Источник: Calvert Watkins, The American Heritage® Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2000.
Всего на *n- представлено 23 корня из словаря Кальверта Уоткинса (Калверта Воткинса).
1. nose, nuzzle; nostril, from Old English nosu, nose, from Germanic zero-grade form *nus.
2. ness, from Old English næss, headland, from Germanic *nasja-.
3. Lengthened-grade form *ns-. a. naris, from Latin nris, nostril; b. expressive form *nss-. nasal, naso-; nasturtium, pince-nez, from Latin nsus, nose.
4. nark2, from Romany nk, nose, from expressive Indo-Aryan form *nakka-.
(Pokorny nas- 755, neu-ks- 768.)
Boat. Oldest form *ne2u-, colored to *na2u-, contracted to *nau- (before consonants) and *nw- (before vowels).
1. nacelle, naval, nave1, navicular, navigate, navy, from Latin nvis, ship.
2. nausea, nautical, nautilus, noise; aeronaut, aquanaut, Argonaut, astronaut, cosmonaut, from Greek naus, ship, and nauts, sailor.
(Pokorny 1. nus- 755.)
Under. 1a. under, under-, from Old English under, under; b. U-boat, from Old High German untar, under. Both a and b from Germanic *under-.
2. inferior, from Latin nferus, lower.
3. infernal, inferno, from Latin nfernus, lower.
4. infra-, from Latin nfr, below.
(Pokorny dhos 771.)
1. Suffixed form *nebh-(e)lo-. a. Niflheim, from Old Norse nifl-, “mist” or “dark,” probably from Germanic *nibila-; b. Nibelung, from Old High German Nibulunc, Nibilung, from Germanic suffixed patronymic form *nibul-unga-, beside Old High German nebul, mist, fog, from Germanic *nebla-.
2. Suffixed form *nebh-el-. a. nebula, nebulous, from Latin nebula, cloud; b. nepheline; nephelometer, from Greek nephel, cloud.
3. Suffixed form *nebh-es-. nephology, from Greek nephos, cloud.
4. Nasalized form *ne-m-bh-. nimbus, from Latin nimbus, rain, cloud, aura.
(Pokorny 2. (enebh-) 315.)
To bind, tie.
1. O-grade form *nod-. a. net1, from Old English net(t), a net, from Germanic *nati-; b. nettle, from Old English netel(e), netle, nettle, from Germanic *nat-ilo, a nettle (nettles or plants of closely related genera such as hemp were used as a source of fiber); c. ouch2, from Anglo-Norman nouch, brooch, from Germanic *nat-sk-.
2. Lengthened o-grade form *ndo-. node, nodule, nodus, noil, noose; dénouement, from Latin ndus, a knot.
3. With re-formation of the root. nexus; adnexa, annex, connect, from Latin nectere (past participle nexus), to tie, bind, connect.
(Pokorny 1. ned- 758.)
Death. Oldest form *ne-, becoming *nek- in centum languages.
Derivatives include nuisance, innocent, and nectarine.
1. internecine, pernicious, from Latin nex (stem nec-), death.
2. Suffixed (causative) o-grade form *nok-eyo-. nocent, nocuous, nuisance; innocent, innocuous, from Latin nocre, to injure, harm.
3. Suffixed o-grade form *nok-s-. noxious; obnoxious, from Latin noxa, injury, hurt, damage entailing liability.
4. Suffixed full-grade form *nek-ro-. necro-, necrosis; necromancy, from Greek nekros, corpse.
5. nectar, nectarine, from Greek nektar, the drink of the gods, “overcoming death” (*tar-, overcoming; see ter-2).
(Pokorny ne- 762.)
To reach, attain. Oldest form *ne-, becoming *nek- in centum languages.
(I) O-grade form *nok-. enough, from Old English geng, enough, from Germanic *ganga-, sufficient, from *ga-nah, “suffices” (*ga-, intensive prefix; see kom).
(II) Variant form *enk-.
1. oncogenesis, oncology, from Greek reduplicated enenkein, to carry (suppletive aorist of pherein, to carry; see bher-), with derived noun onkos, a burden, mass, hence a tumor (from suffixed o-grade *onk-o-; see 2 below).
2. Suffixed o-grade form *onk-o-. baisa, paisa, pice, from Sanskrit aa, part, portion.
3. Compound root *bhrenk- (see bher1).
(Pokorny ene- 316.)
Night. Probably from a verbal root *negw-, to be dark, be night. O-grade form *nokw-t-. 1a. night; fortnight, from Old English niht, neaht, night; b. Kristallnacht, from Old High German naht, night. Both a and b from Germanic *naht-.
2. nocti-, nocturn, nocturnal, equinox, from Latin nox (stem noct-), night.
3. noctuid, noctule, from Latin noctua, night owl.
4. nyctalopia, nyctitropism, from Greek nux (stem nukt-), night.
5. Suffixed plain verbal root *negw-ro-. negro, niello, nigella, nigrescence, nigrosine; denigrate, streptonigrin, from Latin niger, black.
(Pokorny nek-(t-) 762.)
To assign, allot; also to take.
Derivatives include numb, nemesis, and nomad.
1a. nim1, numb; benumb, from Old English niman, to take, seize; b. nimble, from Old English nmel, quick to seize, and numol, quick at learning, seizing; c. nim2, from Old High German nëman, to take. a–c all from Germanic *nem-.
2. nemesis; economy, from Greek nemein, to allot.
3. O-grade form *nom-. a. lumma, nome, –nomy; anomie, antinomian, antinomy, astronomer, astronomy, autonomous, Deuteronomy, metronome, nomograph, nomology, nomothetic, numismatic, from Greek nomos, portion, usage, custom, law, division, district; b. noma, from Greek nom, pasturage, grazing, hence a spreading, a spreading ulcer; c. nomad, from Greek nomas, wandering in search of pasture; d. nummular, nummulite, from Greek nomimos, legal.
4. Perhaps suffixed o-grade form *nom-eso-. number, numeral; enumerate, innumerable, supernumerary, from Latin numerus, number, division.
(Pokorny 1. nem- 763.)
Grandson, nephew. Feminine *nept-. nephew, nepotism, niece, from Latin neps, grandson, nephew, and neptis, granddaughter, niece.
(Pokorny nept- 764.)
Under, also on the left; hence, with an eastward orientation, north. Suffixed zero-grade form *n-t(r)o-. a. Nordic, north, from Old English north, north; b. northern, from Old English northerne, northern; c. Norse, from Middle Dutch nort, north; d. Norman1, Norwegian, from Old Norse nordhr, north.
(Pokorny 2. ner- 765.) Compare deks-.
Man; basic sense “vigorous, vital, strong.” Oldest root form *2ner-. andro-, –androus, –andry; philander, from Greek anr (stem andr-, from zero-grade form *nr-), man.
(Pokorny 1. ner-(t-) 765.)
To return safely home.
1. harness, from Old French harneis, harness, possibly from a Germanic source akin to Old English, Old High German (in composition), and Old Norse nest, food for a journey, from Germanic *nes-tam.
2. Suffixed o-grade form *nos-to-. nostalgia, from Greek nostos, a return home.
(Pokorny nes- 766.)
Oblique cases of the personal pronoun of the first person plural. For the nominative see we-.
1. Zero-grade form *s-. us, from Old English s, us (accusative), from Germanic *uns.
2. Suffixed (possessive) zero-grade form *s-ero-. our, ours, from Old English ser, re, our, from Germanic *unsara-.
3. O-grade form *nos-, with suffixed (possessive) form *nos-t(e)ro-. Nostratic, nostrum; paternoster, from Latin ns, we, and noster, our.
(Pokorny 3. ne- 758.)
To shout. Suffixed (participial) o-grade form *now-ent-(yo-), “shouting.” nuncio; announce, denounce, enunciate, internuncio, pronounce, renounce, from Latin nntius, “announcing,” hence a messenger, also a message, and nntium, message.
(Pokorny 1. neu- 767.)
1. nine, nineteen, ninety, ninth, from Old English nigon, nine, with derivatives nigontig, ninety, and nigontne, nineteen (-tne, ten; see dek), from Germanic *nigun, variant of *niwun.
2. November, novena; nonagenarian, from Latin novem, nine (< *noven, with m for n by analogy with the m of septem, seven, and decem, ten).
3. Ordinal form *neweno-. nona-, nones, noon; nonagon, nonanoic acid, from Latin nnus, ninth.
4. Prothetic or prefixed forms *1new, *1nw. ennead, from Greek ennea, nine (< *ennewa, *enwa-).
(Pokorny e-neen 318.)
New. Related to nu-.
Derivatives include neon and nova.
1. Suffixed form *new-yo-. a. new, from Old English nowe, nwe, new; b. Nynorsk, span-new, from Old Norse nr, new. Both a and b from Germanic *neuja-.
2. Basic form *newo-. neo-, neon, neoteric; misoneism, from Greek newos, neos, new.
3. Suffixed form *new-aro-. aneroid, from Greek nron, water, from nros, fresh (used of fish and of water), contracted from nearos, young, fresh.
4. Basic form *newo-. nova, novation, novel1, novel2, novelty, novice, novillada, novillero; innovate, renovate, from Latin novus, new.
5. Suffixed form *new-er-ko-. novercal, from Latin noverca, stepmother (< “she who is new”).
(Pokorny neos 769.)
Also ombh-. Navel; later also “central knob,” boss of a shield, hub of a wheel. Oldest form *3nobh-, variant *3ombh- (< *3onbh-). 1a. nave2, from Old English nafu, nafa, hub of a wheel; b. auger, from Old English nafogr, auger, from Germanic compound *nab-gaizaz, tool for piercing wheel hubs (*gaizaz, spear, piercing tool). Both a and b from Germanic *nab.
2. Variant form *ombh-. umbo, from Latin umb, boss of a shield.
3. Suffixed form *nobh-alo-. navel, from Old English nafela, navel, from Germanic *nabal.
4. Suffixed variant form *ombh-alo-. a. umbilicus; nombril, from Latin umbilcus, navel; b. omphalos, from Greek omphalos, navel.
(Pokorny 1. (enebh-) 314.)
Also ongh-. Nail, claw. Oldest forms *3nogh-, *3ongh-.
1. Suffixed (diminutive) form *nogh-elo-. nail, from Old English nægl, nail, from Germanic *nagla-.
2. Form *nogh-. onyx; paronychia, perionychium, sardonyx, from Greek onux (stem onukh-), nail.
3. Variant form *ongh-. unguiculate, unguis, ungulate, from Latin unguis, nail, claw, hoof, with diminutive ungula, hoof, claw, talon (< *ongh-el-).
(Pokorny onogh- 780.)
1. Suffixed forms *nogw-eto-, *nogw-oto-. naked, from Old English nacod, naked, from Germanic *nakweda-, *nakwada-.
2. Suffixed form *nogw-edo-. nude, nudi-; denude, from Latin ndus, naked.
3. Suffixed form *nogw-mo-. gymnasium, gymnast; gymnosophist, gymnosperm, from Greek gumnos, naked (with metathesis due to taboo deformation).
4. Suffixed form *nogw-no-. naan, from Old Persian *nagna-, bare, naked.
(Pokorny nog- 769.)
Name. Oldest form *1no(&schwa3)-m, zero-grade form *1(3)-men-.
1. name, from Old English nama, name, from Germanic *namn-.
2. nominal, nominate, noun; agnomen, binomial, cognomen, denominate, ignominy, misnomer, nomenclator, nuncupative, praenomen, pronoun, renown, from Latin nmen, name, reputation.
3. onomastic, –onym, –onymy; allonym, anonymous, antonomasia, eponym, eponymous, euonymus, heteronymous, homonymous, matronymic, metonymy, onomatopoeia, paronomasia, paronymous, patronymic, pseudonym, synonymous, from Greek onoma, onuma, name (assimilated from enuma, preserved in proper names in Laconian).
4. moniker, from Old Irish ainm, name.
(Pokorny en(o)m- 321.)
Now. Related to newo-.
1. now, from Old English n, now.
2. quidnunc, from Latin nunc, now (< *nun-ce; -ce, a particle meaning “this,” “here”; see ko-).