendere, to ward off (d-, away; see de-); b. offend, offense, from Latin offendere, to strike against, be offensive, offend (ob-, against; see epi).
4. Suffixed zero-grade form *gwh-tro-. bezoar, from Persian zahr, poison, from Old Iranian *jathra-.5. Full-grade form *gwhen-. bonze, from Sanskrit hanti, he strikes.