Источник: Calvert Watkins, The American Heritage® Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2000.
Всего на *p- представлено 55 корней из словаря Кальверта Уоткинса (Калверта Воткинса).
To protect, feed. Oldest form *pe2-, colored to *pa2-, contracted to *p-.
Derivatives include fodder, forage, fur, food, foster, pasture, pantry, and company. .
1. Suffixed form *p-trom. a. fodder, from Old English fdor, fodder; b. forage, foray, fourragère, from Old French feurre, fodder; c. fur, furrier, from Old French forre, fuerre, trimming made from animal skin, fur (< “sheath, case, lining”). a–c all from Germanic *fdram.
2. Suffixed form *p-dhlom (doublet of *p-trom). pabulum, from Latin pbulum, food, fodder.
3. Extended form *pt-. a.food, from Old English fda, food, from Germanic *fd-, food; b. feed, from Old English fdan, to feed, from Germanic denominative *fdjan, to give food to; c. suffixed form *pt-tro-. foster, from Old English fstor, food, nourishment, from Germanic *fstra-.
4. Extended form *ps-. a. Suffixed form *ps-sko-. pasture; antipasto, repast, from Latin pscere, to feed; b. suffixed form *ps-tor-. pastern, pastor, pester, from Latin pstor, shepherd; c. suffixed form *ps-t-ni-. panada, panatela, panic grass, pannier, panocha, pantry, pastille, penuche; appanage, companion1, company, from Latin pnis, bread.
5. Suffixed form *p-tor-. bezoar, from Persian pd, protecting against, from Iranian *ptar- (Avestan ptar-).
6. Suffixed form *p-won-,protector. satrap, from Old Persian khshathra-pv, protector of the province.
(Pokorny p-787, 1. p(i)- 839.)
Fire. Oldest form *pe2w, colored to *pa2w, with zero-grade *p2ur- metathesized to *pu2r-. Zero-grade form *pr-(contracted from *pur-).
1. fire, from Old English fr, fire, from Germanic suffixed form *fr-i-.
Also pak-. To fasten. Oldest forms *pa-, *pa-, becoming *pag-, *pak- in centum languages.
Derivatives include fang, peace, pact, palisade, and travel. .
1. Lengthened-grade form *pk-. fay1, from Old English fgan, to fit closely, from Germanic *fgjan, to join, fit.
2. Nasalized form *pa-n-g-, also *pa-n-k-. a. (i) fang, from Old English fang, feng, plunder, booty, from Germanic *fangam, *fangiz; (ii) vang, from Dutch vangen, to catch, from remade Germanic verb *fangan; (iii) newfangled, from Middle English *-fangel, taken, akin to Old High German -fangolon, to close, from Germanic *fangln, to grasp. (i)–(iii) all derivatives of Germanic *fanhan, to seize; b. compact1, impact, impinge, spinto, from Latin pangere, to fasten.
3. Root form *pk-.a. pace2, pax, pay1, peace; appease, pacific, pacify, from Latin px, peace (< “a binding together by treaty or agreement”); b. pact, patio, from Latin pacsc, to agree.
4. Suffixed form *pak-slo-.a. pale1, palisade, pawl, peel3, pole2; impale, travail, travel, from Latin plus, stake (fixed in the ground); b. probably Latin pla, spade: palette, peel2.
5. Lengthened-grade form *pg-.a. pagan, peasant, from Latin pgus, “boundary staked out on the ground,” district, village, country; b. page1, pageant, from Latin pgina, “trellis to which a row of vines is fixed,” hence (by metaphor) column of writing, page; c. propagate, from Latin prpgre, to propagate (< “to fix before”; pr-, before, in front; see per1); d. pectin, pegmatite; Areopagus, mastopexy, from Greek pgnunai, to fasten, coagulate, with derivative pagos (< *pag-o-), mass, hill.
(Pokorny p- 787.)
To touch, feel, shake. Earlier *pe2l-, colored to *pa2l-, contracted to *pl-.
1a. feel, from Old English flan, to examine by touch, feel; b. sprachgefühl, from Old High German vuolen, to feel. Both a and b from Germanic *fljan, to feel.
2. Reduplicated zero-grade form *pal-p- (from *pl-p()-. a.palp, from Latin palpus, a touching; b. palpable, palpate1, palpitate, from Latin palpr, palpre, to stroke gently, touch; c. palpebra, from Latin palpebra, eyelid (< “that which shakes or moves quickly”).
3. Perhaps expressive reduplicated form *pal-pal-. papilionaceous, papillon, papillote, pavilion, from Latin ppili, butterfly.
4. Perhaps suffixed zero-grade form *pal-yo-. catapult, from Greek pallein, to sway, brandish.
5. Perhaps suffixed form *psal-yo-. psalm, psaltery, from Greek psallein, to pluck, play the harp (but more likely of imitative origin).
(Pokorny 1. G. pel- 801, polo-841.)
1a. vane, from Old English fana, flag, banner, weathercock; b. Germanic compound *gund-fann- (see gwhen-). Both a and b from Germanic *fann.
2. Extended form *panno-. pane, panel, from Latin pannus, piece of cloth, rag.
(Pokorny pn- 788.)
All. Attested only in Tocharian and Greek. pan-; diapason, pancratium, pancreas, from Greek ps (neuter pan, stem pant-), all.
(In Pokorny 1. eu- 592.)
A child's word for “father,” a linguistic near-universal found in many languages.
1. papa, from French papa, father.
2. pappus, pope, from Greek papps, father, and pappos, grandfather.
(Pokorny pap(p)a 789.)
1a. fast1; shamefaced, steadfast, from Old English fæst, fixed, firm; b. avast, from Middle Dutch vast, firm, fast. Both a and b from Germanic *fastuz, firm, fast.
2. fasten, from Old English fæstnian, to fasten, establish, from Germanic *fastinn, to make firm or fast.
3. handfast, from Old Norse festa, to fix, affirm, from Germanic causative *fastjan, to make firm.
4a. fast2, from Old English fæstan, to abstain from food; b. breakfast, from Old Norse fasta, to abstain from food. Both a and b from Germanic *fastn, to hold fast, observe abstinence.
(Pokorny pasto- 789.)
Few, little. Oldest form *pe2u-, colored to *pa2u-.
Derivatives include few, pauper, foal, pony, and pullet.
(I) Adjectival form *pau-, few, little.
1. few, from Old English fawe, few, from Germanic *fawaz.
2. Suffixed form *pau-ko-. paucity, poco, from Latin paucus, little, few.
3. Suffixed form *pau-ro- in metathetical form *par-wo-. paraffin, parvovirus, from Latin parvus, little, small, neuter parvum, becoming parum, little, rarely.
4. Compound *pau-paros, producing little, poor (*par-os, producing; see per-1). pauper, poor, poverty; depauperate, impoverish, from Latin pauper, poor.
(II) Suffixed zero-grade form *pu-lo-, young of an animal.
1. foal, from Old English fola, young horse, colt, from Germanic *fuln-.
2. filly, from Old Norse fylja, young female horse, from Germanic derivative *fulj.
(III) Basic form *pau- and zero-grade form *p-, boy, child.
1. Suffixed form *pu-ero-. puerile, puerperal, from Latin puer, child.
2. Extended form *put-.a. poltroon, pony, pool2, poulard, poulter's measure, poultry, pullet, Punchinello; catchpole, from Latin pullus (< *putslo-), young of an animal, chicken; b. pusillanimous, from Latin pusillus (< *putslo-lo-), old diminutive of pullus; c. further suffixed form *put-o-. putto, from Latin putus, boy.
3. Suffixed form *paw-id-. pedo-2; encyclopedia, orthopedics, from Greek pais (stem paid-), child (> paideia, education).
(Pokorny pu- 842.)
To cut, strike, stamp. Oldest form *pe2u-, colored to *pa2u-.
1. Suffixed (participial) zero-grade form *pu-to-, cut, struck. a. putamen, putative; account, amputate, compute, count1, depute, dispute, impute, repute, from Latin putre, to prune, clean, settle an account, think over, reflect; b. possibly Latin puteus, well: pit1.
2. Basic form *pau-.a. Suffixed form *pau-yo. pave, pavé, from Latin pavre, to beat; b. suffixed (stative) form *paw--. pavid, from Latin pavre, to fear (< “to be struck”); c. perhaps Greek paiein, to beat: anapest.
(Pokorny 3. pu- 827.)
Also p-, p-. To hurt. Contracted from *pe1(i)-; zero-grades *pi1-, *p1-.
1. Suffixed (participial) form *p-ont- (< *pi-ont-). fiend, from Old English fond, fond, enemy, devil, from Germanic *fjand-, hating, hostile.
2. Possibly *p- in suffixed zero-grade form *p-to-. passible, passion, passive, patient; compassion, from Latin pat, to suffer.
(Pokorny p(i)- 792.)
Derivatives include foot, fetter, pioneer, millipede, impeach, pajamas, fetch1, pessimism, and impeccable.
(I) Nominal root.
1. Lengthened o-grade form *pd-. foot, from Old English ft, foot, from Germanic *ft-.
2. Suffixed form *ped-ero-. fetter, from Old English fetor, feter, leg iron, fetter, from Germanic *feter.
3. Suffixed form *ped-el-. fetlock, from Middle English fitlock, fetlock, fetlock, from a Germanic source akin to Old High German vizzelach, fetlock, from Germanic *fetel-.
4. Basic form *ped-. pawn2, –ped, pedal, pedate, pedestrian, pedi-, pedicel, peduncle, peon, pes, pioneer; millipede, sesquipedal, tripedal, trivet, vamp1, from Latin ps (stem ped-), foot.
5. Suffixed form *ped-yo-.a. expedite, from Latin expedre, to free from a snare (ex-, out of; see eghs); b. impede, from Latin impedre, “to put in fetters, hobble, shackle,” entangle, hinder (in-, in; see en).
6. Suffixed form *ped-ik-. impeach, from Latin pedica, fetter, snare.
7. O-grade form *pod-. a. pew, –pod, podite, podium; antipodes, apodal, appoggiatura, Apus, lycopodium, monopodium, octopus, Oedipus, pelecypod, phalarope, platypus, podagra, podiatry, podophyllin, polyp, polypod, rhizopus, sympodium, xenopus, from Greek pous (stem pod-), foot; b. podzol, from Russian pod, under.
8. Suffixed form *ped-ya.trapezium, from Greek peza, foot.
9. Suffixed form *ped-o-. a. pedo-1; parallelepiped, from Greek pedon, ground, soil; b. baisa, pada, paisa, pice, pie3, pug3, from Sanskrit padam, footstep, foot, and pt, foot; c. pajama, teapoy, from Middle Persian p, leg, foot; d. lengthened-grade form *pd-o-.(i) pilot, from Greek pdon, rudder, steering oar; (ii) diapedesis, from Greek pdn, to leap.
10. Suffixed form ped--. cypripedium, from Greek pedilon, sandal.
(II) Verbal root *ped-, to walk, stumble, fall.
1. fetch1, from Old English fetian,feccean, to bring back, from Germanic *fetn.
2a. Suffixed (comparative) form *ped-yos-. pejoration; impair, from Latin pior, worse (< “stumbling”); b. suffixed (superlative) form *ped-samo-. pessimism, from Latin pessimus, worst; c. suffixed form *ped-ko-. peccadillo, peccant, peccavi; impeccable, from Latin peccre, to stumble, sin. a–c all from Latin *ped-.
(Pokorny 2. pd- 790.)
To be fat, swell.
Derivatives include fat, pituitary, and Irish.
(I) Zero-grade form *p- (contracted from *pi-).
1. Possibly suffixed form *p-tu-. pip5, pituitary, from Latin ptuta, moisture exuded from trees, gum, phlegm.
2. Possibly suffixed form *p-nu-. pine1, pineal, pinnace, piñon, pinot; piña cloth, from Latin pnus, pine tree (yielding a resin).
3. Suffixed form *p-won-. propionic acid, from Greek pn, fat.
4. Suffixed form *p-wer-, “fat, fertile.” a. Erse, Irish, from Old English ras, the Irish, from *wer-i, the prehistoric Celtic name for Ireland; b. Pierian Spring, from Greek Peri, a region of Macedonia, from *Pwer-i-.
(II) Extended o-grade form *poid-. fat, from Old English ft(t), fat, from Germanic past participle *faitidaz, fattened, from derivative verb *faitjan, to fatten, from *faitaz, plump, fat.
Also peik- (earlier *pei-,remaining as such in satem languages). To cut, mark (by incision).
1. Alternate form *peik-. file2, from Old English fl, file, from Germanic *fhala, cutting tool.
2. Nasalized zero-grade form *pi-n-g-. paint, Pictor, picture, picturesque, pigment, pimento, pint, pinto; depict, pictograph, from Latin pingere, to embroider, tattoo, paint, picture.
3. Suffixed zero-grade form *pik-ro-. picro-, from Greek pikros, sharp, bitter.
4. O-grade form *poik-. poikilotherm, from Greek poikilos, spotted, pied, various.
(Pokorny 1. peig- 794.)
Wealth, movable property. Oldest form *peu-,becoming *peku- in centum languages.
1a. fellow, from Old Norse f, property, cattle; b. fee, fief; enfeoff, feoffment, from Old French fie, fief, and Old English feoh, cattle, goods, money; c. feud2, from Medieval Latin feudum, feudal estate. a–c all from Germanic *fehu-.
2.pecorino, from Latin pecus, cattle.
3. Suffixed form *peku-n-. pecuniary; impecunious, from Latin pecnia, property, wealth.
4. Suffixed form *peku-l-. peculate, peculiar, from Latin peclium, riches in cattle, private property.
(In Pokorny 2. pe- 797.)
To cook, ripen.
1. Assimilated form (in Italic and Celtic) *kwekw-. a. cook, cuisine, kitchen, quittor; apricot, biscotto, biscuit, charcuterie, concoct, decoct, precocious, ricotta, terra cotta, from Latin coquere, to cook; b. culinary, kiln, from Latin culna, kitchen, deformed from coquna.
2. pepo; pumpkin, from Greek pepn, ripe.
3. peptic, peptize; drupe, eupeptic, pepsin, peptone, from Greek peptein, to cook, ripen, digest (> peptos, cooked).
4. dyspepsia, from Greek -pepsi, digestion.
5. pukka, from Sanskrit pakva-, ripe.
(Pokorny pek- 798.)
Derivatives include pallor, falcon, and poliomyelitis. .
1. Suffixed variant form *pal-wo-. a. (i) fallow deer, from Old English fealu, fealo, reddish yellow; (ii) fauvism, from Frankish *falw-, reddish-yellow. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *falwaz; b. pale2, pallid, pallor; appall, from Latin pallre, to be pale; c. palomino, from Latin palumbs (influenced in form by Latin columbus, dove), ringdove, “gray-bird.”
2. Probably suffixed form *pel-ko-. falcon; gyrfalcon, from Late Latin falc, falcon, from Germanic *falkn-, falcon (< “gray bird”; but this is also possibly from the Late Latin).
3. Suffixed extended form *peli-wo-. a. Pelops, from Greek pelios, dark; b. o-grade form *poli-wo-.poliomyelitis, from Greek polios, gray.
1. Extended o-grade form *polt-. a. fold1, from Old English fealdan,faldan, to fold; b. faltboat, from Old High German faldan, to fold; c. furbelow, from Italian falda, fold, flap, pleat; d. (i)faldstool, from Medieval Latin compound faldistolium, folding chair; (ii) fauteuil, from Old French faldestoel, faldstool. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic compound *faldistlaz,“folding stool” (*stlaz, stool; see st-); e. –fold, from Old English -feald, -fald, -fold, from Germanic combining form *-falthaz, *-faldaz. a–e all from Germanic *falthan, *faldan.
2. Combining form *-plo-. a. decuple, multiple, octuple, quadruple, quintuple, septuple, sextuple, triple, from Latin -plus, -fold (as in triplus, threefold); b. –ploid; triploblastic, from Greek -plos, -ploos, -fold (as in haploos,haplous, single, and triploos, triple).
(Pokorny 3a. pel- 802.)
1. Suffixed form *pel-no-.fell3, from Old English fell, skin, hide, from Germanic *felnam.
2. film, from Old English filmen, membrane, from Germanic suffixed form *fel-man-ja-.
3. Suffixed form *pel-ni-. pelisse, pellicle, pelt1, peltry, pillion; pellagra, surplice, from Latin pellis, skin.
4. erysipelas, from Greek -pelas, skin.
5. Suffixed form *pel-to-. peltate, from Greek pelt, a shield (made of hide).
(Pokorny 3b. pel-803.)
To sell. Lengthened o-grade form *pl-. bibliopole, monopoly, from Greek plein, to sell.
(Pokorny 5. pel- 804.)
To thrust, strike, drive.
Derivatives include anvil, filter, pulsate, polish, and appeal.
(I) Suffixed form *pel-de-.
1a. anvil, from Old English anfilt(e), anfealt, anvil (“something beaten on”); b. (i) felt1, from Old English felt, felt; (ii) filter, filtrate, from Medieval Latin filtrum, filter, piece of felt. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *feltaz,*filtiz, compressed wool. Both a and b from Germanic *felt-, *falt-, to beat.
2. pelt2, poussette, pulsate, pulse1, push; compel, dispel, expel, impel, impulse, propel, repel, from Latin pellere (past participle pulsus), to push, drive, strike.
3a. Suffixed o-grade form *pol-o-,fuller of cloth. polish, from Latin polre, to make smooth, polish (< “to full cloth”); b. suffixed o-grade form *pol-o- (with different accentuation from the preceding), fulled (of cloth). interpolate, from Latin compound adjective interpolis (also interpolus), refurbished (inter-, between; see en).
(II) Extended form *pel2-.
1. Present stem *peln-. a. appeal, peal, rappel, repeal, from Latin appellre, “to drive to,” address, entreat, appeal, call (ad-, to; see ad-); b.compellation, from Latin compellre, to accost, address (com-, intensive prefix; see kom).
2. Possible suffixed zero-grade extended adverbial form *p-ti-, or locative plural *p-si. plesiosaur, from Greek plsios, near (< “pushed toward”), from pre-Greek *plti or *plsi.
(Pokorny 2a. pel- 801.)
To fill; with derivatives referring to abundance and multitude. Oldest form *pel1-; variant *ple1-, contracted to *pl-.
Derivatives include fill, plenty, folk, accomplish, expletive, and plebeian.
(I) Zero-grade form *p-.
1. Suffixed form *p-no-. full1, from Old English full, full, from Germanic *fulnaz, *fullaz, full.
2. fill, from Old English fyllan, to fill (from Germanic derivative verb *fulljan, to fill), and fyllu, full amount (from Germanic abstract noun *full-n-, fullness).
3. plenary, plenitude, plenty, plenum; plenipotentiary, replenish, terreplein, from Latin plnus, full, from Latin stem *plno-,replacing *plno- (influenced by Latin verb plre, to fill; see IV.1. below).
4. Suffixed form *p-go-.a. folk, from Old English folc, people; b. Herrenvolk, volkslied, from Old High German folc, people. Both a and b from Germanic *folkam.
(II) Suffixed form *p(e)l-u-.
1. Obscure comparative form. più, plural, plus; nonplus, pluperfect, surplus, from Latin pls, more (Archaic Latin plous). See also IV.5. below.
2. O-grade form *pol()-u-.poly-; hoi polloi, from Greek polus, much, many.
3. Possibly from this root (but probably rather from pel-1) is Latin pals, marsh (? < “inundated”): paludal.
(III) Suffixed form *p(e)l-o-. Latin compound manipulus (see man-2).
(IV) Variant form *pl-.
1. accomplish, complete, compliment, comply, deplete, expletive, implement, replete, supply, from Latin plre, to fill.
2. Possibly suffixed form *pl-dhw-. plebe, plebeian, plebs; plebiscite, from Latin plbs, plbs, the people, multitude.
3. Suffixed form *pl-dhwo-. plethora; plethysmograph, from Greek derivative verb plthein, to be full.
4. Suffixed adjective (positive) form *pl-ro-. plerocercoid, from Greek plrs, full.
5. Suffixed (comparative) form *pl-i(s)on-. pleo-, pleonasm; pleiotaxy, pleiotropism, Pliocene, from Greek plen, plein, more.
6. Suffixed (superlative) form *pl-isto-. Pleistocene, from Greek pleistos, most.
(V) Possibly Sanskrit pra, cake (< “that which fills or satisfies”): poori.
(Pokorny 1. pel- 798.)
Flat; to spread. Oldest form *pel2-; variant *ple2-, colored to *pla2-, contracted to *pl-.
Derivatives include field, planet, plasma, plastic, and polka. .
1. Suffixed form *pel()-tu-. field, from Old English feld, open field, from Germanic *felthuz, flat land.
2. Suffixed form *pel()-t-es-(by-form of *pel()-tu-). a. feldspar, from Old High German feld, field; b. veldt, from Middle Dutch veld, velt, field. Both a and b from Germanic *feltha-, flat land.
3. Variant form *pl-. a. Suffixed form *pl-ru-. floor, from Old English flr, floor, from Germanic *flruz, floor; b. suffixed form *pl-no-. llano, piano2, plain, planarian, plane1, plane2, plane3, planish, plano-, planula; esplanade, explain, pianoforte, from Latin plnus, flat, level, even, plain, clear.
4. Suffixed zero-grade form *p-m-. palm1, palm2, palmary, from Latin palma (< *palama), palm of the hand.
5. Possibly extended variant form *plan-. a. planet; aplanatic, from Greek plansthai, to wander (< “to spread out”); b. perhaps Germanic *flan-. flâneur, from French flâner, to walk the streets idly, from a source akin to Old Norse flana, to wander aimlessly.
6. Suffixed zero-grade form *pl-dh-. –plasia, plasma, –plast, plaster, plastic, plastid, –plasty; dysplasia, metaplasm, toxoplasma, from Greek plassein (< *plath-yein), to mold, “spread out.” 7. O-grade form *pol-.a. polynya, from Russian poly, open; b. Polack, polka, from Slavic polje, broad flat land, field.
(Pokorny pel- 805.) See also extensions plk-1 and plat-.
Citadel, fortified high place. Oldest form perhaps *pel3- (but exact laryngeal uncertain). Zero-grade form *p-. police, policy1, polis, politic, polity; acropolis, cosmopolis, cosmopolite, megalopolis, metropolis, necropolis, policlinic, propolis, from Greek polis, city (phonological development unclear).
(In Pokorny 1. pel- 798.)
Derivatives include five, Pentecost, quintessence, finger, and foist.
(I) Basic form *penkwe.
1. Assimilated form *pempe. a. (i) five; fifty, from Old English ff, five, with derivative fftig, fifty (-tne, ten; see dek); (ii) fin2, from Old High German finf,funf, five. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *fimf; b. (i) fifteen, from Old English fftne, fifteen; (ii) femto-, from Old Norse fimmtn, fifteen. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic compound *fimftehun, fifteen (*tehun, ten; see dek).
2. Assimilated form *kwenkwe.a. cinquain, cinque, quinque-; cinquecento, cinquefoil, quincunx, from Latin qunque, five; b. keno, quinate, from Latin distributive qun, five each; c. quindecennial, from Latin compound qundecim, fifteen (decem, ten; see dek); d. quincentenary, from Latin qungent, five hundred.
(II) Compound *penkwe-(d)konta,“five tens,” fifty (*-(d)konta, group of ten; see dek).
1. quinquagenarian, Quinquagesima, from Latin qunqugint, fifty.
2. Pentecost, pinkster flower, from Greek pentkonta, fifty.
(III) Ordinal adjective *penkw-to-.
1. fifth, from Old English ffta, fifth, from Germanic *fimftn-.
2. quint1, quintain, quintet, quintile; quintessence, quintillion, quintuple, from Latin quntus (< *quinc-tos), feminine qunta, fifth.
(IV) Suffixed form *penkw-ro-. finger, from Old English finger, finger, from Germanic *fingwraz, finger (< “one of five”).
(V) Suffixed reduced zero-grade form *pk-sti-. a. fist, from Old English fst, fist; b. foist, from Dutch vuist, fist. Both a and b from Germanic *funhstiz.
(Pokorny penke 808, pksti- 839.)
To tread, go.
Derivatives include find, pontiff, and sputnik. .
1. find, from Old English findan, to find, from Germanic *finthan, to come upon, discover.
2. Suffixed o-grade form *pont-i-. a. pons, pontifex, pontiff, pontine, pontoon, punt1; transpontine, from Latin pns (stem pont-), bridge (earliest meaning, “way, passage,” preserved in the priestly title pontifex, “he who prepares the way”; -fex, maker; see dh-); b. sputnik, from Russian sputnik, fellow traveler, sputnik, from put', path, way.
3. Zero-grade form *pt-. peripatetic, from Greek patein, to tread, walk.
4. Suffixed zero-grade form *pt--. a. path, from Old English pæth, path; b. pad2; footpad, from Middle Dutch pad, way, path. Both a and b from Germanic *patha-,way, path, probably borrowed (? via Scythian) from Iranian *path-.
(Pokorny pent- 808.)
Base of prepositions and preverbs with the basic meanings of “forward,” “through,” and a wide range of extended senses such as “in front of,” “before,” “early,” “first,” “chief,” “toward,” “against,” “near,” “at,” “around.”
Derivatives include far, paradise, afford, first, protein, veneer, probe, privy, pristine, and priest.
(I) Basic form *per and extended form *peri.
1a. turnverein, from Middle High German vereinen, to unite, from Old High German far-; b. veer2, from Middle Dutch vieren, to let out, slacken; c. Germanic compound *fer-getan (see ghend-); d. frump, from Middle Dutch verrompelen, to wrinkle. a–d all from Germanic *fer-, *far-, used chiefly as an intensive prefix denoting destruction, reversal, or completion.
2. Suffixed (comparative) form *per-ero-, farther away. far, from Old English feor(r), far, from Germanic *fer(e)ra.
3. per, per-; paramount, paramour, parget, parterre, parvenu, from Latin per, through, for, by.
4. peri-; perissodactyl, from Greek peri, around, near, beyond.
5a. palanquin, puggree, from Sanskrit pari-, couch; b. paradise, from Avestan pairi-, around; c. bard2, purdah, from Old Persian pari, around, over; d. Old Iranian compound *pari-vraka- (see wer-4). a–d all from Indo-Iranian *pari-, around.
6. perestroika, from Old Russian pere-, around, again, from Slavic *per-.
(II) Zero-grade form *p-.
1a. for, from Old English for, before, instead of, on account of; b. for-, from Old English for-, prefix denoting destruction, pejoration, exclusion, or completion. Both a and b from Germanic *fur, before, in.
2. Extended form *pt-. forth; afford, from Old English forth, from Germanic *furth-, forward.
3. Suffixed (comparative) form *p-tero-.further, from Old English furthra, furthor, farther away, from Germanic *furthera-.
4a. Compound *p-st-i- or *por-st-i-, with o-grade form *por- (see st-); b. porrect, from Latin por-, forth, forward. Both a and b from Latin por- from *p-.
5. Suffixed form *p-sd. parget, from Latin porr, forward.
(III) Extended zero-grade form *p-.
1. Suffixed (superlative) form *p-mo-. a. former2, from Old English forma, first, from Germanic *fruma-, *furma-; b. foremost, from Old English formest, first, from Germanic *frumista-, *furmista-; c. Latin compound prandium, “first meal,” late breakfast, lunch (probably < *prm-d-ium < *pm-(e)d-yo-; second element *-(e)d-, to eat; see ed-).
2. Suffixed (superlative) form *p-isto-. first, from Old English fyrst, fyrest, first, from Germanic *furista-, foremost.
3. Suffixed form *p-wo-.a. prow, from Greek prira, forward part of a ship, from analogically suffixed form *prw-arya; b. protein, protist, proto-, proton, from Greek prtos, first, foremost, from suffixed (superlative) form *prw-ato-. Both a and b from Greek *prwo-, first, foremost.
4. Suffixed form *p-i. arpent, from Latin arepennis, half-acre (second element obscure), from Gaulish ari (combining form are-), before, from Celtic *(p)ari, *are.
(IV) Extended form *p.
1a. fore, fore-; forefather, from Old English fore, for, before; b. vorlage, from Old High German fora, before; c. before, from Old English beforan, before, from Germanic prefixed and suffixed form *bi-fora-na, in the front (*bi-, at, by; see ambhi). a–c all from Germanic *fura, before.
2. para-1; palfrey, from Greek para, beside, alongside of, beyond.
3. Purana, from Sanskrit pur, before.
(V) Extended form *pr.
1a. frae, fro; froward, from Old Norse fr, from, from Germanic *fra, forward, away from; b. Germanic *fra-, completely, in compounds (see ed-, aik-).
2. Suffixed form *pr-mo-. a. frame, from, from Old English fram, forward, from, from Germanic *fram, from; b. furnish, furniture, veneer, from Old French f(o)urnir, to supply, provide, from Germanic derivative verb *frumjan, to further, from Germanic *frum, forward; c. pram2, from Czech prám, raft.
3. Suffixed form *pr-wo-. a. (i) Frau, Fräulein, from Old High German frouwa, lady; (ii) Freyja, from Old Norse freyja, lady. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *frw-, lady, lengthened-grade feminine of *frawan-;lord; b. Frey, from Old Norse Freyr, from Germanic *frawa-, alteration of *frawan-. lord; c. form *pr-wo-,independently created in Slavic. naprapathy, from Old Church Slavonic prav, true.
4. pride, pro1, pro-1, prodigality, proud, prowess; improve, purchase, from Latin pr, pr-, before, for, instead of.
5. Suffixed form *pr-no-. prone, from Latin prnus, leaning forward.
6. Possible suffixed form *pro-ko-. reciprocal, from Latin compound reciprocus, alternating, “backward and forward” (*re-ko-, backward; see re-).
7. Suffixed adverb *pro-kwe. a. approach, rapprochement, reproach, from Latin prope, near; b. suffixed form *prokw-inkwo-. propinquity, from Latin propinquus, near; c. suffixed (superlative) form *prokw-isamo-. proximate; approximate, from Latin proximus, nearest.
8. Compound *pro-bhw-o-, growing well or straightforward (*bhw-o-,to grow; see bheu-). probable, probe, probity, proof, prove; approve, improbity, reprove, from Latin probus, upright, good, virtuous.
9. pro-2, from Greek pro, before, in front, forward.
10. Suffixed (comparative) form *pro-tero-. hysteron proteron, Proterozoic, from Greek proteros, before, former.
11. Prakrit, from Sanskrit pra-, before, forth.
12. Celtic *ro-,intensive prefix. galore, from Old Irish roar, enough, from Celtic compound *ro-wero-, sufficiency (*-wero-, see wr-o-).
(VI) Extended forms *prai-, *prei-.
1a. pre-; preterit, from Latin prae, before; b. compound *prai-ghes-to- (see ghes-).
2. Suffixed (comparative) form *prei-yos-. prior2, from Latin prior, former, higher, superior.
3. Suffixed form *prei-wo-. a. private, privilege, privity, privy; deprive, from Latin prvus, single, alone (< “standing in front,” “isolated from others”); b. proper, property; appropriate, expropriate, proprioception, proprioceptor, proprium, from Latin proprius, one's own, particular (< pr prv, in particular, from the ablative of prvus, single; pr, for; see V.4.).
4. Extended form *preis-.a. Suffixed (superlative) form *preis-mo-.(i) premier, primal, primary, primate, prime, primitive, primo, primus; imprimis, primavera1, primeval, primipara, primogenitor, primogeniture, primordial, from Latin prmus (< *prsmus; ablative plural prms), first, foremost; (ii) prince, principal, principle, from Latin compound prnceps, “he who takes first place,” leader, chief, emperor (-ceps, “-taker”; see kap-); b. suffixed form *preis-tano-. pristine, from Latin prstinus, former, earlier, original.
(VII) Extended form *pres- in compound *pres-gwu-, “going before” (*gw-u-, going; see gw-). presbyter, Prester John, priest; presbyopia, from Greek presbus, old, old man, elder.
(VIII) Extended form *proti. pros-, from Greek pros, against, toward, near, at.
(Pokorny 2. A. per 810.) Other possibly related forms are grouped under per-2, per-3, per-4, and per-5.
To lead, pass over. A verbal root belonging to the group of per1.
Derivatives include fjord, welfare, emporium, opportune, important, and sport.
(I) Full-grade form *per-.
1. Suffixed form *per-tu-. firth, fjord, from Old Norse fjördhr, an inlet, estuary, from Germanic *ferthuz, place for crossing over, ford.
2. Suffixed form *per-on-. peroneal, from Greek peron, pin of a brooch, buckle (< “that which pierces through”).
3. Suffixed form *per-yo-. diapir, from Greek peirein, to pierce.
4. Suffixed form *per-tr-. petro-, petrous, pier; parsley, petrify, petroleum, saltpeter, from Greek petr, cliff, rock (dissimilated from *pertr-), with possible earlier meaning “bedrock” (< “what one comes through to”).
5. Suffixed form *per-w,*per-w-, bedrock, “a coming through, what one comes through to,” and derived adjective *per-w-to-,rocky. Parvati, from Sanskrit parvata, mountain.
(II) O-grade form *por-.
1a. (i) fare; warfare, wayfarer, wayfaring, welfare, from Old English faran, to go on a journey, get along; (ii) fieldfare, from Old English feldeware, possibly altered by folk etymology in Old English from an earlier *feldefare, from *fare, a goer, from faran (see (i) above); b. gaberdine, from Old High German faran, to go, travel; c. fartlek, from Old Norse fara, to go, move. a–c all from Germanic *faran, to go.
2. Suffixed form *por-o-,passage, journey. pore2; aporia, emporium, poromeric, from Greek poros, journey, passage.
3. Suffixed (causative) form *por-eyo-, to cause to go, lead, conduct. a. ferry, from Old English ferian, to transport, from Germanic *farjan, to ferry; b. guar, from Sanskrit prayati, playati, he leads across, brings to safety.
4. Lengthened-grade form *pr-.a. fere, from Old English (ge)fra, “fellow-traveler,” companion (ge-, together, with; see kom), from Germanic suffixed form *fr-ja-; b. führer, from Old High German fuoren, to lead, from Germanic suffixed (causative) form *fr-jan.
5. Possibly suffixed form *por-no-, feather, wing (< “that which carries a bird in flight”). a. fern, from Old English fearn, fern (having feathery fronds), from Germanic *farn, feather, leaf; b. pan2, from Sanskrit param, leaf, feather.
(III) Zero-grade form *p-.
1. Suffixed form *p-tu-, passage. a. ford, from Old English ford, shallow place where one may cross a river, from Germanic *furdu-; b. port1; importune, opportune, passport, from Latin portus, harbor (< “passage”).
2. Suffixed form *p-t-. porch, port3, portal, portcullis, porter2, portico, portière, portulaca, purslane, from Latin porta, gate.
3. Suffixed (denominative) form *p-to-. port5, portable, portage, portamento, portative, porter1; comport, deport, export, import, important, portfolio, purport, rapport, report, sport, support, transport, from Latin portre, to carry.
(Pokorny 2. B. per 816.)
To try, risk (< “to lead over,” “press forward”). A verbal root belonging to the group of per1.
1. Lengthened grade *pr-. fear, from Old English fr, danger, sudden calamity, from Germanic *fraz, danger.
2. Suffixed form *per-tlo-. parlous, peril, from Latin perclum, perculum, trial, danger.
3. Suffixed form *per-yo-. experience, experiment, expert, from Latin experr, to try, learn by trying (ex-, from; see eghs).
4. Suffixed form *per-ya. pirate; empiric, from Greek peira, trial, attempt.
(Pokorny 2. E. per 818.)
To strike. A verbal root possibly belonging to the group of per1. Extended forms *prem-,*pres-. pregnant2, press1, pressure, print; appressed, après, compress, depress, espresso, express, impress1, imprimatur, imprint, oppress, repress, reprimand, reprisal, reprise, suppress, from Latin premere (past participle pressus), to press.
(Pokorny 3. per- 818.)
To traffic in, sell (< “to hand over,” “distribute”). A verbal root belonging to the group of per1. Base of two distinct extended roots.
(I) Root form *pret-.
1. interpret, from Latin compound inter-pres (stem inter-pret-), go-between, negotiator (inter-, between; see en).
2. Suffixed form *pret-yo-. praise, precious, price; appraise, appreciate, depreciate, from Latin pretium, price.
(II) Variant root form *per2-. Suffixed form *p(e)r-n--, with o-grade *por()-n-. pornography, from Greek porn, prostitute, from pernanai, to sell.
(In Pokorny 2. C. per 817.)
1. fart, from Old English *feortan, to fart, from Germanic *fertan,*fartn.
2. partridge, from Greek perdix, partridge (which makes a sharp whirring sound when suddenly flushed).
(Pokorny perd- 819.) Compare pezd-.
To produce, procure. Oldest form *per2-; possibly related to per-2. See also per-5 II.
Derivatives include parade, parry, emperor, parachute, sever, and parent.
(I) Zero-grade form *p- (becoming *par- in Latin). a. Suffixed form *par--. parade, pare, parlay, parry, parure; apparatus, apparel, comprador, disparate, emperor, imperative, imperator, imperial, parachute, parasol, prepare, rampart, repair1, separate, sever, several, from Latin parre, to try to get, prepare, equip; b. suffixed form *par-yo-. –para, parity2, –parous, parturient, postpartum, repertory, viper, from Latin parere, parre, to get, beget, give birth; c. parallel suffixed (participial) form *par-ent-. parent, from Latin parns, parent; d. suffixed form *par-o-,producing: (i) juniper, from Latin iniperus, juniper, perhaps from compound *yoini-paros, “producing juniper berries” (*yoini-,juniper berry); (ii) compound *pau-paros (see pau-); (iii) Italic compound *wwo-paros (see gwei-); e. suffixed form *par-ik-. Parcae, from Latin Parcae, the Fates (who assign one's destiny).
(II) Suffixed o-grade form por()-s-. heifer, from Old English hahfore, calf, a compound (with obscure first element) of fearr, calf, from Germanic *farz-.
(Pokorny 2. D. per 818.)
To grant, allot (reciprocally, to get in return). Oldest form *per3-. Possibly related to per-1. See also per-5 II. Zero-grade form *p- (becoming *par- in Latin). a. Suffixed form *par-ti-. parcel, parcener, parse, part, particle, partisan, partita, party; bipartite, compart, impart, participate, repartee, from Latin pars (stem part-), a share, part; b. possibly suffixed form *par-tin-. portion, proportion, from Latin porti, a part (first attested in the phrase pr portine, in proportion, according to each part, perhaps assimilated from *pr partine); c. perhaps Latin pr, equal: pair, par, parity1, peer2; compare, imparity, nonpareil, pari-mutuel.
(Pokorny 2. C. per 817.)
1. Zero-grade form *pkw-. fir, probably from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Icelandic fri, fir, from Germanic *furh-jn-.
2. Assimilated form *kwerkwu-. cork, quercetin; quercitron, from Latin quercus, oak.
(Pokorny perku-s 822.)
Penis. Suffixed form *pes-ni-. pencil, penicillium, penis, from Latin pnis (< *pesnis), penis, tail.
(Pokorny 3. pes- 824.)
Also pet- (oldest form *pet1-). To rush, fly. Variant *pte1-, contracted to *pt-.
Derivatives include feather, compete, perpetual, ptomaine, symptom, and hippopotamus. .
1. Suffixed form *pet-r-. feather, from Old English fether, feather, from Germanic *fethr, feather.
2. –petal, petition, petulant; appetite, compete, impetigo, impetuous, impetus, perpetual, repeat, from Latin petere, to go toward, seek.
3. Suffixed form *pet-n-. panache, pen1, penna, pennate, pennon, pin, pinna, pinnacle, pinnate, pinnati-, pinnule; empennage, from Latin penna, pinna, feather, wing.
4. Suffixed form *pet-ro- in compound *aku-petro- (see ku-).
5. Suffixed form *pet-yo-. propitious, from Latin propitius, favorable, gracious, originally a religious term meaning “falling or rushing forward,” hence “eager,” “well-disposed” (said of the gods; pr-, forward; see per1).
6. Suffixed zero-grade form *pt-ero-. –pter; acanthopterygian, aminopterin, apteryx, archaeopteryx, coleopteran, dipteral, mecopteran, orthopteran, peripteral, plecopteran, pteridology, pterygoid, sauropterygian, from Greek pteron, feather, wing, and pterux, wing.
7. Suffixed zero-grade form *pt-ilo-. coleoptile, from Greek ptilon, soft feathers, down, plume.
8. Suffixed variant form *pt-no-. stearoptene, from Greek ptnos, winged, flying.
9. Reduplicated form *pi-pt-. ptomaine, ptosis; asymptote, peripeteia, proptosis, symptom, from Greek piptein, to fall, with verbal adjective pttos (< *pt-to-), falling, fallen, and nominal derivatives ptsis (< *pt-ti-), a fall, and ptma (< *pt-m), a fall, fallen body, corpse.
10. O-grade form *pot-. hippopotamus, potamology, from Greek potamos “rushing water,” river (-amo-,Greek suffix).
11. Suffixed form *pet-tro-. talipot, from Sanskrit pattram, feather, leaf.
(Pokorny 2. pet-825.)
To spread. Oldest form *pet2-.
Derivatives include fathom, patent, and compass. .
1. Suffixed o-grade form *pot()-mo-. fathom, from Old English fæthm, fathom, from Germanic *fathmaz,“length of two arms stretched out.”
2. Suffixed (stative) variant zero-grade form *pat--. patent, patulous, from Latin patre, to be open.
3. Probably variant zero-grade form in remade nasalized form *pat-no-. pace1, pandy, pas, paseo, pass, passé, passim; compass, expand, pasqueflower, passacaglia, passage1, passage2, passport, repand, spawn, from Latin pandere (past participle passus < *pat-to-), to spread out.
4. Suffixed form *pet-alo-. petal, from Greek petalon, leaf.
5. Suffixed form *pet-ano-. paella, pan1, paten, patina1, patina2, from Greek patan (? < *petan-), platter, “thing spread out.” 6. petasos, from Greek petasos, broad-brimmed hat, from Greek suffixed form *peta-so-.
(Pokorny 1. pet- 824.)
Father. Oldest form *p2ter-.
1. father; forefather, from Old English fæder, father, from Germanic *fadar.
2. padre, pater, paternal, patri-, patrician, patrimony, patron, père; compadre, expatriate, goombah, perpetrate, from Latin pater, father.
To purify, cleanse. Oldest form *peu2-. Suffixed zero-grade form *p-ro- (< *pu-ro-). pour, pure, purée, purge, Puritan; compurgation, depurate, expurgate, purblind, spurge, from Latin prus, pure, and prgre, to purify (< *pr-igre < *pr-agre; *ag-, to drive; see ag-).
(Pokorny 1. peu- 827.)
Also peug-. To prick. Oldest forms *peu-, *peu-,becoming *peuk-, *peug- in centum languages. Zero-grade form *pug-.
1. Suffixed form *pug-no-. poniard, pugilism, pugil stick, pugnacious; impugn, oppugn, repugn, from Latin pugil, pugilist, and pugnus, fist, with denominative pugnre, to fight with the fist.
2. Nasalized zero-grade form *pu-n-g-. bung, pink2, poignant, point, pointillism, pontil, pounce1, pounce3, puncheon1, punctilio, punctual, punctuate, puncture, pungent; bontebok, compunction, expunge, spontoon, trapunto, from Latin pungere, to prick.
3. pygmaean, Pygmy, from Greek pugm, fist.
(Pokorny peu- 828.)
1. Suffixed form *pezd-i-. feist, from Old English fsting, a breaking wind, and Middle English fisten, to fart, from Germanic *fistiz, a fart.
2. petard, from Latin pdere, to fart.
3. Perhaps Latin pdis, louse (? < “foul-smelling insect”): pedicular.
(Pokorny pezd- 829, 2. peis- 796.) Compare perd-.
Also plak-. To be flat. Earliest form *ple2k-, colored to *pla2k-, contracted to *plk-. Extension of pel-2.
Derivatives include fluke1, flaw1, plead, placenta, and archipelago. .
1. floe, from Old Norse fl, layer, coating, from Germanic *flh.
2. Variant form *plg-. a. fluke1, from Old English flc, flatfish, from Germanic *flk-; b. flake1, from Middle English flake, flake, from a Scandinavian source probably akin to Norwegian flak, flat piece, flake, from Germanic *flakaz; c. flake2, from Old Norse flaki,fleki, hurdle, from Germanic *flak-.
3. Extended form *plak-. flag4, flaw1, from Old Norse flaga, layer of stone, from Germanic *flag.
4. Possibly suffixed (stative) form *plak--, to be calm (as of the flat sea). placebo, placid, plea, plead, pleasant, please; complacent, from Latin placre, to please, be agreeable.
5. Root noun *plak-. supplicate, supple, from Latin supplex, suppliant (whence denominative supplicre, to beg humbly, first attested in Archaic Latin as sub vos plac, I entreat you; sub, under; see upo.) 6. Lengthened suffixed form *plk--. placable, placate, from Latin plcre, to calm (causative of placre).
7. Nasalized form *pla-n-k-. planchet, plank, from Latin plancus, flat, flat-footed.
8. Variant form *plag-. a. Perhaps Latin plaga, net (? < “something extended”): plagiary; b. plagal, plagio-, playa, from Greek plagos, side.
9. Root form *plak-. placenta, placoid; leukoplakia, placoderm, from Greek plax, flat, flat land, surface, plate.
10. Possible variant form *pelag-. pelagic; archipelago, from Greek pelagos, sea.
(Pokorny 1. pl-k- 831.)
To strike. Oldest form *ple2k-, colored to *pla2k-, contracted to *plk-.
1. Nasalized variant forms *pla-n-k-,*pla-n-g-. a. fling, from Middle English flingen, to fling, from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Norse flengja, to flog, whip, from Germanic *flang-; b. plaint, plangent; complain, from Latin plangere, to strike (one's own breast), lament; c. suffixed form *plang-yo-. plankton, from Greek plazein, to drive away, turn aside.
2. Variant form *plg-. plague, from Latin plga, a blow, stroke.
3. Suffixed form *plk-yo-. plectrum, –plegia, plexor; apoplexy, cataplexy, paraplegia, from Greek plssein, to beat, strike.
(Pokorny 2. plk- 832.)
To spread. Also plet- (oldest form *plet2-). Extension of pel-2.
Derivatives include flatter1, plant, plateau, platitude, and plaza. .
1. Variant form *plad-. a. flat1, from Old Norse flatr, flat; b. flatter1, from Old French flater, to flatter. Both a and b from Germanic *flataz, flat.
2. Suffixed variant form *plad-yo-. flat2, from Old English flet(t), floor, dwelling, from Germanic *flatjam.
3. Basic form *plat-. flan, from Late Latin flad, flat cake, pancake, from Germanic *flath(n), flat cake.
4. flounder2, from Anglo-Norman floundre, flounder, from a Scandinavian source probably akin to Old Swedish flundra, flatfish, flounder, from Germanic suffixed nasalized form *flu-n-th-r-j-.
5. Nasalized form *pla-n-t-. clan, plan, plant, plantain1, plantar; plantigrade, supplant, transplant, from Latin planta, sole of the foot, and denominative plantre, to drive in with the sole of the foot, plant, whence planta, a plant.
To plait. Extension of pel-2. Oldest form *ple-,becoming *plek- in centum languages.
Derivatives include flax, pliant, and perplex. .
1. Suffixed o-grade form *plok-so-. flax, from Old English fleax, flax, from Germanic *flahsam, flax.
2. Full-grade form *plek-. multiplex, from Latin -plex, -fold (in compounds such as duplex, twofold; see dwo-).
3. plait, pleat, pliant, plica, plicate, plight1, plissé, ply1; apply, complicate, complice, deploy, display, employ, explicate, explicit, exploit, implicate, implicit, replicate, reply, splay, from Latin plicre, to fold (also in compounds used as denominatives of words in -plex, genitive -plicis).
4. Suffixed forms *plek-to- and *plek-t-to-. pleach, plexus; amplexicaul, amplexus, complect, complex, perplexed, from Latin plectere (past participle plexus), to weave, plait, entwine.
5. plecopteran, plectognath, from Greek plekein, to plait, twine, and plektos, twisted.
(Pokorny ple- 834.)
Derivatives include pulmonary, Pluto, flow, fowl, flutter, and fluster.
(I) Basic form *pleu-.
1.plover, pluvial, pluvious, from Latin pluere, to rain.
2. pleuston, from Greek pleusis, sailing.
3. Suffixed zero-grade form *plu-elos. pyelitis, from Greek dissimilated puelos, trough, basin.
4. Suffixed form *pl(e)u-mon-, “floater,” lung(s). a. pulmonary, from Latin pulm (< *plumons), lung(s); b. pneumo-, pneumonia, pneumonic, from Greek pleumn, pneumn (influenced by pneuma, breath; see pneu-), lung.
5. Suffixed o-grade form *plou-to-. Pluto; plutocracy, plutography, from Greek ploutos, wealth, riches (< “overflowing”).
6. Lengthened o-grade form *pl(u)-. a. (i) flow, from Old English flwan, to flow; (ii) perhaps Middle Dutch vluwe, fishnet: flue2. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *flwan, to flow; b. suffixed form *pl-tu-. flood, from Old English fld, flood, from Germanic *flduz, flowing water, deluge.
(II) Extended form *pleuk-.
1. fly1, from Old English flogan, to fly, from Germanic *fleugan, to fly.
2. fly2, from Old English floge, a fly, from Germanic *fleugn-, flying insect, fly.
3. Probably Germanic *fleuhan, to run away. flee, from Old English flon, to flee.
4. fley, from Old English flgan, flgan, to put to flight, from Germanic causative *flaugjan.
5. flèche, fletcher, from Old French fleche, arrow, from Germanic suffixed form *fleug-ika.
6. Zero-grade form *pluk-.a. fledge, from Old English *flycge, with feathers (only in unfligge, featherless), from Germanic *flugja-, feather; b. flight1, flight2, from Old English flyht, act of flying, and *flyht, act of fleeing, escape, from Germanic suffixed form *flug-ti-; c. fowl, from Old English fugol, bird, from Germanic *fuglaz, bird, dissimilated from possible (but unlikely) suffixed form *flug-laz; d. flügelhorn, fugleman, from Middle High German vlügel, wing, from Germanic suffixed form *flug-ilaz.
(III) Extended form *pleud-.
1. fleet1, fleet2, from Old English flotan, to float, swim (from Germanic *fleutan), and Old Norse fljtr, fleet, swift (from Germanic *fleutaz).
2. Zero-grade form *plud-. a. (i) float, from Old English flotian, to float; (ii) flotsam, from Old French floter, to float. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic derivative *flotn, to float; b. flotilla, from Old Norse floti, raft, fleet; c. flutter, from Old English floterian, flotorian, to float back and forth (-erian, iterative and frequentative suffix); d.flit, from Old Norse flytja, to further, convey, from Germanic *flutjan, to float. a–d all from Germanic *flut-, *flot-.
3. fluster, probably from a Scandinavian source akin to Icelandic flaustr, hurry, and flaustra, to bustle, from Germanic *flausta-, contracted from suffixed form *flaut-st-, probably from *pleud-, o-grade *ploud-.
(Pokorny pleu-835, pl(e)u-mon- 837.)
To breathe. Imitative root.
1. sneeze, from Old English fnosan, to sneeze, from Germanic *fneu-s-.
2. snore, snort, from Old English fnora, sneezing, from Germanic *fnu-s-.
3. apnea, dipnoan, dyspnea, eupnea, hyperpnea, hypopnea, polypnea, tachypnea, from Greek pnein, to breathe, with o-grade nouns pnoi,-pnoia, breathing, and pno, breath.
4. Suffixed form *pneu-m. pneuma, pneumatic, pneumato-, pneumo-, from Greek pneuma, breath, wind, spirit.
5. Germanic variant root *fnes-. sneer, from Old English fnran, to snort, gnash one's teeth.
To drink. Oldest form *pe3(i)-, colored to *po3(i)-.
(I) Basic form *p(i)-, reduced to *p- (< *po-).
1. Suffixed form *p-to-. potable, potation, potatory, from Latin ptus, drunk; a drink (whence ptre, to drink).
2. Suffixed form *p-ti-. poison, potion, from Latin pti, a drink.
3. Suffixed form *p-tlo-,drinking vessel. hibachi, from Sanskrit ptram, cup, bowl.
4. Suffixed reduplicated zero-grade form *pi-p-o-, whence *pi-bo-, assimilated to *bi-bo-. beer, beverage, bib, bibulous; imbibe, imbrue, from Latin bibere, to drink.
5. Suffixed zero-grade form *p-ti-, *po-ti-. symposium, from Greek posis, drink, drinking.
(II) Zero-grade form *p- (< *pi-).
1. Suffixed form *p-ro-.pirog, from Old Church Slavonic pir, feast.
2. Suffixed (nasal present) form *p-no-. pinocytosis, from Greek pnein, to drink.
(Pokorny 2. p(i)- 839.)
Young pig. Oldest form *poro-,becoming *porko- in centum languages.
1a. farrow1, from Old English fearh, little pig; b. aardvark, from Middle Dutch diminutive form varken, small pig. Both a and b from Germanic *farhaz.
2. porcelain, porcine, pork; porcupine, porpoise, from Latin porcus, pig.
(Pokorny poro-s 841.)
1. podesta, possess, power, from Latin potis (> *pots > pos-), powerful, able.
2. possible, potent; impotent, omnipotent, prepotent, from Latin compound posse, to be able (contracted from potis, able + esse, to be; see es-).
3. Form *pot-. a. Compound *ghos-pot-(see ghos-ti-); b. compound *dems-pot- (see dem-).
4. bashaw, Padishah, pasha, from Old Persian pati-, master.
(Pokorny poti-s 842.)
To ask, entreat. Oldest form *pre-,becoming *prek- in centum languages.
1. Basic form *prek-. pray, prayer1, precarious; deprecate, imprecate, prie-dieu, from *prex, prayer (attested only in the plural precs), with Latin denominative precr, to entreat, pray.
2. Suffixed zero-grade form *pk-sk- becoming *pork-sk-,contracted to *posk- in suffixed form *posk-to-,contracted to *posto-. postulate; expostulate, from Latin postulre, to ask, request.
(Pokorny 4. per- 821.)
To freeze, burn.
1. freeze, from Old English frosan, to freeze, from Germanic *freusan, to freeze.
2. Suffixed zero-grade form *prus-to-. frost, from Old English forst, frost, frost, from Germanic *frustaz, frost.
3. Suffixed form *preus-i-. prurient, prurigo, pruritus, from Latin denominative prrre, to burn, itch, yearn for, from *preusis, *preuris, act of burning.
4. Suffixed zero-grade form *prus-wn-. pruinose, from Latin pruna, hoarfrost.
(Pokorny preus- 846.)
To love. Contracted from *pri- (becoming *priy- before vowels).
Derivatives include filibuster, friend, and Friday. .
1. Suffixed form *priy-o-. a. free, from Old English fro, free, and fron, freogan, to love, set free; b. filibuster, freebooter, from Dutch vrij, free. Both a and b from Germanic *frijaz, beloved, belonging to the loved ones, not in bondage, free, and *frijn, to love.
2. Suffixed (participial) form *priy-ont-, loving. friend, from Old English frond, frond, friend, from Germanic *frijand-, lover, friend.
3. Suffixed shortened form *pri-tu-. a. Siegfried, from Old High German fridu, peace; b. affray, afraid, from Old French esfreer, to disturb, from Vulgar Latin *exfredre, to break the peace, from ex-, out, away (see eghs) + *fridre, to make peace, from Germanic *frithu-,peace; c. Germanic *frij-, peace, safety, in compound *berg-frij- (see bhergh-2). a–c all from Germanic *frithuz, peace.
4. Suffixed feminine form *priy--, beloved. a. Frigg, from Old Norse Frigg, goddess of the heavens, wife of Odin; b. Friday, from Old English Frgedæg, Friday, from Germanic compound *frije-dagaz, “day of Frigg” (translation of Latin Veneris dis,“Venus's day”). Both a and b from Germanic *frijj, beloved, wife.
(Pokorny pri- 844.)
To rot, decay. Probably contracted from *pu- (becoming *puw- before vowels).
Derivatives include foul, fuzzy, potpourri, and pus. .
1. Suffixed form *p-lo-.a. foul, from Old English fl, unclean, rotten; b. fulmar, from Old Norse fll, foul; c. filth, from Old English flth, foulness, from Germanic abstract noun *flith; d. file3, foil1; defile1, from Old English flan, to sully, from Germanic denominative *fljan, to soil, dirty. a–d all from Germanic *flaz, rotten, filthy.
2. Extended form *pug-. fog2, from Middle English fog,fogge, aftermath grass, from a Scandinavian source probably akin to Icelandic fki, rotten sea grass, and Norwegian fogg, rank grass, from Germanic *fuk-.
3. Extended variant form *pous-. fuzzy, from Low German fussig, spongy, from Germanic *fausa-.
4. Suffixed form *pu-tri-. putrescent, putrid; olla podrida, potpourri, putrefy, from Latin puter (stem putri-), rotten.
5. Suffixed form *puw-os-. a. purulent, pus; suppurate, from Latin ps, pus; b. pyo-, from Greek puon,puos, pus.
6. empyema, from Greek compound empuein, to suppurate (en-, in; see en).