Источник: Calvert Watkins, The American Heritage® Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2000.
Всего на *m- представлено 44 корня из словаря Кальверта Уоткинса (Калверта Воткинса).
Good; with derivatives meaning “occurring at a good moment, timely, seasonable, early.” Oldest form *me2-, colored to *ma2-, contracted to *m-.
1. Suffixed form *m-tu-. a. Further suffixed form *m-tu-ro-. mature; immature, premature, from Latin mtrus, seasonable, ripe, mature; b. further suffixed form *m-tu-to-. matinee, matins, matutinal, from Latin Mtta, name of the goddess of dawn.
2. Suffixed form *m-ni-. a. mañana, from Latin mne, (in) the morning; b. manes, from Latin mnis, mnus, good.
(Pokorny 2. m- 693.)
Mother. A linguistic near-universal found in many of the world's languages, often in reduplicated form.
1. mamma2, mammal, mammilla, from Latin mamma, breast.
2. Probably from this root is Greek Maia, “good mother” (respectful form of address to old women), also nurse: Maia, maieutic; maiasaur.
3. mama, more recently formed in the same way.
(Pokorny 3. m 694.)
Also mak-. To knead, fashion, fit. Oldest forms *ma-, *ma-, becoming *mag-, *mak- in centum languages.
Derivatives include make, mason, mingle, magma, and mass.
1a. (i) make, from Old English macian, to make; (ii) mason, from Old French masson, mason; (iii) maquillage, from Middle Dutch maken, to make. (i)–(iii) all from Germanic verb *makn, to fashion, fit; b. match1, from Old English gemæcca, mate, spouse, from Germanic compound noun *ga-mak-(j)n-, “one who is fitted with (another)” (*ga-, with, together; see kom). Both a and b from Germanic *mak-. 2a. mingle, from Old English mengan, to mix; b. among, mongrel, from Old English gemang, mixture, crowd (ge-, together; see kom). Both a and b from Germanic nasalized form *mangjan, to knead together.
3. Suffixed form *mak-yo-. magma, from Greek magma, unguent, from massein (aorist stem mag-), to knead.
4. Suffixed lengthened-grade form *mg-ya-. mass; amass, mazaedium, from Greek mza, maza, a (kneaded) lump, barley cake.
5. Suffixed lengthened-grade form *mk-ero-. macerate, from Latin mcerre, to tenderize, to soften (food) by steeping.
(Pokorny ma- 696, 2. mk- 698, men()k- 730.)
To be able, have power.
Derivatives include dismay, might1, machine, and magic.
1a. may1, from Old English magan, to be able; b. dismay, from Old French esmaier, to frighten. Both a and b from Germanic *magan, to be able.
2. might1, from Old English miht, power, from Germanic suffixed form *mah-ti-, power.
3. main, from Old English mægen, power, from Germanic suffixed form *mag-inam, power.
4. Suffixed lengthened-grade form *mgh-an-, “that which enables.” machine, mechanic, mechanism, mechano-, from Greek (Attic) mkhan, (Doric) mkhan, device.
5. Possibly suffixed form *magh-u-. magic, magus, from Old Persian magu, member of a priestly caste (< “mighty one”).
(Pokorny magh- 695.)
Young person of either sex. Suffixed form *magho-ti-. a. maid, maiden, from Old English mægden, virgin; b. matjes herring, from Dutch maagd, maid. Both a and b from Germanic *magadi-, with diminutive *magadin-.
(Pokorny maghos 696.)
Long, thin. Oldest form *me2-, colored to *ma2-, contracted to *m (becoming *mk- in centum languages).
1. Zero-grade form *mk- becoming *mak-. a. (i) meager, from Latin macer, thin; (ii) macro-, macron; amphimacer, from Greek makros, long, large. Both (i) and (ii) from suffixed form *mak-ro-; b. emaciate, from Latin macire, to make thin, from suffixed form *mak-ye-.
2. Suffixed full-grade form *mk-es-. mecopteran, paramecium, from Greek mkos, length.
(Pokorny m- 699.)
Also mon-. Man.
1. Extended forms *manu-, *manw-. a. man; leman, Norman1, from Old English man(n) (plural menn), man; b. fugleman, landsman2, from Old High German man, man; c. manikin, mannequin, from Middle Dutch man, man; d. yeoman, from Old Frisian man, man; e. Norman1, ombudsman, from Old Norse madhr, mannr, man; f. Alemanni, possibly from Germanic *Ala-manniz, tribal name (< “all men”: *ala-, all; see al-3). a–f all from Germanic *manna- (plural *manniz); g. Manu, from Sanskrit manu, man, from Indo-Iranian *manu-.
2. mensch, from Old High German mennisco, human, from Germanic adjective *manniska-, human, from *manna- (see 1).
3. muzhik, from Russian muzh, man, male, from Slavic suffixed form *mon-gyo-.
(Pokorny manu-s 700.)
Derivatives include manacle, maneuver, and manure.
1a. manacle, manage, manège, manner, manual, manubrium, manus; amanuensis, maintain, maneuver, manicotti, manicure, manifest, mansuetude, manufacture, manumit, manure, manuscript, mastiff, mortmain, quadrumanous, from Latin manus, hand; b. maniple, manipulation, from Latin manipulus, handful (-pulus, perhaps -ful; see pel-1).
2. Suffixed form *man-ko-, maimed in the hand. manqué, from Latin mancus, maimed, defective.
3. emancipate, from Latin compound manceps, “he who takes by the hand,” purchaser (-ceps, agential suffix, “taker”; see kap-).
4. mandamus, mandate, Maundy Thursday; command, commando, commend, countermand, demand, recommend, remand, from Latin compound mandre, “to put into someone's hand,” entrust, order (-dere, to put; see dh-).
(Pokorny m-r 740.)
Horse. mare1, from Old English mere, miere, mare, from Germanic feminine *marhjn-.
(Pokorny marko- 700.)
Mother. Based ultimately on the baby-talk form m-2, with the kinship term suffix *-ter-.
Derivatives include mother1, matrix, and matter.
1a. mother1, from Old English mdor, mother; b. mother2, from Middle Dutch moeder, mother. Both a and b from Germanic *mdar-.
2. alma mater, mater, maternal, maternity, matriculate, matrix, matron; madrepore, matrimony, from Latin mter, mother.
3. metro-; metropolis, from Greek mtr, mother.
4. material, matter, from Latin mteris, mteria, tree trunk (< “matrix,” the tree's source of growth), hence hard timber used in carpentry, hence (by a calque on Greek hl, wood, matter) substance, stuff, matter.
5. Demeter, from Greek compound Dmtr, name of the goddess of produce, especially cereal crops (d-, possibly meaning “earth”).
(Pokorny mtér- 700.)
Oblique form of the personal pronoun of the first person singular. For the nominative see eg.
1. me, myself, from Old English m (dative and accusative), from Germanic *m-.
2. Possessive adjective *mei-no-. a. mine2, my, from Old English mn, my; b. mynheer, from Middle Dutch mijn, my. Both a and b from Germanic *mn-.
3. Possessive adjective *me-yo-. Madame, Monsieur, from Latin meus, mine.
4. Genitive form *me-wo. mavourneen, from Old Irish mo, my.
(Pokorny 1. me- 702.)
In the middle of.
1. Suffixed form *me-dhi. midwife, from Old English mid, among, with, from Germanic *mid-.
2. Suffixed form *me-ta. meta-, from Greek meta, between, with, beside, after.
(Pokorny 2. me- 702.) See also medhyo-.
To take appropriate measures.
Derivatives include medicine, modest, modern, commodity, and empty.
1a. mete1, from Old English metan, to measure (out), from Germanic *metan; b. meet2, from Old English gemte, “commensurate,” fit (ge-, with; see kom), from Germanic derivative *mt, measure. 2a. medical, medicate, medicine, medico; metheglin, remedy, from Latin medr, to look after, heal, cure; b. meditate, from Latin meditr, to think about, consider, reflect.
3. Suffixed form *med-es-. a. modest; immodest, from Latin modestus, “keeping to the appropriate measure,” moderate; b. moderate; immoderate, from Latin moderr, “to keep within measure,” to moderate, control. Both a and b from Latin *modes-, replacing *medes- by influence of modus (see 5 below).
4. Medusa, from Greek medein, to rule (feminine participle medousa < *med-ont-ya).
5. Suffixed o-grade form *mod-o-. modal, mode, model, modern, modicum, modify, modulate, module, modulus, mold1, mood2, moulage; accomodate, commode, commodious, commodity, from Latin modus, measure, size, limit, manner, harmony, melody.
6. Suffixed o-grade form *mod-yo-. modiolus, mutchkin, from Latin modius, a measure of grain.
7. Possibly lengthened o-grade form *md-. a. mote2, must1, from Old English mtan, to have occasion, to be permitted or obliged; b. empty, from Old English metta, rest, leisure, from Germanic compound *-mt-ja- (prefix *-, meaning uncertain, from Indo-European *, *, to). Both a and b from Germanic *mt-, ability, leisure.
(Pokorny 1. med- 705.)
Derivatives include middle, medieval, and meridian.
1a. mid1, midst; amid, from Old English midd(e), middle; b. middle, from Old English middel, middle, from West Germanic diminutive form *middila-; c. Midgard, from Old Norse Midhgardhr, Midgard, from Germanic compound *midja-gardaz, “middle zone,” name of the earth conceived as an intermediate zone lying between heaven and hell (*gardaz, enclosure, yard; see gher-1). a–c all from Germanic *midja-.
4. menses, menstrual, menstruate; bimestrial, semester, trimester, from Latin mnsis, month.
(Pokorny 3. m- 703, mnt 731.)
Big. Contracted from *me1-.
1. Suffixed (comparative) form *m-is-. more, from Old English mra, greater, and mre (adverb), more, from Germanic *maizn-.
2. Suffixed (superlative) form *m-isto-. most, from Old English mst, most, from Germanic *maista-.
3. Suffixed form *m-ro-, *m-ri-. Märchen, from Old High German mri, news, narration.
4. Suffixed o-grade form *m-ro-. claymore, from Gaelic mr, big, great.
(Pokorny 4. m- 704.)
To cut down grass or grain with a sickle or scythe. Contracted from *me1-.
1. mow2, from Old English mwan, to mow, from Germanic *m-.
2. Suffixed form *m-ti-. aftermath, from Old English mth, a mowing, a mown crop, from Germanic *mdiz.
3. Suffixed form *m-tw-, a mown field. mead2, meadow, from Old English md, meadow, from Germanic *mdw.
(Pokorny 2. m- 703.)
Great. Oldest form *me-, becoming *meg- in centum languages.
Derivatives include much, magnate, mayor, maestro, and maharajah.
1a. mickle, much, from Old English micel, mycel, great; b. mickle, from Old Norse mikill. Both a and b from Germanic suffixed form *mik-ila-.
2. Suffixed form *mag-no-. magnate, magnitude, magnum; magnanimous, magnific, magnificent, magnifico, magnify, magniloquent, from Latin magnus, great.
3. Suffixed (comparative) form *mag-yos-. a. major, major-domo, majority, majuscule, mayor, from Latin mior, greater; b. maestoso, majesty, from Latin miests, greatness, authority; c. maestro, magisterial, magistral, magistrate, master, mister, mistral, mistress, from Latin magister, master, high official (< “he who is greater”).
4. Suffixed (superlative) form *mag-samo-. maxim, maximum, from Latin maximus, greatest.
5. Suffixed (feminine) form *mag-ya-, “she who is great.” may2, May, from Latin Maia, name of a goddess.
6. Suffixed form *meg--(l-). mega-, megalo-; acromegaly, omega, from Greek megas (stem megal-), great.
7. Suffixed (superlative) form meg-()-isto-. Almagest, Hermes Trismegistus, from Greek megistos, greatest.
8. Variant form *megh- (< *meg--). Mahabharata, maharajah, maharani, maharishi, mahatma, Mahayana, mahout, from Sanskrit mah-, mahat-, great.
(Pokorny me(h)- 708.)
To change, go, move; with derivatives referring to the exchange of goods and services within a society as regulated by custom or law.
Derivatives include mad, molt, mutate, mistake, communism, amoeba, and migrate.
1. meatus; congé, irremeable, permeate, from Latin mere, to go, pass.
2. Suffixed o-grade form *moi-to-. a. mad, from Old English *gemdan, to make insane or foolish, from Germanic *ga-maid-jan, denominative from *ga-maid-az, “changed (for the worse),” abnormal (*ga-, intensive prefix; see kom); b. mew1, molt, mutate; commute, permute, remuda, transmute, from Latin mtre, to change; c. mutual, from Latin mtuus, “done in exchange,” borrowed, reciprocal, mutual.
3. Suffixed zero-grade form *mi-t-. azimuth, zenith, from Latin smita, sidetrack, side path (< “thing going off to the side”; s-, apart; see s(w)e-).
4. Suffixed zero-grade form *mi-tro-. a. Mitra, from Sanskrit mitra, friend, friendship; b. Mithras, from Avestan and Old Persian mithra-, contract. Both a and b from Indo-Iranian *mitra-, friend(ship), contract, god of the contract.
5. Suffixed extended zero-grade form *mit-to-. a. mis-1, from Old English mis-, mis-, and Old French mes- (from Frankish *miss-); b. amiss, mistake, from Old Norse mis(s), mis(s)-, miss, mis-; c. miss1, from Old English missan, to miss, from Germanic *missjan, to go wrong. a–c all from Germanic *missa-, “in a changed manner,” abnormally, wrongly.
6. Suffixed o-grade form *moi-n- in compound adjective *ko-moin-i-, “held in common” (*ko-, together; see kom). a. mean2, demean2, from Old English gemne, common, public, general, from Germanic *gamainiz; b. common, commune1, commune2, communicate, communism; excommunicate, incommunicado, from Latin commnis, common, public, general.
7. Suffixed o-grade form *moi-n-es-. a. municipal, munificent, remunerate, from Latin mnus, “service performed for the community,” duty, work, “public spectacle paid for by a magistrate,” gift; b. immune, from Latin immnis, exempt from public service (in-, negative prefix; see ne).
8. Extended form *()meigw-. a. amoeba, from Greek ameibein, to change; b. migrate; emigrate, from Latin migrre, to change one's place of living.
Derivatives include menu, mince, minestrone, and minister.
1. meiosis; Miocene, from Greek mein, less, lesser, from extended variant *meiu-.
2. Zero-grade compounded suffixed form *ne-mi-s (see ne).
3. Suffixed zero-grade form *mi-nu-. a. menu, mince, minuend, minuet, minute2, minutia, comminute, diminish, from Latin minuere, to reduce, diminish; b. minor, minus; minuscule, from Latin minor (influenced by the comparative suffix -or), less, lesser, smaller; c. further suffixed (superlative) form *minu-mo-. minim, minimum, from Latin minimus, least; d. minestrone, minister, ministry, mystery2, from Latin minister, an inferior, servant (formed after magister, master; see meg-); e. Menshevik, from Russian men'she, less.
(Pokorny 5. mei- 711.)
To urinate. Oldest form *meih-, becoming *meigh- in centum languages.
1a. mist, from Old English mist, mist; b. mizzle1, from Middle English misellen, to drizzle, from a source perhaps akin to Dutch dialectal mieselen, to drizzle; c. missel thrush, mistletoe, from Old English mistel, mistletoe, from Germanic diminutive form *mihst-ila-, mistletoe (which is propagated through the droppings of the missel thrush). a–c all from Germanic suffixed form *mih-stu-, urine, hence mist, fine rain.
2. Suffixed form *migh-tu-. micturate, from Latin micturre, to want to urinate (desiderative of meiere, to urinate).
(Pokorny meih- 713.)
Also meig-. To mix. Oldest forms *mei-, *mei-, becoming *meik-, *meig- in centum languages.
1. Zero-grade variant form *mig-. amphimixis, apomixis, panmixia, from Greek mignunai, to mix, and noun mixis (< *mig-ti-), a mingling.
2. Suffixed zero-grade form *mik-sk-. meddle, medley, mélange, melee, mesclun, mestizo, miscellaneous, miscible, mix, mixture, mustang; admix, commix, immix, miscegenation, pell-mell, promiscuous, from Latin miscre (past participle mixtus), to mix.
3. Possibly Germanic *maisk- (phonological details unclear). mash, from Old English *msc, *mcs, mx-, mashed malt.
(Pokorny mei-- 714.)
1. moan, from Old English *mn, opinion, complaint, from Germanic *main-.
2. mean1; bemoan, from Old English mnan, to signify, tell, complain of, moan, from Germanic *mainjan.
(Pokorny mei-no- 714.)
Soft; with derivatives referring to soft or softened materials of various kinds.
(I) Extended form *meld-.
1. melt, from Old English meltan, to melt, from Germanic *meltan.
2. Possibly Germanic *miltja-. milt, from Old English milte, spleen, and Middle Dutch milte, milt.
3. Possibly Germanic *malta-. malt, from Old English mealt, malt.
4. Suffixed variant form *mled-sno-. blenny, from Greek blennos, slime, also a name for the blenny.
5. Suffixed zero-grade form *md-wi-. moil, mollify, mollusk, mouillé; emollient, from Latin mollis, soft.
6. Possibly nasalized variant form *mlad-. bland, blandish, from Latin blandus, smooth, caressing, flattering, soft-spoken.
(II) Variant form *smeld-. a. smelt1, from Middle Dutch or Middle Low German smelten, to smelt; b. schmaltz, from Old High German smalz, animal fat; c. smalt, from Italian smalto, enamel, glaze; d. enamel, from Old French esmail, enamel. a–d all from Germanic *smelt-; e. smelt2, from Old English smelt, smylt, a marine fish, smelt, perhaps from Germanic *smelt-.
(III) Extended form *meldh-.
1. mild, from Old English milde, mild, from Germanic *mildja-.
2. Possibly Greek maltha, a mixture of wax and pitch: maltha.
(IV) Suffixed form *mel-sko-. mulch, from Old English mel(i)sc, mylsc, mild, mellow, from Germanic *mil-sk-.
(V) Extended form *mk-. bonanza, chondromalacia, malacology, osteomalacia, from Greek malakos, soft.
(VI) Possibly Celtic *molto-, sheep. mutton, from Old French moton, sheep.
(VII) Suffixed zero-grade form *()ml-u-. amblygonite, amblyopia, from Greek amblus, blunt, dull, dim.
(Pokorny 1. mel- 716.)
1. Suffixed (comparative) form *mel-yos-. ameliorate, meliorate, meliorism, from Latin melior, better.
2. Suffixed zero-grade form *m-to-. molto, multi-, multitude, from Latin multus, much, many.
(Pokorny 4. mel- 720.)
False, bad, wrong.
1. mal-, malice, malign; dismal, malady, malaria, maledict, malefactor, malefic, malentendu, malevolence, malison, malversation, from Latin malus, bad, and male, ill (> malignus, harmful).
2. Perhaps suffixed zero-grade form *m-s-. blame, blaspheme, from Greek blasphmos, blasphemous, perhaps from *ms-bh-mo-, “speaking evil” (*bh-, to speak; see bh-2).
3. Suffixed form *mel-yo-. markhor, from Avestan mairiia-, treacherous.
(Pokorny 2. mel- 719, mlo- 724.)
Also mel-. To crush, grind; with derivatives referring to various ground or crumbling substances (such as flour) and to instruments for grinding or crushing (such as millstones). Oldest form *mel2-.
1. O-grade form *mol-. maelstrom, from Middle Dutch malen, to whirl, from Germanic *mal-.
2. Full-grade form *mel-. meal1, from Old English melu, flour, meal, from Germanic suffixed form *mel-wa-.
3. Zero-grade form *m-. mold3, molder, from Old English molde, soil, from Germanic suffixed form *mul-d.
4. Full-grade form *mel-. a. meunière, mill1, mola2, molar2, mole4, moulin; emolument, immolate, ormolu, from Latin molere, to grind (grain), and its derivative mola, a millstone, mill, coarse meal customarily sprinkled on sacrificial animals; b. possible suffixed form *mel-iyo-. mealie, miliary, milium, millet; gromwell, from Latin milium, millet.
5. Suffixed variant form *mal-ni-. malleable, malleolus, mallet, malleus, maul; pall-mall, from Latin malleus, hammer, mallet.
6. Zero-grade form *m-. amylum, mylonite, from Greek mul, mulos, millstone, mill.
7. Possibly extended form *ml-. blini, blintz, from Old Russian blin, pancake.
(Pokorny 1. mel- 716.)
To rub off; also to milk. Oldest form *mel-, becoming *melg- in centum languages.
(I) 1. Zero-grade form *mg-. emulsion, from Latin mulgre, to milk.
2. Full-grade form *melg-. a. milk, from Old English meolc, milc; b. milch, from Old English -milce, milch, from Germanic suffixed form *meluk-ja-, giving milk; c. milchig, from Old High German miluh, milk. a–c all from Germanic *melkan, to milk, contaminated with an unrelated noun for milk, cognate with the Greek and Latin forms given in II below, to form the blend *meluk-.
(II) Included here to mark the unexplained fact that no common Indo-European noun for milk can be reconstructed is another root *g(a)lag-, *g(a)lakt-, milk, found only in: a. galactic, galacto-, galaxy; agalactia, polygala, from Greek gala (stem galakt-), milk; b. lactate, lacteal, lactescent, lacto-, latte, lettuce, from Latin lac, milk; c. the blended Germanic form cited in I.
(Pokorny ml- 722, glag- 400.)
1. hydromel, marmalade, melilot, oenomel, from Greek meli, honey. 2a. melliferous, mellifluous, molasses, from Latin mel (stem mell-), honey, from *meld-, syncopated from *melid-; b. suffixed zero-grade form *md-to-, “honied.” mousse, from Latin mulsus, honey-sweet.
3. mildew, from Old English mildaw, honeydew, nectar, from Germanic compound *melith-dauwaz, honeydew (a substance secreted by aphids on leaves; it was formerly imagined to be distilled from the air like dew; *dauwaz, dew; see dheu-1), from *melith-.
(Pokorny meli-t 723.)
To think; with derivatives referring to various qualities and states of mind and thought.
Derivatives include mind, mention, automatic, mania, money, monster, mosaic, music, and amnesia.
(I) Zero-grade form *m-.
1. Suffixed form *m-ti-. a. mind, from Old English gemynd, memory, mind, from Germanic *ga-mundi- (*ga-, intensive prefix; see kom); b. mental1; ament2, dement, from Latin mns (stem ment-), mind; c. mention, from Latin menti, remembrance, mention.
2. Suffixed form *m-to-. automatic, from Greek -matos, “willing.” 3. Suffixed form *m-yo-. a. maenad, from Greek mainesthai, to be mad; b. Ahriman, from Avestan mainiiu, spirit. 4a. mania, maniac, manic, from Greek mani, madness; b. balletomane, from Greek -mans, ardent admirer.
(II) Full-grade form *men-.
1. Suffixed form *men-ti-. a. minnesinger, from Old High German minna, love; b. minikin, from Middle Dutch minne, love. Both a and b from Germanic *minthj. 2a. memento, from Latin reduplicated form meminisse, to remember; b. comment, from Latin comminsc, to contrive by thought (com-, intensive prefix; see kom); c. reminiscent, from Latin reminsc, to recall, recollect (re-, again, back; see re-); d. possibly Latin Minerva, name of the goddess of wisdom: Minerva. 3a. Mentor, from Greek Mentr, Mentor, man's name (probably meaning “adviser”); b. –mancy, mantic, mantis, from Greek mantis, seer (vocalism obscure).
4. mandarin, mantra, from Sanskrit mantra, counsel, prayer, hymn.
5. Suffixed form men-es-. Eumenides, from Greek menos, spirit.
(III) O-grade form *mon-.
1. Suffixed (causative) form *mon-eyo-. monish, monition, monitor, monster, monument, muster; admonish, demonstrate, premonition, summon, from Latin monre, to remind, warn, advise.
2. Suffixed o-grade form *mon-twa. mosaic, Muse, museum, music, from Greek Mousa, a Muse.
(IV) Extended form *mn-, contracted from *mna-.
1. amnesia, amnesty, anamnesis, from Greek reduplicated form mimnskein, to remember.
2. mnemonic, from Greek mnmn, mindful.
3. Mnemosyne, from Greek mnm, memory.
(V) Indo-European verb phrase *mens dh-, “to set mind” (*dh-, to put; see dh-), underlying compound noun *ms-dh-. Ahura Mazda, Mazdaism, Ormazd, from Avestan mazd-, wise.
(Pokorny 3. men- 726, mendh- 730.)
Derivatives include mouth, menace, and mountain.
1. Suffixed zero-grade form *m-to- in a western Indo-European word for a projecting body part, variously “chin, jaw, mouth.” a. mouth, from Old English mth, mouth, from Germanic *munthaz; b. mental2, from Latin mentum, chin.
2. menace, minacious; amenable, demean1, promenade, from Latin minae, projecting points, threats.
3. eminent, imminent, prominent, promontory, from Latin -minre, to project, jut, threaten.
4. Suffixed o-grade form *mon-ti-. mons, Montagnard, montane, monte, monticule, mount1, mount2, mountain; amount, ultramontane, from Latin mns (stem mont-), mountain.
(Pokorny 1. men- 726, 2. menth- 732.)
To remain. Variant suffixed (stative) form *man--. manor, manse, mansion, ménage; immanent, permanent, remain, from Latin manre, to remain.
(Pokorny 5. men- 729.)
1. manometer, from Greek manos, rare, sparse.
2. Suffixed o-grade form *mon-wo-. monad, monastery, monk, mono-; pseudomonad, from Greek monos, alone, single, sole.
3. Possibly also suffixed form *men-i-, a small fish. minnow, from Middle English meneu, a small fish, from a source akin to Old English myne, mynwe, minnow.
(Pokorny 4. men- 728, meni- 731.)
To learn. Zero-grade form *mdh-. mathematical, mathematics; chrestomathy, polymath, from Greek manthanein (aorist stem math-), to learn.
(Pokorny mendh- 730.)
Copious. many, from Old English manig, mænig, many, from Germanic *managa-.
(Pokorny men(e)gh- 730.)
To rub away, harm.
Derivatives include nightmare, morsel, morbid, mortal, mortgage, and ambrosia.
(I) 1. nightmare, from Old English mare, mære, goblin, incubus, from Germanic *marn-, goblin.
2. marasmus; amaranth, from Greek marainein, to waste away, wither.
3. Probably suffixed zero-grade form *m-to-, “ground down.” mortar, from Latin mortrium, mortar.
4. Possibly extended root *merd-. mordacious, mordant, mordent, morsel; premorse, remorse, from Latin mordre, to bite.
5. Possibly suffixed form *mor-bho-. morbid, from Latin morbus, disease (but this is more likely of unknown origin).
(II) Possibly the same root is *mer-, “to die,” with derivatives referring to death and to human beings as subject to death.
1. Zero-grade form *m-. a. Suffixed form *m-tro-. murder, from Old English morthor, murder, from Germanic suffixed form *mur-thra-; b. suffixed form *m-ti-. mort1, mortal; amortize, mortify, postmortem, from Latin mors (stem mort-), death; c. suffixed form *m-yo-. moribund, mortgage, mortmain, mortuary, murrain, from Latin mor, to die, with irregular past participle mortuus (< *m-two-), replacing older *m-to- (for which see d); d. prefixed and suffixed form *-m-to-, “undying, immortal.” (*-, negative prefix; see ne). (i) immortal, from Latin immortlis; (ii) ambrosia, from Greek ambrotos, immortal, divine (a- + -mbrotos, brotos, mortal); (iii) amrita, from Sanskrit amtam, immortality (a- + mta-, dead).
2. Suffixed o-grade form *mor-t-yo-. manticore, from Greek mantikhras (corrupted from marti(o)khras), manticore, probably from Iranian compound *martiya-khvra-, “man-eater” (*khvra-, eating; see swel-), from Old Persian martiya-, a mortal man.
(Pokorny 4. mer-, 5. mer- 735.)
Boundary, border. Oldest form *mer-, becoming *merg- in centum languages.
Derivatives include marquee, demarcation, and margin.
1a. mark1, from Old English mearc, boundary, landmark, sign, trace; b. margrave, from Middle Dutch marc, border; c. march2, marquee, marquis, marquise, from Old French marc, marche, border country; d. marchese, marchioness, from Medieval Latin marca, boundary, border; e. demarcation, from Old Italian marcare, to mark out; f. mark2, from Old English marc, a mark of weight or money; g. markka, from Swedish mark, a mark of money; h. marka, from Middle High German marke, mark of money. a–h all from Germanic *mark-, boundary, border territory; also to mark out a boundary by walking around it (ceremonially “beating the bounds”); also a landmark, boundary marker, and a mark in general (and in particular a mark on a metal currency bar, hence a unit of currency); these various meanings are widely represented in Germanic descendants and in Romance borrowings.
2. letters of marque, marquetry; remark, from Old Norse merki, a mark, from Germanic *markja-, mark, border.
3. marc, march1, from Frankish *markn, to mark out, from Germanic denominative verb *markn.
4. margin; emarginate, from Latin marg, border, edge.
5. Celtic variant form *mrog-, territory, land. Cymry, from Welsh Cymro, Wales, from British Celtic *kom-brogos, fellow countryman (*kom-, collective prefix; see kom), from *brogos, district.
(Pokorny mere- 738.)
To push away. mob, mobile, moment, momentous, momentum, mosso, motif, motion, motive, motor, move, movement; commotion, emotion, promote, remote, remove, from Latin movre, to move.
(Pokorny 2. me- 743.)
Reward. meed, from Old English md, reward, compensation, meed, from West Germanic *md-, from Germanic *mizd.
(Pokorny mizdhó- 746.)
Body of water; lake (?), sea (?).1a. mere2; mermaid, from Old English mere, sea, lake, pond; b. marram, from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Norse marr, sea; c. meerschaum, from Old High German mari, sea; d. meerkat, from Middle Dutch meer, sea. a–d all from Germanic *mari-. 2a. marsh, from Old English mersc, merisc, marsh; b. morass, from Old French maresc, mareis, marsh. Both a and b from Germanic *mariska-, water-logged land.
3. maar, mare2, marinara, marine, maritime; bêche-de-mer, cormorant, mariculture, ormer, ultramarine, from Latin mare, sea.
(Pokorny mori 748.)
Short. Oldest form *mreh-u-, becoming *mregh-u- in centum languages.
(I) Suffixed form *mregh-wi-. brief, brumal; abbreviate, abridge, from Latin brevis, short.
(II) Zero-grade form *mghu-.
1a. merry, from Old English myrge, mirige, pleasant; b. mirth, from Old English myrgth, pleasure, joy, from Germanic *murgith, pleasantness. Both a and b from Germanic *murgja-, short, also pleasant, joyful.
2. brachy-; amphibrach, tribrach, from Greek brakhus, short.
3. brace3, bracero, brachium, brassard, brassiere, pretzel; embrace, from Greek comparative brakhin, shorter, hence also “upper arm” (as opposed to the longer forearm).
(Pokorny mrehu- 750.)
A mouse; also a muscle (from the resemblance of a flexing muscle to the movements of a mouse).
1. mouse, from Old English ms (plural ms), mouse, from Germanic *ms- (plural *msiz).
2. murine, muscle, mussel, musteline, from Latin ms, mouse.