Источник: Calvert Watkins, The American Heritage® Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2000.
Всего на *l- представлено 27 корней из словаря Кальверта Уоткинса (Калверта Воткинса).
Salmon. Suffixed form *laks-o-. a. lox1, from Old High German lahs, salmon; b. gravlax, from Swedish lax, salmon. Both a and b from Germanic *lahsaz.
(In Pokorny la- 653.)
To be eager, wanton, or unruly.
1a. lust, from Old English lust, lust; b. wanderlust, from Old High German lust, desire; c. list5, from Old English lystan, to please, satisfy a desire, from Germanic denominative verb *lustjan. a–c all from suffixed Germanic zero-grade form *lustuz.
2. Suffixed form *las-ko-. lascivious, from Latin lascvus, wanton, lustful.
(Pokorny las- 654.)
Gain, profit. Oldest form *le2u-, colored to *la2u-.
1. Suffixed form *lau-no-. guerdon, from Old High German ln, reward from Germanic *launam.
2. Suffixed zero-grade form *lu-tlo-. lucrative, lucre, from Latin lucrum, gain, profit.
(Pokorny lu- 655.)
To let go, slacken. Contracted from *le1-.
(I) Extended form *ld-.
1a. let1, from Old English ltan, to allow, leave undone, from Germanic *ltan; b.liege; allegiance, from Late Latin laetus, semifree colonist, from Germanic derivative *lthigaz, freed.
2. Zero-grade form *ld-. a.late, latter, last1, from Old English læt, late, with its comparative lætra, latter, and its superlative latost, last, from Germanic *lataz; b. let2, from Old English lettan, to hinder, impede (< “to make late”), from Germanic *latjan;c. suffixed form *ld-to-. lassitude; alas, from Latin lassus, tired, weary.
(II) Suffixed basic form *l-ni-. lenient, lenis, lenitive, lenity, from Latin lnis, soft, gentle.
(Pokorny 3. l(i)- 666.)
To lick; lip.
1. lip, from Old English lippa, lip, from Germanic *lep-.
2. Variant form *lab-. a. Suffixed form *lab-yo-.labial, labium, from Latin labium, lip; b. suffixed form *lab-ro-.labellum, labret, labrum, from Latin labrum, lip.
(Pokorny lb- 655.)
To collect; with derivatives meaning “to speak.” Oldest form *le-, becoming *leg- in centum languages.
Derivatives include leech1, lecture, legend, intelligent, sacrilege, loyal, and logic.
1. Perhaps Germanic *lkjaz, enchanter, one who speaks magic words. leech1, from Old English lce, physician.
2. lectern, lection, lecture, legend, legible, legion, lesson; coil1, collect1, diligent, elect, florilegium, intelligent, neglect, prelect, sacrilege, select, sortilege, from Latin legere, to gather, choose, pluck, read.
3.lexicon, logion, –logue, –logy; alexia, analects, anthology, catalog, dialect, dialogue, dyslexia, eclectic, eclogite, eclogue, horologe, lectotype, prolegomenon, from Greek legein, to gather, speak, with o-grade derivative logos, a gathering, speech (see also 6 below for derivatives independently built to logos).
4. Suffixed form *leg-no-. ligneous, ligni-, from Latin lignum, wood, firewood (< “that which is gathered”).
5. Possibly lengthened-grade form *lg-. a.legal, legist, legitimate, lex, loyal; legislator, privilege, from Latin lx, law (? < “collection of rules”); b. legacy, legate; colleague, collegial, delegate, relegate, from Latin denominative lgre, to depute, commission, charge (< “to engage by contract”). (It is also possible, but uncertain, that Latin lx comes, like English law, from a form meaning “that which is set or laid down,” from legh-.) 6. Suffixed o-grade form *log-o-. logic, logistic, logo-, Logos, –logy; analogous, apologue, apology, Decalogue, epilogue, homologous, logarithm, paralogism, prologue, syllogism, from Greek logos, speech, word, reason.
(Pokorny le- 658.)
To lie, lay.
Derivatives include ledge, lair, beleaguer, lees, law, and fellow.
1. Suffixed form *legh-yo-. a. lie1, from Old English licgan, to lie, from Germanic *ligjan; b. (i) lay1, ledge, ledger, from Old English lecgan, to lay; (ii) belay, from Old English belecgan, to cover, surround (be-, over; see ambhi). Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *lagjan.
2. Suffixed form *legh-ro-. a. lair, from Old English leger, lair; b. leaguer1; beleaguer, from Middle Dutch leger, lair, camp; c. laager, lager; stalag, from Old High German legar, bed, lair. a–c all from Germanic *legraz.
3. lees, from Medieval Latin lia, sediment, from Celtic *leg-y-.
4. Lengthened-grade form *lgh-. low1, from Old Norse lgr, low, from Germanic *lgaz, “lying flat,” low.
5. Suffixed form *legh-to-. coverlet, litter; wagon-lit, from Latin lectus, bed.
6. Suffixed o-grade form *logh-o-. a. law; bylaw, Danelaw, from Old Norse *lagu, lag-, law, “that which is set down”; b. fellow, from Old Norse lag, a laying down; c. outlaw, from Old Norse lög, law; d. anlage, vorlage, from Old High German lga, act of laying. a–d all from Germanic *lagam.
7. lagan, from Old Norse lögn, dragnet (< “that which is laid down”), from Germanic *lag-n-.
8. Suffixed o-grade form *logh-o-. lochia, from Greek lokhos, childbirth, place for lying in wait.
(Pokorny legh- 658, 2. lh- 660.)
Light, having little weight.
Derivatives include levity, carnival, elevate, leprechaun, and lung..
1. Suffixed form *legwh-t-. a. light2, from Old English lht,loht, light; b. lighter2, from Old English lhtan, to lighten. Both a and b from Germanic *lht(j)az.
2. Suffixed form *legwh-wi-. leaven, lever, levity; alleviate, carnival, elevate, legerdemain, mezzo-relievo, relevant, relieve, from Latin levis, light, with its derivative levre, to lighten, raise.
3. Variant form *lagwh-. leprechaun, from Old Irish l-, small.
4. Nasalized form *l(e)ngwh-. lung, from Old English lungen, lungs (from their lightness), from Germanic *lung-.
5. Latin oblvsc, to forget, attributed by some to this root, is more likely from lei-.
(Pokorny legh- 660.)
Also slei-. Slimy.
Derivatives include slime, slick, and oblivion. .
1a. slime, from Old English slm, slime; b. slippery, from Old English slipor, slippery; c. slick, from Old English *slice, smooth, and -slcian, to make smooth; d. lime3, from Old English lm, cement, birdlime; e. loam, from Old English lm, loam; f. slight, from Middle English slight, slender, probably from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Norse slttr, smooth, sleek; g. slip1, from Middle English slippen, to slip, probably from a source akin to Middle Dutch and Middle Low German slippen, to slip, slip away; h. schlep, from Middle Low German slpen, to drag. a–h all from Germanic *sl- with various extensions.
2. Suffixed form *lei-mo-. limacine, limicoline, from Latin lmus, slime.
3. Suffixed form *lei-w-. oblivion, oubliette, from Latin oblvsc, to forget (< “to wipe, let slip from the mind”; ob-, away; see epi).
4. Extended form *(s)lei-, with metathesis *(s)le(i)-.a. Zero-grade form with nasal infix *li-n--. liniment, from Latin linere (perfect lv), to anoint; b. suffixed zero-grade form *l- (< *li-). litotes, from Greek ltos, plain, simple; c. suffixed metathesized form *le-wo-, whence *l-wo-. levigate, from Latin lvis, smooth.
(Pokorny 3. lei- 662.)
To play, jest. Suffixed o-grade form *loid-o-. ludic, ludicrous; allude, collude, delude, elude, illusion, interlude, prelude, prolusion, from Latin ldus, game, play, and ldere, to play (but both words may possibly be from Etruscan).
(Pokorny leid- 666.)
To bind. Oldest form *lei-,becoming *leig- in centum languages.
1. leech2, from Middle Low German lk, leech line, from Germanic *lk-.
2. Suffixed agent noun *l(e)ig-tor-. lictor, from Latin lictor, lictor.
3. Zero-grade form *lig--. league1, legato, liable, liaison, liana, lien, ligament, ligase, ligate, ligature; alloy, ally, colligate, furl, oblige, rally1, religion, rely, from Latin ligre, to bind.
(Pokorny 4. leig- 668.)
To lick. Oldest form *leih-,becoming *leigh- in centum languages.
1. electuary, lekvar, lichen, from Greek leikhein, to lick.
2. Zero-grade form *ligh-. a. lick, from Old English liccian, to lick; b. lecher, from Old French lechier, to live in debauchery. Both a and b from Germanic *likkn.
3. Nasalized zero-grade form *li-n-gh-. anilingus, cunnilingus, from Latin lingere, to lick.
(Pokorny leih- 668.)
Derivatives include eclipse, loan, and derelict. .
1. Basic form *leikw-. eclipse, ellipsis, from Greek leipein, to leave.
2. O-grade form *loikw-. a. Suffixed form *loikw-nes-. loan, from Old Norse ln, loan, from Germanic *laihwniz; b. lend, from Old English lnan, to lend, loan from Germanic denominative *laihwnjan.
3. Zero-grade form *likw-. a. Germanic compound *ain-lif- (see oi-no-); b. Germanic compound *twa-lif- (see dwo-). Both a and b from Germanic *-lif-, left.
4. Nasalized zero-grade form *li-n-kw-. delinquent, derelict, relic, relinquish, from Latin linquere, to leave.
(Pokorny leik- 669.)
To stick, adhere; fat.
Derivatives include life and liver1..
1. life, lively, from Old English lf, life (< “continuance”), from Germanic *lbam.
2a. live1, from Old English lifian,libban, to live; b. lebensraum, from Old High German lebn, to live. Both a and b from Germanic *libn.
3a. leave1, from Old English lfan, to leave, have remaining; b. delay, relay, from Old French laier, to leave, from Frankish *laibjan. Both a and b from o-grade Germanic causative *-laibjan.
4. liver1, from Old English lifer, liver (formerly believed to be the blood-producing organ), from Germanic *libr.
5. Zero-grade form *lip-. lipo-, from Greek lipos, fat.
6. Variant form *leibh-. aliphatic; synalepha, from Greek aleiphein, to anoint with oil.
(Pokorny 1. leip- 670.)
1. O-grade form *lois-.a. last3, from Old English lst,lst, sole, footprint, from Germanic *laist-;b. last2, from Old English lstan, to continue, from Germanic *laistjan, “to follow a track”; c. suffixed form *lois--. lore1, from Old English lr, learning, from Germanic *laiz.
2. learn, from Old English leornian, to learn, from Germanic zero-grade form *liznn, “to follow a course (of study).” 3. Suffixed full-grade form *leis--. delirium, from Latin lra, a furrow.
(Pokorny leis- 671.)
Small. least, less, from Old English comparative ls, lssa and superlative lst, lrest, from Germanic comparative *lais-iz and superlative *lais-ista-.
(In Pokorny 2. lei- 661.)
To go forth, die.
1. Suffixed o-grade form *loit-eyo-. a. lead1, from Old English ldan, to lead; b. leitmotif, from Old High German leitan, to lead. Both a and b from Germanic *laidjan.
2. Suffixed variant o-grade form *loit--. load, lode; livelihood, from Old English ld, course, way, from Germanic *laid.
(Pokorny leit(h)- 672.)
Open land. a. land; island, from Old English land, land; b. bilander, landscape, uitlander, from Middle Dutch land, land; c. auslander, geländesprung, hinterland, landsleit, landsman2, from Old High German lant, land; d. landgrave, landgravine, from Middle Low German lant, country; e. Landsmål, from Old Norse land, land; f. lawn1, from Old French launde, heath, pasture. a–e all from Germanic *landam; f from Germanic, or from Celtic *land-.
(Pokorny 3. lendh- 675.)
To loosen, divide, cut apart.
Derivatives include forlorn, analysis, and solve.
(I) Extended Germanic root *leus-.
1a. lorn, losel, from Old English -losan, to lose; b. (i) forlorn, from Old English forlosan, to forfeit, lose; (ii) forlorn hope, from Dutch verliezen (past participle verloren), to lose. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *fer-leusan, *far-leusan (*fer-, *far-,prefix denoting rejection or exclusion; see per1). Both a and b from Germanic *leusan, with Old English and Dutch past participle loren from Germanic *luzana-, from Indo-European suffixed zero-grade form *lus-ono-.
2a. leasing, –less, from Old English las, “loose,” free from, without, untrue, lacking; b. lose, loss, from Old English los, loss; c. loose, from Old Norse lauss, louss, loose; d. loess, from German dialectal lösch, loose. a–d all from Germanic *lausaz.
3. leister, from Old Norse ljsta, to strike, perhaps from Germanic *leustan.
(II) Basic form *leu-.
1. lag2, probably from a source akin to Swedish lagg, barrel stave (< “split piece of wood”), from Germanic *laww.
2. Zero-grade form *lu-. a. lyo-, lysis, lyso-, –lyte, lytic, –lytic; analysis, catalysis, dialysis, lyase, palsy, paralysis, tachylyte, from Greek lein, to loosen, release, untie; b. lues, from Latin lus, plague, pestilence (< “dissolution, putrefaction”); c. prefixed form *se-lu- (se-,apart; see s(w)e-). soluble, solute, solve; absolute, absolve, assoil, dissolve, resolute, resolve, from Latin solvere, to loosen, untie.
(Pokorny 2. leu-681.)
To care, desire; love.
Derivatives include livelong, belief, and libido.
(I) Suffixed form *leubh-o-. lief; leman, livelong, from Old English lof, dear, beloved, from Germanic *leubaz.
(II) O-grade form *loubh-.
1a. leave2, from Old English laf, permission (< “pleasure, approval”); b. furlough, from Middle Dutch verlof, leave, permission (ver-,intensive prefix, from Germanic *fer-; see per1); c. belief, from Old English gelafa, belief, faith, from Germanic *galaub (*ga-, intensive prefix; see kom). a–c all from Germanic *laub.
2.believe, from Old English gelfan, belfan, to believe, trust (be-, about; see ambhi), from Germanic *galaubjan, “to hold dear,” esteem, trust (*ga-, intensive prefix; see kom).
(III) Zero-grade form *lubh-.
1. Suffixed form *lubh--. love, from Old English lufu, love, from Germanic *lub.
2. Suffixed (stative) form *lubh--. quodlibet, from Latin libre, to be dear, be pleasing.
3. libido, from Latin libd, pleasure, desire.
(Pokorny leubh- 683.)
To mount up, grow. Oldest form *1leudh-.
1. Basic form *leudh-. landsleit, from Old High German liut, person, people, from Germanic *liud-i-.
2. Suffixed form *leudh-ero-. liberal, liberate, libertine, liberty, livery; deliver, from Latin lber, free (the precise semantic development is obscure).
(Pokorny 1. leudh- 684.)
To wash. Oldest form *leu(3)-.
1. Suffixed form *lou-k-. lye, from Old English lag, lye, from Germanic *laug.
2. Suffixed form *lou-tro-. a. lather, from Old English lthran, lthran, to lather; b. lutefisk, from Old Norse laudhr, soap, foam.
3. Variant form *law-. a. loment, lotion; ablution, alluvion, colluvium, deluge, dilute, eluent, elute, eluvium, from Latin lavere, to wash (in compounds, -luere); b. form *law--. launder, lavabo, lavage, lavatory, lave, lavish, from Latin lavre, to wash; c. latrine, from Latin lavtrna, ltrna, a bath, privy.
4. O-grade form *lou-.pyrolusite, from Greek louein, to wash.
(Pokorny lou- 692.)
To tell a lie.
1a. warlock, from Old English logan, to lie; b. belie, from Old English belogan, to deceive (be-, about; see ambhi). Both a and b from Germanic *leugan.
2. lie2, from Old English lyge, a lie, falsehood, from Germanic *lugiz.
(Pokorny 1. leugh-686.)
Derivatives include light1, illuminate, lunatic, lucid, and lynx.
(I) Basic form *leuk-.
1. Suffixed form *leuk-to-.a. light1, from Old English loht,lht, light; b. lightning, from Old English lhtan, to shine, from Germanic *leuht-jan, to make light. Both a and b from Germanic *leuhtam.
2. Basic form *leuk-. Lucina, luculent, lux; Lucifer, luciferin, from Latin lx, light.
3. Suffixed form *leuk-smen-.limbers, limn, lumen, luminary, luminous; illuminate, phillumenist, from Latin lmen, light, opening.
4. Suffixed form *leuk-sn-. Luna, lunar, lunate, lunatic, lune, lunula; mezzaluna, sublunary, from Latin lna, moon.
5. Suffixed form *leuk-stro-.a. luster, lustrum, from Latin lstrum, purification; b. illustrate, from Latin lstrre, to purify, illuminate.
6. Suffixed form *leuko-dhro-. lucubrate; elucubration, from Latin lcubrre, to work by lamplight.
7. Suffixed form *leuk-o-. leuko-, from Greek leukos, clear, white.
(II) O-grade form *louk-.
1. Suffixed form *louk-o-. a. lea, from Old English lah, meadow (< “place where light shines”), from Germanic *lauhaz; b. levin, from Middle English levin, lightning, from Germanic *lauh-ubni-.
2. Suffixed (iterative) form *louk-eyo-. lucent, lucid; elucidate, noctiluca, pellucid, relucent, translucent, from Latin lcre, to shine.
(III) Zero-grade form *luk-.
1. Suffixed form *luk-sno-. link2, lychnis, from Greek lukhnos, lamp.
2. Attributed by some to this root (but more likely of obscure origin) is Greek lunx, lynx (as if from its shining eyes): lynx, ounce2.
(Pokorny leuk- 687.)
Body, form; like, same. Germanic root.
Derivatives include alike, each, and frolic. .
1. lych-gate, from Old English lc, form, body.
2. –ly1, –ly2, from Old English -lc, having the form of.
3a. alike, like2, likely, from Old English gelc, similar, and Old Norse (g)lkr, like, both from Germanic *galkaz; b. each; every, from Old English lc, each, from Germanic phrase *aiwo galkaz, “ever alike” (*aiwo, *aiwi, ever; see aiw-).
4. Germanic compound *is-lk- (see i-).
5. alike, from Old English onlc, from Germanic *ana-lkaz.6. frolic, from Middle Dutch -lijc, -like.
7. like1, from Old English lcian, to please, from Germanic *lkjan.
8. Germanic compound *hwa-lk- (see kwo-).
(Pokorny 2. lig- 667.))
1. Form *lino-. linoleic acid, from Greek linon, flax.
2. Form *lno-. leno, line1, line2, lineage, linen, lingerie, linnet, lint; align, crinoline, linseed, from Latin lnum, flax, linen, thread.
Louse. louse, from Old English ls, louse, from Germanic *ls-.