Источник: Calvert Watkins, The American Heritage® Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2000.
Всего на *k- представлено 56 корней из словаря Кальверта Уоткинса (Калверта Воткинса).
To fall. Oldest form *ad-,becoming *kad- in centum languages. cadaver, cadence, cadent, caducous, cascade, case1, casual, casualty, casuist, chance, chute; accident, decay, deciduous, escheat, incident, occasion, occident, recidivism, from Latin cadere, to fall, die.
(Pokorny 1. ad- 516.)
To strike. Oldest form *ke2-id-, colored to *ka2-id-.
1. caesura, cement, cestus2, chisel, –cide, scissor; abscise, circumcise, concise, decide, excise2, incise, precise, recision, from Latin caedere, to cut, strike.
2. Caelum, ceil, sallet, from Latin caelum (? < *caedum), sculptor's chisel.
(Pokorny (s)k(h)ai- 917.)
Heat. Extended form *kaid-. a. hot, from Old English ht, hot, from Germanic *haitaz; b. heat, from Old English htu, from Germanic *hait-.
(Pokorny ki- 519.)
Whole, uninjured, of good omen.
1a. hale1, whole, from Old English hl, hale, whole; b. wholesome, from Old English *hlsum (> Middle English holsom), wholesome; c. hail2; wassail, from Old Norse heill, healthy. a–c all from Germanic *hailaz.
2. health, from Old English hlth, health, from Germanic *hailith.
3.heal, from Old English hlan, to heal, from Germanic *hailjan. 4a.holy; halibut, halidom, holiday, hollyhock, from Old English hlig, holy, sacred; b. hallow; Allhallowmas, Halloween, from Old English hlgian, to consecrate, bless, from Germanic derivative verb *hailagn. Both a and b from Germanic *hailagaz.
(Pokorny kai-lo- 520.)
Forest, uncultivated land.
1. heath, from Old English hth, heath, untilled land, from Germanic *haithiz. 2a. heathen, from Old English hthen, heathen, “savage” (< “one inhabiting uncultivated land”); b. hoyden, from Middle Dutch heiden, heathen. Both a and b from Germanic *haithinaz.
(Pokorny kaito- 521.)
Also kaka-. To defecate. Root imitative of glottal closure during defecation.
1. cucking stool, from Middle English cukken, to defecate, from a source akin to Old Norse *kka, to defecate.
2. poppycock, from Latin cacre, to defecate.
3. caco-; cacodyl, cacoëthes, cacophonous, cacophony, from Greek kakos, bad.
(Pokorny kakka- 521.)
1. hen, from Old English hen(n), hen, from Germanic *han(e)n. 2a.canorous, cant2, cantabile, cantata, canticle, cantillate, canto, cantor, canzone, chant, chanteuse, chantey, chantry; accent, chanticleer, descant, enchant, incantation, incentive, precentor, recant, from Latin canere, to sing (> cantre, to sing, frequentative of canere); b. suffixed form *kan--, “singer,” in Latin compound *bou-kan (see gwou-).
3. oscine, from Latin oscen, a singing bird used in divination (< *obs-cen, “one that sings before the augurs”; ob-,before; see epi).
4. Suffixed form *kan-men-. charm, from Latin carmen, song, poem.
(Pokorny kan- 525.)
Also kend-. To shine.
1. Suffixed (stative) form *kand--. candelabrum, candelilla, candent, candescence, candid, candida, candidate, candle, candor; incandesce, from Latin candre to shine.
2. incendiary, incense1, incense2; frankincense, from Latin compound incendere, to set fire to, kindle (in-, in; see en), from transitive *candere, to kindle.
(Pokorny kand- 526.)
Derivatives include have, heavy, cable, captive, deceive, capsule, and chassis.
(I) Basic form *kap-.
1. heddle, from Old English hefeld, thread used for weaving, heddle (a device which grasps the thread), from Germanic *haf-.
2. haft, from Old English hæft, handle, from Germanic *haftjam.3. Form *kap-o-. have; behave, from Old English habban, to have, hold, from Germanic *habai-, *habn.
4. heavy, from Old English hefig, heavy, from Germanic *hafigaz,“containing something,” having weight.
5. haven, from Old English hæfen, a haven, from Germanic *hafn-, perhaps “place that holds ships.” 6. hawk1, from Old English h(e)afoc, hawk, from Germanic *habukaz.
7. Latin combining form -ceps (< *kap-s), “taker” (see gwher-, man-2, per1).
8. Probably from this root is Germanic *gaf-, the source of Provençal gafar, to seize: gaff1.
(II) Suffixed form *kap-yo-.
1. heave, heft, from Old English hebban, to lift, from Germanic *hafjan.2. cable, cacciatore, caitiff, capable, capacious, capias, capstan, caption, captious, captivate, captive, captor, capture, catch, cater, chase1, cop2, copper2; accept, anticipate, catchpole, conceive, deceive, except, inception, incipient, intercept, intussusception, municipal, nuncupative, occupy, participate, perceive, precept, receive, recipe, recover, recuperate, susceptible, from Latin capere, to take, seize, catch.
(III) Lengthened-grade variant form *kp-.
1a. behoof, from Old English behf, use, profit, need; b. behoove, from Old English behfian, to have need of. Both a and b from Germanic compound *bi-hf, “that which binds,” requirement, obligation (*bi-, intensive prefix; see ambhi), from *hf-.2. copepod, from Greek kp, oar, handle.
(Pokorny kap- 527.) Compare ghabh-.
1a. head; behead, forehead, from Old English hafod, head; b. hetman, from Old High German houbit, head. Both a and b from Germanic *haubudam, *haubidam.
Also ker-. Hard.
Derivatives include hard and cancer.
(I) Variant form *ker-.
1. Suffixed o-grade form *kor-tu-. a. hard, hardly, from Old English hard, heard, hard; b. –ard, from Germanic *-hart, *-hard, bold, hardy; c. standard, from Old French estandard, rallying place, perhaps from Frankish *hard, hard; d. hardy1, from Old French hardir, to make hard. a–d all from Germanic *harduz.
2. Suffixed zero-grade form *kt-es-, from earlier full-grade form *kret-es-. –cracy, from Greek kratos, strength, might, power.
(II) Possible basic form *kar- in derivatives referring to things with hard shells.
1. Possibly Latin carna, keel of a ship, nutshell: careen, carina.
3. Reduplicated form *kar-kr-o-. cancer, canker, carangid, chancre, from dissimilated Latin cancer, crab, cancer, constellation Cancer.
4. Suffixed form *kar-k-ino-. carcino-, carcinoma, from Greek karkinos, cancer, crab.
(Pokorny 3. kar-531.)
Gray. Oldest form *as-,becoming *kas- in centum languages.
1a. hare, from Old English hara, hare; b. hasenpfeffer, from Old High German haso, rabbit. Both a and b from Germanic *hazn-, *hasn-.
2. Suffixed form *kas-no-. canescent, from Latin cnus, white, gray, grayed hair.
(Pokorny as- 533.)
1. Possibly Greek kata, down: cata-.
2. Suffixed form *kat-olo-. cadelle, from Latin catulus, young puppy, young of animals (“dropped”).
(Pokorny 2. kat- 534.)
To hew, strike.
1a. hew, from Old English hawan, to hew; b. haggis, haggle; hacksaw, from Old Norse höggva, to cut; c. hoe, from Old French houe, a hoe. a–c all from Germanic *hawwan.
2. hag2, from a source akin to Old Norse högg, a gap, a cutting blow, from Germanic *haww.
3.hay, from Old English heg, hay, cut grass, from Germanic *haujam.4. Suffixed form *kau-do-. incus, from Latin cdere (< *caudere), to strike, beat.
To go, yield.
1. Lengthened-grade form *kd-.cease, cede, cession; abscess, accede, access, ancestor, antecede, concede, decease, exceed, incessant, intercede, precede, predecessor, proceed, recede, retrocede, secede, succeed, from Latin cdere, to go, withdraw, yield.
2. Prefixed and suffixed form *ne-ked-ti-, “(there is) no drawing back” (*ne-, not; see ne). necessary, from Latin necesse, inevitable, unavoidable.
(In Pokorny sed- 884.)
1a. hake, from Old English haca, hook, akin to Old Norse haki, hook; b. harquebus, from Middle Dutch hake, hook. Both a and b from Germanic *hakan-.
2a. hook, from Old English hc, hook; b. hooker1, from Middle Dutch hk,hoec, hook; c. haek; hakenkreuz, from Old High German hko, hook. a–c all from Germanic lengthened form *hka-.
3. hatchel, heckle, from Middle Dutch hekel, hatchel, a flax comb with long metal hooklike teeth, from Germanic *hakila-.
4. hack1, from Old English -haccian, to hack to pieces as with a hooked instrument, from Germanic *hakkijan.
(Pokorny keg- 537.)
To lie; bed, couch; beloved, dear. Oldest form *ei-, becoming *kei- in centum languages.
Derivatives include city and cemetery.
(I) Basic form *kei-.
1. Suffixed form *kei-wo-. a. hind3, from Old English hwan, members of a household, from Germanic *hwa-; b. hide3, from Old English hgid,hd, a measure of land (< “household”), from suffixed Germanic form *hwid.
2. Suffixed form *kei-wi-. city, civic, civil, from Latin cvis, citizen (< “member of a household”).
3. Suffixed form *kei-liyo-. ceilidh, from Old Irish céle, companion.
(II) O-grade form *koi-.
1. Suffixed form *koi-n-. incunabulum, from Latin cnae, a cradle.
2. Suffixed form *koi-m--. cemetery, from Greek koimn, to put to sleep.
(III) Suffixed zero-grade form *ki-wo-. Shiva, from Sanskrit iva-, auspicious, dear.
(Pokorny 1. ei- 539.)
To set in motion.
Derivatives include resuscitate and kinetic.
(I) Possibly extended o-grade from *koid-.
1. hight, from Old English htan, to call, summon, order, from Germanic *haitan.
2. Suffixed form *koid-ti-. a.hest, from Old English hs, a command, bidding; b. behest, from Old English compound behs, a vow, promise, command (be-,intensive prefix; see ambhi). Both a and b from Germanic *haissiz, from *hait-ti- (but Germanic *hait- of 1 and 2 is perhaps to be referred to a separate root *kaid-).
(II) Zero-grade form *ki-. Suffixed iterative form *ki-eyo-. cite; excite, incite, oscitancy, resuscitate, solicitous, from Latin cire (past participle citus), with its frequentative citre, to set in motion, summon.
(III) Extended root *kyeu-. Nasal-infixed form *ki-n-eu-. kinematics, kinesics, –kinesis, kinetic; bradykinin, cinematograph, hyperkinesia, kinesiology, kinesthesia, telekinesis, from Greek knein, to move.
(Pokorny ki- 538.)
Excrement. Oldest form *ekw-, becoming *kekw- in centum languages. Suffixed o-grade form *kokw-ro-. copro-, from Greek kopros, dung.
(Pokorny ek- 544.)
To cover, conceal, save. Oldest form *el-,becoming *kel- in centum languages.
Derivatives include hell, hole, holster, apocalypse, and eucalyptus.
(I) O-grade form *kol-.
1a. hell, from Old English hell; b. Hel, from Old Norse Hel, the underworld, goddess of death. Both a and b from Germanic *halj, the underworld (< “concealed place”). 2a. hall, from Old English heall, hall; b. Valhalla, from Old Norse höll, hall. Both a and b from Germanic *hall, covered place, hall.
3. Suffixed form *kol-eyo-. coleus; coleopteran, coleoptile, coleorhiza, from Greek koleon, koleos, sheath.
(II) Zero-grade form *k-.
1a. hold2, hull, from Old English hulu, husk, pod (< “that which covers”); b. hole, from Old English hol, a hollow; c. hollow, from Old English holh, hole, hollow; d. haugh, from Old English healh, secret place, small hollow. a–d all from Germanic *hul-. 2a. holster, from Old High German hulft, covering; b. housing2, from Medieval Latin hultia, protective covering. Both a and b from suffixed Germanic form *hulft-.
3. Extended form *k- becoming *kl-. clandestine, from Latin clam, in secret.
4. Suffixed variant form *kal-up-yo-. Calypso1, calyptra; Apocalypse, eucalyptus, from Greek kaluptein, to cover, conceal.
(III) Full-grade form *kel-.
1a. helm2, from Old English helm, protection, covering; b. helmet, from Middle English helmet, helmet, from a source akin to Frankish *helm, helmet. Both a and b from Germanic *helmaz, “protective covering.” 2. occult, from Latin occulere < *ob-kel- (past participle occultus), to cover over (ob-, over; see epi).
3. Suffixed form *kel-os-. color, from Latin color, color, hue (< “that which covers”).
4. Suffixed form *kel-n-. cell, cella, cellar, cellarer; rathskeller, from Latin cella, storeroom, chamber.
5. Suffixed form *kel-yo-. cilium, seel; supercilious, supercilium, from Latin cilium, lower eyelid.
(IV) Lengthened-grade form *kl-. conceal, from Latin clre, to hide, from suffixed form *kl--.
(Pokorny 4. el- 553.)
To be prominent; hill.
1. Zero-grade form *k-. a. hill, from Old English hyll, hill, from suffixed Germanic form *hul-ni-; b. holm, from Old Norse hlmr, islet in a bay, meadow, from suffixed Germanic form *hul-ma-.
2. Suffixed form *kel-d-. excel, from Latin excellere, to raise up, elevate, also to be eminent (ex-, up out of; see eghs).
3. O-grade form *kol-. a. colophon, from Greek kolophn, summit; b. suffixed form *kol(u)men-.culminate, from Latin culmen, top, summit; c. extended and suffixed form *kolumn-. colonel, colonnade, colonnette, column, from Latin columna, a projecting object, column.
(Pokorny 1. kel- 544.)
Warm. Oldest form *el1-, with metathesized variant *le1-, contracted to *l- (becoming *kl- in centum languages).
1. Suffixed variant form *kl-wo-. a. lee, from Old English hlo, hlow, covering, protection (as from cold); b. lukewarm, from Old English -hlow, warm. Both a and b from Germanic *hlwaz.
2. Suffixed zero-grade form *k--.a. calenture, chafe, chauffeur; decalescence, incalescent, nonchalant, recalescence, réchauffé, from Latin calre, to be warm; b. cauldron, caudle, chowder; scald1, from Latin derivative adjective calidus, warm.
3. Suffixed zero-grade form *k-os-. caloric, calorie; caloreceptor, calorific, calorimeter, calorimetry, from Latin calor, heat.
(Pokorny 1. el- 551.)
To shout. Oldest form *kel2-, with metathesized variant *kle2-, colored to *kla2-, contracted to *kl-.
Derivatives include exclaim, haul, calendar, and class.
(I) Variant form *kl- (< *kla-).
1. low2, from Old English hlwan, to roar, low, from Germanic *hl-.
2. Suffixed form *kl-m-. claim, clamant, clamor; acclaim, declaim, exclaim, proclaim, reclaim, from Latin clmre, to call, cry out.
(II) O-grade form *kol-. a. keelhaul, from Middle Dutch halen, to haul, pull (? < “to call together, summon”); b. hale2, haul; halyard, from Old French haler, to haul. Both a and b from Germanic *haln, to call.
(III) Zero-grade form *k- (> *kal-).
1. Suffixed form *kal-yo-. conciliate, council; reconcile, from Latin concilium, a meeting, gathering (< “a calling together”; con-, together; see kom).
2. Suffixed form *kal-end-. calendar, calends, from Latin kalendae, the calends, the first day of the month, when it was publicly announced on which days the nones and ides of that month would fall.
3. Suffixed form *kal-e-. ecclesia, Paraclete, from Greek kalein (variant kl-), to call.
4. Suffixed form *kal--. intercalate, nomenclator, from Latin calre, to call, call out.
5. Suffixed form *k-ro- or suffixed variant form *kla-ro-contracted to *kl-ro-. clear, glair; Aufklärung, chiaroscuro, clairvoyant, declare, éclair, from Latin clrus, bright, clear.
(IV) Possibly extended zero-grade form *kd-,becoming *klad- in suffixed form *klad-ti-. class, from Latin classis, summons, division of citizens for military draft, hence army, fleet, also class in general.
(Pokorny 6. kel- 548.)
Fresh, new, young.
1. Suffixed form *ken-t-. recent, from Latin recns, young, fresh, new (re-, again; see re-).
2. Suffixed zero-grade form *k-yo-. –cene; cainotophobia, Cenozoic, kainite, from Greek kainos, new, fresh.
(Pokorny 3. ken- 563.)
To gird, bind. Variant form *keng-. cinch, cincture, cingulum; enceinte2, precinct, shingles, succinct, from Latin cingere, to gird.
(Pokorny 1. kenk- 565.)
To proclaim, speak solemnly. Oldest form *ens-,becoming *kens- in centum languages. Suffixed form *kens--. censor, census; recension, from Latin cnsre, to judge, assess, estimate, tax.
(Pokorny ens- 566.)
To prick, jab.
1. center; amniocentesis, dicentra, eccentric, from Greek kentein, to prick.
2. Suffixed form *kent-to-. cestus1, from Greek kestos, belt, girdle.
(Pokorny ent- 567.)
Horn, head; with derivatives referring to horned animals, horn-shaped objects, and projecting parts. Oldest form *er-, becoming *ker- in centum languages.
Derivatives include horn, unicorn, hornet, reindeer, migraine, cheer, rhinoceros, and cerebrum.
(I) Zero-grade form *k-.
1. Suffixed form *k-no-.a. (i) horn, hornbeam, from Old English horn, horn; (ii) alpenhorn, althorn, flügelhorn, hornblende, from Old High German horn, horn. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *hurnaz.
(II) Extended o-grade form *koru-.
1. corymb, from Greek korumbos, uppermost point (< “head”).
2. coryphaeus, from Greek koruph, head.
3. Suffixed form *koru-do-. corydalis, from Greek korudos, crested lark.
4. Suffixed form *koru-n-. corynebacterium, from Greek korun, club, mace.
(III) Extended e-grade form *keru-.
1. Suffixed form *kerw-o-,“having horns.” a. cervine, serval, from Latin cervus, deer; b. cervix, from Latin cervx, neck.
2. Suffixed form *keru-do-.a. hart, from Old English heorot, hart, stag; b. hartebeest, from Middle Dutch hert, deer, hart. Both a and b from Germanic *herutaz.
(IV) Italic and Celtic blend of (I) *k-no- and (II) *koru-yielding *kor-nu-. corn2, cornea, corneous, corner, cornet, corniculate, cornu; bicornuate, Capricorn, cornification, lamellicorn, longicorn, tricorn, unicorn, from Latin corn, horn.
(V) Extended zero-grade form *k-.
1. charivari; cheer, from Greek kar, kar, head.
2. carotid, from Greek karoun, to stupefy, be stupefied (< “to feel heavy-headed”).
3. carrot, carotene, from Greek karton, carrot (from its hornlike shape).
(VI) Suffixed further extended form *ks-no-.
1. cranium; migraine, olecranon, from Greek krnion, skull, upper part of the head.
2. hornet, from Old English hyrnet, hornet, from Germanic *hurznuta-.
3. Suffixed form *kers-ro. cerebellum, cerebrum, saveloy, from Latin cerebrum, brain.
(VIII) Extended form *krei-.
1. reindeer, from Old Norse hreinn, reindeer, from Germanic *hraina-.
2. rinderpest, from Old High German hrind, ox, from Germanic *hrinda-.
3. Possibly extended form *kr-. criosphinx, from Greek kros, ram.
(Pokorny 1. er-574.)
To grow. Oldest form *er-,becoming *ker- in centum languages.
Derivatives include cereal, Creole, concrete, and recruit.
1. Suffixed form *ker-es-. cereal, Ceres, from Latin Cers, goddess of agriculture, especially the growth of grain.
2. Extended form *kr- (< *kre-). a. Suffixed form *kr-y-. create, Creole, griot; procreate, from Latin crere, to bring forth, create, produce (< “to cause to grow); b. suffixed form *kr-sko-. crescendo, crescent, crew1; accrue, concrescence, concrete, decrease, excrescence, increase, recruit, from Latin crscere, to grow, increase.
3. Suffixed o-grade form *kor-wo-, “growing,” adolescent. kore, kouros; Dioscuri, hypocorism, from Greek kouros, koros, boy, son, and kor, girl.
4. Compound *s-kro-, “of one growth” (*s-, same, one; see sem-1). sincere, from Latin sincrus, pure, clean.
(Pokorny 2. er- 577.)
1. Suffixed form *ker-t-. hearth, from Old English heorth, hearth, from Germanic *herth.
2. Zero-grade form *k-. a. carbon, carbuncle, from Latin carb, charcoal, ember; b. extended form *krem-. cremate, from Latin cremre, to burn.
3. Possibly suffixed and extended form *ker-mo-. ceramic, from Greek keramos, potter's clay, earthenware.
4. Possibly variant extended form *krs-. crash2, from Russian krasit', to color.
(Pokorny 3. ker()- 571.)
Heart. Oldest form *erd-,becoming *kerd- in centum languages.
1. Suffixed form *kerd-en-. heart, from Old English heorte, heart, from Germanic *hertn-.
2. Zero-grade form *kd-. a. cordate, cordial, courage, quarry1; accord, concord, cordiform, discord, misericord, record, from Latin cor (stem cord-), heart; b. suffixed form *kd-y-. cardia, cardiac, cardio-; endocardium, epicardium, megalocardia, myocardium, pericardium, from Greek kardi, heart, stomach, orifice.
3. Possibly *kred-dh-, “to place trust” (an old religious term; *dh-, to do, place; see dh-). credence, credible, credit, credo, credulous, grant; miscreant, recreant, from Latin crdere, to believe.
To mix, confuse, cook. Oldest form *er2-, becoming *ker- in centum languages.
1. Variant form *kr- (< *kra-). a. uproar, from Middle Low German rr, motion, from Germanic *hrr-;b. rare2, from Old English hrr, lightly boiled, half-cooked, possibly from Germanic *hrr- (see a).
2. Zero-grade form *k-. a. Suffixed form *k-ti-. idiosyncrasy; dyscrasia, from Greek krsis, a mixing; b. suffixed form *k-ter-. crater, krater, from Greek krtr, mixing vessel.
(Pokorny er- 582.)
To gather, pluck, harvest. Variant *karp-.
1. harvest, from Old English hærfest, harvest, from Germanic *harbistaz.
2. carpet; excerpt, scarce, from Latin carpere, to pluck.
3. –carp, carpel, carpo-, –carpous, from Greek karpos, fruit.
(In Pokorny 4. sker- 938.)
To run. Oldest form *ers-,becoming *kers- in centum languages. Zero-grade form *ks-.
2. Suffixed form *ks-o-.a. car, career, cargo, caricature, cariole, cark, caroche, carry, charge, chariot; discharge, from Latin carrus, a two-wheeled wagon; b. carpenter, from Latin carpentum, a two-wheeled carriage. Both a and b from Gaulish carros, a wagon, cart.
(Pokorny 2. ers- 583.)
To cut. Oldest form *es-,becoming *kes- in centum languages. Variant *kas-.
1. Suffixed form *kas-tro-. a. castrate, from Latin castrre, to castrate; b. alcazar, castellan, castellated, castle, from Latin castrum, fortified place, camp (perhaps “separated place”).
2. Suffixed form *kas-to-. caste, chaste; castigate, incest, from Latin castus, chaste, pure (< “cut off from or free of faults”).
3. Suffixed (stative) form *kas--. caret, from Latin carre, “to be cut off from,” lack.
4. Extended geminated form *kasso-. cashier, quash1, cassation, from Latin cassus, empty, void.
(Pokorny es- 586.)
To swell; vault, hole. Oldest form *eu-, becoming *keu- in centum languages.
Derivatives include cave, excavate, and church.
(I) O-grade form *kou-.
1. Basic form *kou- becoming *kaw-. cave, cavern, cavetto, cavity; concave, excavate, from Latin cavus, hollow.
2. Suffixed form *kow-ilo-. –cele2, celiac, –coel, coelom; acoelomate, from Greek koilos, hollow.
3. Suffixed lengthened-grade form *kw-o-. codeine, from Greek kos, hollow place, cavity.
(II) Zero-grade form *k- (< *ku-).
1. Suffixed shortened form *ku-m-olo.cumulate, cumulus; accumulate, from Latin cumulus, heap, mass.
2. Basic form *k-.a. Suffixed form *k-ro-, “swollen,” strong, powerful. church, kirk, Kyrie; kermis, from Greek krios (vocative krie), master, lord; b. suffixed form *kuw-eyo-. cyma, cymatium, cyme; cymophane, kymograph, pseudocyesis, from Greek kuein, to swell, and derivative kma (< *k-m), “a swelling,” wave; c. suffixed form *en-k-yo-(*en, in; see en). enceinte1; from Latin incins, pregnant.
(Pokorny 1. eu- 592.)
To lean. Oldest form *lei-,becoming *klei- in centum languages.
Derivatives include decline, lid, climax, climate, and ladder.
(I) Full-grade form *klei-.
1. Suffixed form *klei-n-. decline, incline, recline, from Latin -clnre, to lean, bend.
2. Suffixed form *klei-tro-. clitellum, from Latin cltellae, packsaddle, from diminutive of *cltra, litter.
3. Suffixed form *klei-wo-. acclivity, declivity, proclivity, from Latin clvus, a slope.
4. Suffixed form *klei-tor-, “incline, hill.” clitoris, from Greek diminutive kleitoris, clitoris.
(II) Zero grade form *kli-.1. lid, from Old English hlid, cover, from Germanic *hlid-, “that which bends over,” cover.
2. Suffixed form *kli-n-. lean1, from Old English hlinian and hleonian, to lean, from Germanic *hlinn.
3. Suffixed form *kli-ent-. client, from Latin clins, dependent, follower.
4. Suffixed form *kli-to- in compound *aus-klit-- (see ous-).
5. Suffixed form *kli-n-yo-. –clinal, cline, –cline, –clinic, clino-, clisis; aclinic line, anaclisis, clinandrium, enclitic, matriclinous, patroclinous, pericline, proclitic, from Greek klnein, to lean.
6. Suffixed form *kli-m. climate, from Greek klima, sloping surface of the earth.
7. Lengthened zero-grade form *kl-, with lengthening of obscure origin. a. Suffixed form *kl-n--. clinic; diclinous, monoclinous, triclinium, from Greek kln, bed; b. suffixed form *kl-m-. climax, from Greek klmax, ladder.
(III) Suffixed o-grade form *kloi-tr-. ladder, from Old English hld(d)er, ladder, from Germanic *hlaidri-.
(Pokorny lei- 600.)
To hear. Oldest form *leu-,becoming *kleu- in centum languages.
Derivatives include leer, loud, and Hercules.
(I) Extended form *kleus-. leer, from Old English hlor, cheek (< “side of the face” < “ear”), from Germanic *hleuza-.
(II) Zero-grade form *klu-.
1. list4, from Old English hlystan, to listen, from Germanic *hlustjan.
2. listen, from Old English hlysnan, to listen, from Germanic *hlusinn.
3. Suffixed lengthened form *kl-to-. a. loud, from Old English hld, loud; b. ablaut, umlaut, from Old High German hlt, sound. Both a and b from Germanic *hldaz, “heard,” loud.
(III) Full-grade form *kleu-.
1. Suffixed form *klew-yo-. Clio, from Greek kleiein, to praise, tell.
2. Suffixed form *klew-es-, “fame.” Hercules, from Latin Herculs, from Greek Hrakls, Hrakles.
3. Suffixed form *kleu-to-. sarod, from Middle Persian srd, sarod, akin to Avestan sraota-, hearing, sound, from Iranian *srauta-.
(Pokorny 1. leu- 605.)
Stem of demonstrative pronoun meaning “this.” Oldest form *o-, becoming *ko- in centum languages.
Derivatives include he1, et cetera, and behind.
(I) Variant form *ki-.
1a. he1, from Old English h, he; b. him, from Old English him, him (dative of h); c. his, from Old English his, his (genitive of h); d.her, from Old English hire, her (dative and genitive of heo, she); e. it, from Old English hit, it (neuter of h); f. here, from Old English hr, here; g. hence, from Old English heonane, heonon, from here. a–g all from Germanic *hi-.
2. Suffixed form *ki-tro-.hither, from Old English hider, hither, from Germanic *hi-thra-.
3. Suffixed form *ki-s. cis-, from Latin cis, on this side of.
(II) Variant form *ke-.
1. Preposed in *ke-etero-(*e-tero-, a second time, again; see i-). et cetera, from Latin cterus (neuter plural ctera), the other part, that which remains.
2. Postposed in Latin -ce (see nu-).
(III) 1. behind, hind1, from Old English behindan, in the rear, behind (bi, at; see ambhi).
2. hinterland, from Old High German hintar, behind.
3. hinder1, hindrance, from Old English hindrian, to check, hinder, from Germanic derivative verb *hindrn, to keep back. 1–3 all from Germanic root *hind-, behind, attributed by some to this root (but more likely of obscure origin).
(Pokorny 1. ko- 609.)
To suit, fit, succeed. hap, happen, happy; hapless, mishap, from Old Norse happ, chance, good luck, from Germanic *hap-.
(Pokorny kob- 610.)
Beside, near, by, with.
Derivatives include enough, handiwork, and country.
1. enough, gemot, handiwork, witanagemot, yclept, yean, from Old English ge-, with, also participial, collective, and intensive prefix, from Germanic *ga-, together, with (collective and intensive prefix and marker of the past participle).
2. cum1; cooncan, from Latin cum, co-, with.
3. co-, com-, from Archaic Latin com, with (collective and intensive prefix).
4. British Celtic *kom-, collective prefix, in compound *kombrogos (see merg-).
5. Suffixed form *kom-tr-. con1, contra-, contrary, counter1, counter-, country; encounter, from Latin contr, against, opposite.
6. Suffixed form *kom-yo-. coeno-; cenobite, epicene, Koine, from Greek koinos, common, shared.
7. Reduced form *ko- in compounds (see gher-1, mei-1, smei-).
(Pokorny kom 612.)
To hang. Oldest form *onk-,becoming *konk- in centum languages.
1a. hang, from Old English hn, to hang; b. hanker, from Dutch (dialectal) hankeren, to long for; c. hinge, from Middle English henge, hinge, hinge, possibly related (ultimately from the base of Old English hangian, to hang). a–c all from Germanic *hanhan (transitive), hangn (intransitive), hang.
2. Suffixed form *konk-it--. cunctation, from Latin cnctr, to delay.
(Pokorny enk- 566, onk- 614.)
To sharpen, whet. Oldest form *e3-, colored to *o3-, contracted to *- (becoming *k-in centum languages).
1. Suffixed extended form *koi-no-. hone1, from Old English hn, stone, from Germanic *hain.
2. arrière-ban, from Old French herban, a summoning to military service (ban, proclamation, summons; see bh-2). 3a. harbor, from Old English herebeorg, lodging; b. harbinger, from Old French herberge, lodging. Both a and b from Germanic compound *harja-bergaz, “army hill,” hill-fort, later shelter, lodging, army quarters (*bergaz, hill; see bhergh-2).
4. herald, from Anglo-Norman herald, from Germanic compound *harja-waldaz, “army commander” (*wald-, rule, power; see wal-).
5. harness, from Old French harneis, harness, from Germanic compound *harja-nestam, “army provisions” (*nestam, food for a journey; see nes-1).
6. harry, hurry, from Old English hergian, to ravage, plunder, raid, from Germanic denominative *harjn.
7. harangue, from Old Italian aringo, arringa, public square, from Germanic compound *harihring, assembly, “host-ring” (*hringaz, ring; see sker-2). 1–7 all from Germanic *harjaz, army.
(Pokorny koro-s 615.)
Bone. Probably related to ost-. coast, costa, costard, costrel, cuesta, cutlet; accost, intercostal, sternocostal, from Latin costa, rib, side.
(Pokorny kost- 616.)
To hear. Oldest form *2kous-.
1a. hear, from Old English heran, to hear; b. hearken, from Old English he(o)rcnian, to harken. Both a and b from Germanic *hauzjan;
2. Suffixed form *kous-yo-. acoustic, from Greek akouein, to hear.
(Pokorny 1. keu- 587.)
To sieve, discriminate, distinguish.
Derivatives include garble, crime, certain, excrement, crisis, and hypocrisy.
1. Basic form with variant instrumental suffixes. a. Suffixed form *krei-tro-. riddle1, from Old English hridder,hriddel, sieve, from Germanic *hridra-; b. suffixed form *krei-dhro-. cribriform, garble, from Latin crbrum, sieve.
2. Suffixed form *krei-men-.a. crime, criminal; recriminate, from Latin crmen, judgment, crime; b. discriminate, from Latin discrmen, distinction (dis-, apart).
3. Suffixed zero-grade form *kri-no-. certain; ascertain, concern, concert, decree, discern, disconcert, excrement, excrete, incertitude, recrement, secern, secret, secretary, from Latin cernere (past participle crtus), to sift, separate, decide.
4. Suffixed zero-grade form *kri-n-yo-. crisis, critic, criterion; apocrine, diacritic, eccrine, endocrine, epicritic, exocrine, hematocrit, hypocrisy, from Greek krnein, to separate, decide, judge, and krnesthai, to explain.
(Pokorny 4. sker-, Section II. 945.)
Raw flesh. Oldest form *kreu2-.
1. Suffixed o-grade form *krow-o-. raw, from Old English hraw, raw, from Germanic *hrawaz.
2. Suffixed form *krew-s-. creatine, creodont, creosote, pancreas, from Greek kreas, flesh.
3. Suffixed zero-grade form *kr-do- (< *kru-do-). a. crude; ecru, recrudesce, from Latin crdus, bloody, raw; b. cruel, from Latin crdlis, cruel.
(Pokorny 1. A. kreu- 621.)
To begin to freeze, form a crust.
1. Suffixed zero-grade form *krus-to-. a. crouton, crust, crustacean, crustaceous, crustose; encrust, Kristallnacht, from Latin crsta, crust (with obscure lengthening); b. crystal, crystalline, crystallo-, from Greek krustallos, ice, crystal.
2. Suffixed zero-grade form *krus-es-. cryo-, from Greek kruos, icy cold, frost.
3. Suffixed zero-grade form *krus-mo-. crymotherapy, from Greek krmos, icy cold, frost.
(Pokorny 1. B. kreu- 621.)
Preposition and preverb meaning “with.”
1. syn-, from Greek sun, xun, together, with.
2. Basic form *su(n)-. a. soviet, from Old Russian compound svt, assembly; b. sputnik, from Russian so-, s-, with, together. a and b from Old Russian s(n)-, with, together.