Источник: Calvert Watkins, The American Heritage® Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2000.
Всего на *r- представлено 14 корней из словаря Кальверта Уоткинса (Калверта Воткинса).
Also red-. Backward. Latin combining form conceivably from Indo-European *wret-, metathetical variant of *wert-, to turn (< “turned back”), an extended form of wer-2..
1. re-, from Latin re-, red-, backward, again..
2. Suffixed form *re(d)-tro-. retral, retro-; arrears, rear guard, rearward2, reredos, from Latin retr, backward, back, behind..
3. Suffixed form *re-ko- in Latin reciprocus (see per1).)
To scrape, scratch, gnaw. Oldest form *re1d-, contracted to *rd-..
1. O-grade form *rd-. a. rodent; corrode, erode, from Latin rdere, to gnaw; b. suffixed (instrumental) form *rd-tro-. rostrum, from Latin rstrum, beak, ship's bow..
2. Possibly extended zero-grade form *rd-d-, becoming *razd-, whence *rd- in Latin. a. radula, rape3, rappee, rascal, rash2, rasorial, ratiné, ratteen, raze, razor; abrade, corrade, erase, from Latin rdere, to scrape; b. suffixed (instrumental) form *rd-tro-. raclette, raster, from Latin rstrum, rake..
3. Zero-grade form *rd-. rat, from Old English ræt, rat, from Germanic *rattn-.
2. rd- 854.)
To bestow, endow. Contracted from *re1-. Suffixed form *re-i-, goods, wealth, property. re2, real1, rebus; reify, republic, from Latin rs, thing.
4. rei- 860.)
To move in a straight line, with derivatives meaning “to direct in a straight line, lead, rule.” Oldest form *3re-, becoming *3reg- in centum languages.
Derivatives include right, realm, anorexia, rich, rule, interrogate, and reckless.
(I) Basic form *reg-..
1. Suffixed form *reg-to-. right, from Old English riht, right, just, correct, straight, from Germanic *rehtaz..
3. anorectic, anorexia, from Greek oregein, to stretch out, reach out for (with o- from oldest root form *3re-).
(II) Lengthened-grade form *rg-, Indo-European word for a tribal king..
1a. bishopric, eldritch, from Old English rce, realm; b. Riksmål, from Old Norse rki, realm; c. Reich; Reichsmark, from Old High German rchi, realm; d. rich, from Old English rce, strong, powerful, and Old French riche, wealthy. a–d all from Germanic *rkja-, from Celtic suffixed form *rg-yo-..
2. real2, regal, regulus, reign, rial1, riyal, royal; regicide, regius professor, vicereine, viceroy, from Latin rx, king (royal and priestly title)..
3. Suffixed form *rg-en-. raj, rajah, rani, rye2; maharajah, maharani, from Sanskrit rj, rjan-, king, rajah (feminine rjñ, queen, rani), and rjati, he rules.
(III) Suffixed lengthened-grade form *rg-ol-. rail1, reglet, regular, regulate, rule, from Latin rgula, straight piece of wood, rod.
(IV) O-grade form *rog-..
1. rake1, from Old English raca, racu, rake (implement with straight pieces of wood), from Germanic *rak..
2. rack1, from Middle Dutch rec, framework, from Germanic *rak-..
3. Possibly Germanic *rankaz (with nasal infix). rank2, from Old English ranc, straight, strong, hence haughty, overbearing..
4. reckon, from Old English gerecenian, to arrange in order, recount (ge-, collective prefix; see kom), from Germanic *rakinaz, ready, straightforward..
5. Suffixed form *rog--. rogation, rogatory; abrogate, arrogate, corvée, derogate, interrogate, prerogative, prorogue, subrogate, supererogate, from Latin rogre, to ask (< “stretch out the hand”)..
6. Suffixed form *rog-o-. ergo, from Latin erg, therefore, in consequence of, perhaps contracted from a Latin phrase * rog, “from the direction of” ( < ex, out of; see eghs), from a possible Latin noun *rogus, “extension, direction.”
(V) Lengthened o-grade form *rg-..
1. reck, from Old English rec(c)an, to pay attention to, take care (formally influenced by Old English reccan, to extend, stretch out, from Germanic *rakjan), from Germanic *rkjan..
2. reckless, from Old English rcelas, careless (-las, lacking; see leu-), from Germanic rkja-.
(VI) Suffixed zero-grade form *g-yo-. raita, from Sanskrit jyati, he stretches out.
1. re- 854.)
To flow, run..
1. Suffixed zero-grade form *ri-nu-. a. run, runnel, from Old English rinnan, to run, and Old Norse rinna, to run (from Germanic *rinnan, to run, from *ri-nw-an), and from Old English causative ærnan, eornan, to run (from secondary Germanic causative *rannjan); b. Ember day, from Old English ryne, a running, from secondary Germanic derivative *runiz; c. rennet, from Old English *rynet, from secondary Germanic derivative *runita-..
2. Suffixed zero-grade form *ri-l-. rill, from Dutch ril or Low German rille, running stream, from Germanic *ril-..
3. Suffixed form *rei-wo-. rival, rivulet; derive, from Latin rvus, stream.
3. er- 326.)
Derivatives include raid, road, and array.
(I) Basic form *reidh-..
1. ride, from Old English rdan, to ride, from Germanic *rdan..
2. palfrey, from Latin verdus, post horse, from Celtic *wo-rd- (*wo-, under; see upo).
(II) O-grade form *roidh-..
1a. raid, road, from Old English rd, a riding, road, from Germanic *raid-; b. raddle1, from Middle High German reidel, rod between upright stakes (< “wooden horse”), possibly from Germanic *raid- (see a)..
2. Probably Germanic *raid-ja-. ready; already, from Old English ræde, geræde, ready (< “prepared for a journey”)..
3. Probably Germanic *raidjan. raiment; array, curry1, from Vulgar Latin *-rdre, to arrange.
(Pokorny reidh- 861.)
To reach, stretch out. Oldest form *rei-, becoming *reig- in centum languages..
1. O-grade form *roig-. reach, from Old English rcan, to stretch out, reach, from Germanic *raikjan..
2. Possibly suffixed (stative) zero-grade form *rig--. rigid, rigor, from Latin rigre, to be stiff (? < “be stretched out”).
(Pokorny (rei-) 862.)
To snatch. Suffixed zero-grade form *rap-yo-. rapacious, rape1, rapid, rapine, rapt, ravage, raven2, ravin, ravish; erepsin, subreption, surreptitious, from Latin rapere, to seize.
(Pokorny rep- 865.)
To run, roll..
1. Prefixed Celtic form *to-wo-ret-, “a running up to” (to-, to; wo, under, up, up from under; see upo). Tory, from Old Irish tir, pursuit..
2. Suffixed o-grade form *rot--. rodeo, roll, rota, rotary, rotate, rotund, rotunda, roulette, round1, rowel; barouche, control, prune2, rocambole, rotiform, rotogravure, from Latin rota, wheel..
3. Suffixed (participial) form *ret-ondo-. rotund, rotunda, round1, from Latin rotundus, round, probably from *retundus, “rolling.”
(Pokorny ret(h)- 866.)
Red, ruddy. Oldest form *1reudh-.
Derivatives include red, robust, corroborate, ruby, and rubric.
(I) O-grade form *roudh-..
1a. red, from Old English rad, red; b. rorqual, from Old Norse raudhr, red. Both a and b from Germanic *raudaz..
2. rowan, from a source akin to Old Norse reynir, mountain ash, rowan (from its red berries), from Germanic *raudnia-..
3. rufescent, rufous, from Latin rfus (of dialectal Italic origin), reddish..
4. rubiginous, from Latin rbus, red..
5. roble, roborant, robust; corroborate, rambunctious, from Latin rbur, rbus, red oak, hardness, and rbustus, strong.
(II) Zero-grade form *rudh-..
1. Suffixed form *rudh--. a. ruddle, from Old English rudu, red color; b. ruddock, from Old English rudduc, robin; c. ruddy, from Old English rudig, ruddy. a–c all from Germanic *rud..
2. Suffixed form *rudh-sto-. rust, from Old English rst (also rust?), rust, from Germanic *rust-..
3. rouge, rubeola, ruby; rubefacient, from Latin rubeus, red..
4. rubicund, from Latin rubicundus, red, ruddy..
5. rubidium, from Latin rbidus, red..
6. Suffixed (stative) form *rudh--. rubescent, from Latin rubre, to be red..
7. Suffixed form *rudh-ro-. a. rubella, rubric; bilirubin, from Latin ruber, red; b. rutilant, rutile, from Latin rutilus, reddish; c. erythema, erythro-, from Greek eruthros, red (with prothetic vowel from oldest zero-grade form *rudh-); d. erysipelas, from possibly remade Greek erusi-, red, reddening..
8. Suffixed form *rudh-to-. rissole, roux, russet, from Latin russus, red.
(Pokorny reudh- 872.)
To open; space..
1. Suffixed zero-grade form *r-mo- (< *ru-mo-). a. room, from Old English rm, space; b. lebensraum, from Old High German rm, space; c. rummage, from Old Provençal run, ship's hold, space. a–c all from Germanic *rmaz; d. ream2, from Old English rman, to widen, open up, from Germanic denominative *rmjan..
2. Suffixed form *reu()-es-. rural, rustic, from Latin rs, “open land,” the country.
(Pokorny re- 874.)
To vomit, belch; smoke, cloud..
1. reek, from Old English rocan, to smoke, reek, and rcan, to fumigate, from Germanic *reukan..
2. Suffixed zero-grade form *rug-to-. eruct, from Latin rctre, to belch.
(In Pokorny reu-b- 871.)
Also reub-. To snatch.
Derivatives include bereave, rob, usurp, and bankrupt.
(I) Basic form *reub-. rip1, from Flemish rippen, to rip, from Germanic *rupjan.
(II) O-grade form *roup-..
1a. reave1, from Old English rafian, to plunder; b. bereave, from Old English berafian, to take away (be-, bi-, intensive prefix; see ambhi); c. rover2, from Middle Dutch and Middle Low German roven, to rob. a–c all from Germanic *(bi-)raubn..
2a. rob, from Old French rober, to rob; b. rubato, from Italian rubare, to rob. Both a and b from a Romance borrowing from Germanic *raubn, to rob..
3. robe; garderobe, from Old French robe, robe (< “clothes taken as booty”), from Germanic *raub, booty..
4. Suffixed form *roup-tro-. loot, from Sanskrit loptram, booty..
5. ruble, from Old Russian rubiti, to chop, hew, from Slavic *rubje/a-.
(III) Zero-grade form *rup-..
1. usurp, from Latin srpre (< *su-rup-; sus, use, usage, from t, to use), originally “to interrupt the orderly acquisition of something by the act of using,” whence to take into use, usurp..
2. Nasalized zero-grade form *ru-m-p-. rout1, rupture; abrupt, bankrupt, corrupt, disrupt, erupt, interrupt, irrupt, rupicolous, from Latin rumpere, to break.
2. reu- 868.)
Bear. Oldest form *2to-, becoming *tko- in centum languages..