Источник: Calvert Watkins, The American Heritage® Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2000.
Всего на *t- представлено 23 корня из словаря Кальверта Уоткинса (Калверта Воткинса).
To touch, handle.
1. Nasalized form *ta-n-g-. tact, tangent, tangible, task, taste, tax; attain, contact, intact, tactoreceptor, tangoreceptor, from Latin tangere, to touch, with derivatives taxre, to touch, assess (possibly a frequentative of tangere, but probably influenced by Greek tassein, taxai, to arrange, assess), and tctus, touch.
2. Compound form *-tag-ro-,“untouched, intact” (*-, negative prefix; see ne). entire, integer, integrate, integrity, from Latin integer, intact, whole, complete, perfect, honest.
3. Suffixed form *tag-smen-. contaminate, from Latin contminre, to corrupt by mixing or contact (< *con-tmen-,“bringing into contact with”; con-, com-, with; see kom).
(Pokorny tag- 1054.)
Bull. Derivative of st-, but an independent word in Indo-European.
1. taurine1, Taurus, toreador, torero; bittern1, from Latin taurus, bull.
2. taurine2; taurocholic acid, from Greek tauros, bull.
(In Pokorny tu- 1080.)
Thick. thick, from Old English thicce, thick, from Germanic *thiku-.
(Pokorny tegu- 1057.)
To beget, give birth to.
1. Suffixed form *tek-no-, child. thane, from Old English thegn, freeman, nobleman, military vassal, warrior, from Germanic *thegnaz, boy, man, servant, warrior.
2. Suffixed o-grade form *tok-o-. oxytocic, polytocous, tocology, from Greek tokos, birth.
(Pokorny 1. tek- 1057.)
To weave; also to fabricate, especially with an ax; also to make wicker or wattle fabric for (mud-covered) house walls. Oldest form *tes-, becoming *teks- in centum languages.
Derivatives include text, tissue, subtle, architect, and technology.
1. text, tissue; context, pretext, from Latin texere, to weave, fabricate.
2. Suffixed form *teks-l-. a. tiller2, toil2, from Latin tla, web, net, warp of a fabric, also weaver's beam (to which the warp threads are tied); b. subtle, from Latin subtlis, thin, fine, precise, subtle (< *sub-tla, “thread passing under the warp,” the finest thread; sub, under; see upo).
3. Suffixed form *teks-n-, weaver, maker of wattle for house walls, builder (possibly contaminated with *teks-tr, builder). tectonic; architect, from Greek tektn, carpenter, builder.
4. Suffixed form *teks-n-, craft (of weaving or fabricating). technical, polytechnic, technology, from Greek tekhn, art, craft, skill. 5a. dachshund, from Old High German dahs, badger; b. dassie, from Middle Dutch das, badger. Both a and b from Germanic *thahsuz, badger, possibly from this root (“the animal that builds,” referring to its burrowing skill) but more likely borrowed from the same pre-Indo-European source as the Celtic totemic name *Tazgo- (as in Gaulish Tazgo-, Gaelic Tadhg), originally “badger.”
(Pokorny te- 1058.)
To lift, support, weigh; with derivatives referring to measured weights and thence to money and payment. Oldest form *tel2-.
Derivatives include tolerate, retaliate, tantalize, Atlas, translate, and
1. Suffixed form *tel-mon-. telamon, from Greek telamn, supporter, bearer.
2. Suffixed form *tel()-es-. a. toll1; philately, from Greek telos, tax, charge; b. tolerate, from Latin tolerre, to bear, endure.
3. Suffixed zero-grade form *t-i-. talion; retaliate, from Latin tli, reciprocal punishment in kind, possibly “something paid out,” from *tali- (influenced by tlis, such).
4. Suffixed variant zero-grade form *tala-nt-. talent, from Greek talanton, balance, weight, any of several specific weights of gold or silver, hence the sum of money represented by such a weight.
5. Perhaps (but unlikely) intensive reduplicated form *tantal-. tantalize, Tantalus, from Greek Tantalos, name of a legendary king, “the sufferer.”
6. Perhaps (but unlikely) zero-grade form *t-. Atlantic, Atlas, from Greek Atls (stem Atlant-), name of the Titan supporting the world.
7. Suffixed zero-grade form *t-to-. ablation, ablative, allative, collate, dilatory, elate, elative, illation, illative, legislator, oblate1, prelate, prolate, relate, sublate, superlative, translate, from Latin ltus, “carried, borne,” used as the suppletive past participle of ferre, to bear (see bher-1), with its compounds.
8. Suffixed zero-grade form *t--. tola, from Sanskrit tul, scales, balance, weight.
9. Nasalized zero-grade form *t-n--. extol, from Latin tollere, to lift.
(Pokorny 1. tel- 1060.)
To cut. Also tem- (oldest form *tem2-).
(I) Form *tem-. Nasalized form *t(e)m-n--. tmesis, tome, –tome, –tomy; anatomy, atom, diatom, dichotomy, entomo-, epitome, from Greek temnein, to cut, with o-grade forms tomos, cutting, a cut, section, volume, and tom, a cutting.
(II) Form *tem-.
1. Suffixed form *tem-lo-. temple1, temple3; contemplate, from Latin templum, temple, shrine, open place for observation (augury term < “place reserved or cut out”), small piece of timber.
2. Extended root *tem-d- becoming *tend- in o-grade suffixed (iterative) form *tond-eyo-. tonsorial, tonsure, from Latin tondre, to shear, shave.
(Pokorny 1. tem- 1062.)
Derivatives include tendon, pretend, hypotenuse, tenement, tenor, entertain, lieutenant, and tone.
(I) Derivatives with the basic meaning.
1. Suffixed form *ten-do-. a. tend1, tender2, tense1, tent1; attend, contend, detent, distend, extend, intend, ostensible, pretend, subtend, from Latin tendere, to stretch, extend; b. portend, from Latin portendere, “to stretch out before” (por-,variant of pro-, before; see per1), a technical term in augury, “to indicate, presage, foretell.”
2. Suffixed form *ten-yo-. tenesmus; anatase, bronchiectasis, catatonia, entasis, epitasis, hypotenuse, neoteny, peritoneum, protasis, syntonic, telangiectasia, from Greek teinein, to stretch, with o-grade form ton-and zero-grade noun tasis (< *t-ti-), a stretching, tension, intensity.
3. Reduplicated zero-grade form *te-t-o-. tetanus, from Greek tetanos, stiff, rigid.
4. Suffixed full-grade form *ten-tro-. a. tantra, from Sanskrit tantram, loom; b. sitar, from Persian tr, string.
5. Basic form (with stative suffix) *ten--. tenable, tenacious, tenaculum, tenant, tenement, tenet, tenon, tenor, tenure, tenuto; abstain, contain, continue, detain, entertain, lieutenant, maintain, obtain, pertain, pertinacious, rein, retain, retinaculum, retinue, sustain, from Latin tenre, to hold, keep, maintain (< “to cause to endure or continue, hold on to”).
6. Extended form *ten-s-.Suffixed zero-grade form *ts-elo-. tussah, from Sanskrit tasaram, shuttle.
(II) Derivatives meaning “stretched,” hence “thin.”
1. Suffixed zero-grade form *t-u-. thin, from Old English thynne, thin, from Germanic *thunniz, from *thunw-.
2. Suffixed full-grade form *ten-u-.tenuous; attenuate, extenuate, from Latin tenuis, thin, rare, fine.
3. Suffixed full-grade form *ten-ero-. tender1, tendril; intenerate, from Latin tener, tender, delicate.
(III) Derivatives meaning “something stretched or capable of being stretched, a string.”
1. Suffixed form *ten-n-. tendon, teno-, from Greek tenn, tendon.
2. Suffixed o-grade form *ton-o-. tone; baritone, tonoplast, from Greek tonos, string, hence sound, pitch.
3. Suffixed zero-grade form *t-y-. taenia; polytene, from Greek taini, band, ribbon.
(Pokorny 1. ten- 1065.)
To rub, turn; with some derivatives referring to twisting, boring, drilling, and piercing; and others referring to the rubbing of cereal grain to remove the husks, and thence to the process of threshing either by the trampling of oxen or by flailing with flails. Oldest form *ter1-, with variant *tre1-, contracted to *tr-.
Derivatives include trite, detriment, thrash, trauma, and truant.
(I) Full-grade form *ter()-.
1a. trite, triturate; attrition, contrite, detriment, from Latin terere (past participle trtus), to rub away, thresh, tread, wear out; b. teredo, from Greek terdn, a kind of biting worm.
2. Suffixed form *ter-et-. terete, from Latin teres (stem teret-), rounded, smooth.
3. Suffixed form *ter-sko-. a. thrash, thresh, from Old English therscan, to thresh; b. threshold, from Old English therscold, threscold, sill of a door (over which one treads; second element obscure). Both a and b from Germanic *therskan, *threskan, to thresh, tread.
(II) O-grade form *tor()-.
1. toreutics, from Greek toreus, a boring tool.
2. Suffixed form *tor()-mo-, hole. derma2, from Old High German darm, gut, from Germanic *tharma-.
3. Suffixed form *tor()-no-. turn; attorn, attorney, contour, detour, return, from Greek tornos, tool for drawing a circle, circle, lathe.
(III) Zero-grade form *tr-.drill1, from Middle Dutch drillen, to drill, from Germanic *thr-.
(IV) Variant form *tr- (< *tre-).
1. throw, from Old English thrwan, to turn, twist, from Germanic *thrw-.
2. Suffixed form *tr-tu-. thread, from Old English thrd, thread, from Germanic *thrdu-, twisted yarn.
3. Suffixed form *tr-m (< *tre- or *t-). monotreme, trematode, from Greek trma, perforation.
4. Suffixed form *tr-ti- (< *tre- or *t-). atresia, from Greek trsis, perforation.
(V) Extended form *tr- (< *tri-).
1. Probably suffixed form *tr-n-. septentrion, from Latin tri, plow ox.
2. Suffixed form *tr-dhlo-. tribulation, from Latin trbulum, a threshing sledge.
(VI) Various extended forms.
1. Forms *tr-, *trau-. trauma, from Greek trauma, hurt, wound.
2. Form *trb-. diatribe, triboelectricity, tribology, trypsin, from Greek trbein, to rub, thresh, pound, wear out.
3. Form *trg-, *trag-. a. trogon, trout, from Greek trgein, to gnaw; b. dredge2, from Greek tragma, sweetmeat.
4. Form *trup-. trepan1; trypanosome, from Greek trup, hole.
5. Possible form *trg-. truant, from Old French truant, beggar.
(Pokorny 3. ter- 1071.)
To cross over, pass through, overcome. Oldest form *ter2-, with variant *tre2-, colored to *tra2-, contracted to *tr-.
Derivatives include thrill, nostril, and trench.
(I) Zero-grade form *t()-.
1. thrill; nostril, from Old English thyr(e)l, threl, a hole (< “a boring through”), from Germanic suffixed form *thur-ila-.
2. Suffixed form *t-kwe. thorough, through, from Old English thurh, thuruh, through, from Germanic *thurh.
3. Greek nektar (see nek-1).
4. Zero-grade form *t- and full-grade form *ter()-. avatar, from Sanskrit tirati, tarati, he crosses over.
(II) Variant form *tr- (< *tra-).
1. trans-, transient, transom, from Latin trns, across, over, beyond, through (perhaps originally the present participle of a verb *trre, to cross over).
2. Suffixed form *tr-yo-. seraglio, serai; caravansary, lamasery, from Iranian *thrya-, to protect.
(III) Possible extended form *tru-.
1. Suffixed form *tru-k-. truculent, from Latin trux (stem truc-), savage, fierce, grim (< “overcoming,” “powerful,” “penetrating”).
2. Suffixed nasalized zero-grade form *tru-n-k-o-. trench, truncate, trunk, from Latin truncus, deprived of branches or limbs, mutilated, hence trunk (? < “overcome, maimed”).
(Pokorny 5. ter-1075.)
1. Possible variant (metathesized) form *twerk-. a. queer, from Middle Low German dwer, oblique; b. thwart, from Old Norse thverr, transverse. Both a and b from Germanic *thwerh-, twisted, oblique.
2. Suffixed (causative) o-grade form *torkw-eyo-. torch, torment, torque1, torque2, torsade, torsion, tort, tortuous, torture, truss; contort, distort, extort, nasturtium, retort1, torticollis, from Latin torqure, to twist.
(Pokorny terk- 1077.)
Derivatives include thirst, terrain, toast1, and torrent.
1. Suffixed zero-grade form *ts-.a. thirst, from Old English thurst, dryness, thirst, from Germanic suffixed form *thurs-tu-; b. cusk, from Old Norse thorskr, cod (< “dried fish”). Both a and b from Germanic *thurs-.
3. Suffixed o-grade form *tors-eyo-. toast1, torrent, torrid, from Latin torrre, to dry, parch, burn.
4. Suffixed zero-grade form *ts-o-. tarsus, from Greek tarsos, frame of wickerwork (originally for drying cheese), hence a flat surface, sole of the foot, ankle.
(Pokorny ters- 1078.)
Also teu-. To swell. Oldest form *teu2-.
Derivatives include thigh, thousand, thimble, tumor, butter, and tomb.
1. Extended form *teuk-. thigh, from Old English thoh, thigh, from Germanic *theuham, “the swollen or fat part of the leg,” thigh.
2. Extended form *ts-. thousand, from Old English thsend, thousand, from Germanic compound *ths-hundi-, “swollen hundred,” thousand (*hundi-,hundred; see dek).
3. Probably suffixed zero-grade form *tu-l-. a. thole, from Old English thol(l), oar pin, oarlock (< “a swelling”), from Germanic *thul-; b. tylectomy, tylosis1, from Greek tulos, callus, lump.
4. Extended zero-grade form *tm-.a. thimble, thumb, from Old English thma, thumb (< “the thick finger”), from Germanic *thmn-;b. suffixed (stative) form *tum--. tumescent, tumid, tumor; detumescence, intumesce, tumefacient, tumefy, from Latin tumre, to swell, be swollen, be proud; c. suffixed form *tum-olo-. tumulus, from Latin tumulus, raised heap of earth, mound.
5. Extended zero-grade form *tbh-. truffle, tuber; protuberate, from Latin tber, lump, swelling.
6. Suffixed zero-grade form *t-ro- (< *tu-ro-). a. butter, tyrosine, from Greek tros, cheese (< “a swelling,” “coagulating”); b. obturate, from Latin -trre, to stop up, possibly from *tros, swollen, coagulated, stopped up.
7. Suffixed variant form *tw-ro-. a. sorites, sorus, from Greek sros, heap, pile; b. quark2, from Old Church Slavonic tvarog, curds, cottage cheese.
8. Suffixed variant form *tw-m. soma1, somato-, –some3; prosoma, from Greek sma, body (< “a swelling,” “stocky form”).
9. Suffixed zero-grade form *tw-wo-. creosote, soteriology, from Greek saos, ss, safe, healthy (< “swollen,” “strong”), with derivative verb szein, to save.
10. Perhaps nasalized extended form *tu-m-b(h)- (or extended zero-grade form *tum-). tomb, from Greek tumbos, barrow, tomb.
(Pokorny tu- 1080.)
Tribe.1a. Dutch, from Middle Dutch duutsch, German, of the Germans or Teutons; b. Plattdeutsch, from Old High German diutisc, of the people. Both a and b from Germanic *theudiskaz, of the people, derivative of *theud, people.
2. Suffixed form *teut-ons, “they of the tribe.” Teuton, from Latin Teutn, the Teutons, borrowed via Celtic from Germanic tribal name *theudanz.
3. Possibly Latin ttus, all, whole (? < “of the whole tribe”): total, tutti; factotum, teetotum.
(In Pokorny tu- 1080.)
To settle, dwell, be home. Oldest form *tei-,becoming *tkei- in centum languages.
Derivatives include home, hangar, and situate.
1. Suffixed o-grade form *(t)koi-mo-. a. home, from Old English hm, home; b. Niflheim, from Old Norse heimr, home; c. haimish, from Old High German heim, home; d. hame, from Middle Dutch hame, hame (< “covering”); e. hamlet, from Old French ham, village, home; f. haunt, from Old French hanter, to frequent, haunt, from Germanic *haimatjan, to go or bring home; g. hangar, from Old French hangard, shelter, possibly from Germanic *haimgardaz (*gardaz, enclosure; see gher-1). a–g all from Germanic *haimaz, home.
2. Zero-grade form *tki-.a. amphictyony, protoctist, from Greek ktizein, to found, settle, from metathesized *kti-; b. probably Italic *si-. situate, situs, from Latin situs, location, from suffixed form *si-tu-.
(Pokorny 1. ei- 539, ei- 626.)
Demonstrative pronoun. For the nominative singular see so-.
Derivatives include decoy, thus, and tandem.
1a. the2; natheless, from Old English th, th (instrumental case), by the; b. decoy, from Middle Dutch de, the; c. lest, from Old English the, a conjunction. a–c from Germanic *th, from Indo-European instrumental form *t.
2. though, from Middle English though, though, from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Norse th, though, from Germanic *thauh, “for all that.”
3. these, this, those, from Old English thes, this, this, from Germanic *thasi-.
4. than, then, from Old English thanne, thænne, thenne, than, then, from Germanic *thana-.
5. thence, from Old English thanon, thence, from Germanic *thanana-.6. there, from Old English thr, thr, there, from Germanic *thr.
7.thither, from Old English thæder, thider, thither, from Germanic *thathro.
8. they, from Old Norse their, they, from Germanic nominative plural *thai.
9. their, from Old Norse their(r)a, theirs, from Germanic genitive plural *thaira.
10. them, from Old Norse theim and Old English thm, them, from Germanic dative plural *thaimiz.
11. Extended neuter form *tod-. that, from Old English thæt, that, from Germanic *that.
12. thus, from Old English thus, thus, from Germanic *thus-.
13. Adverbial (originally accusative) form *tam. tandem, tantamount, from Latin tandem, at last, so much, and tantus, so much.
14. Suffixed reduced form *t-li-. tales, from Latin tlis, such.
15. tauto-, from Greek to, the.
(Pokorny 1. to- 1086.)
To speak. Metathesized form *tlokw-. locution, loquacious; allocution, circumlocution, colloquium, colloquy, elocution, grandiloquence, interlocution, magniloquent, obloquy, prolocutor, soliloquy, ventriloquism, from Latin loqu, to speak.
(Pokorny tolk- 1088.)
To think, feel.
1. thank, from Old English thanc, thought, good will, and thancian, to thank, from Germanic *thankaz, thought, gratitude, and *thankn, to think of, thank.
2. bethink, think, from Old English (bi)thencan, to think, from Germanic *(bi-)thankjan.
3. thought, from Old English (ge)thht, thought, from Germanic *(ga)thanht-(*ga-, collective prefix; see kom).
4. methinks, from Old English thyncan, to seem, from Germanic *thunkjan.
(Pokorny 1. tong- 1088.)
1. Zero-grade form *tb-.a. thorp, from Old English thorp, village, hamlet; b. dorp, from Middle Dutch dorp, village. Both a and b from Germanic *thurp-.
2. trabeated, trabecula, trave; architrave, from Latin trabs, beam, timber.
(Pokorny trb- 1090.)
Derivatives include three, trio, testicle, detest, and trinity.
(I) Nominative plural form *treyes.
1a. three, thrice; thirteen, thirty, from Old English thre, thro, thr, three, with its derivatives thrga, thrwa, thrice, thrtig, thirty, and throtne, thirteen (-tne, ten; see dek); b. trillium, from Old Swedish thrr, three. Both a and b from Germanic *thrijiz.
2. trey; trammel, trecento, trephine, triumvir, trocar, from Latin trs, three.
3. triskaidekaphobia, from Greek treis, tris, three.
(II) Zero-grade form *tri-.
1. Suffixed form *tri-tyo-. a. (i)third, from Old English thrid(d)a, thirdda, third; (ii) riding2, from Old Norse thridhi, third. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *thridjaz, third; b. tercel, tercet, tertian, tertiary, tierce; sesterce, from Latin tertius, third.
2. Combining form *tri-.a. tri-, tribe, trio, triple, from Latin tri-, three; b. tri-; triclinium, tricrotic, tridactyl, triglyph, tritone, from Greek tri-, three; c. Trimurti, from Sanskrit tri-, three.
3. triad, from Greek trias, the number three.
4. trichotomy, from Greek trikha, in three parts.
5. trierarch, from Greek compound trirs, galley with three banks of oars, trireme (-rs, oar; see er-).
6. Suffixed form *tri-to-. tritium, from Greek tritos, third.
7. Compound form *tri-pl-,“threefold” (*-pl- < combining form *-plo-, -fold; see pel-2). triploblastic, from Greek triploos, triple.
8. Compound form *tri-plek-, “threefold” (*-plek-, -fold; see plek-). triplex, from Latin triplex, triple.
9. Compound form *tri-st-i-, “third person standing by” (-st-,standing; see st-). testament, testimony, testicle, testis; attest, contest, detest, obtest, protest, testify, from Latin testis, a witness.
10. sitar, teapoy, from Persian si, three.
(III) Extended zero-grade form *tris, “thrice.”
1. tern2; terpolymer, from Latin ter, thrice.
2. trisoctahedron, Hermes Trismegistus, from Greek tris, thrice.
3. Suffixed form *tris-no-. trine, trinity, from Latin trn, three each.
(IV) Suffixed o-grade form *troy-o-. troika, from Russian troje, group of three.
(Pokorny trei- 1090.)
1. –tropous; apotropaic, Atropos, treponema, from Greek trepein, to turn, with o-grade derivative tropos, turning.
2. O-grade form *trop-.a. Suffixed form *trop-o-. trope, troubadour, trover; contrive, retrieve, from Greek tropos, a turn, way, manner; b. suffixed form *trop--. trophy, tropic, tropo-; entropy, from Greek trop, a turning, change.
(Pokorny 2. trep- 1094.)
1. Suffixed o-grade form *troud-o-. threat, from Old English thrat, oppression, use of force, from Germanic *thrautam.
2. Variant form *trd-. thrust, from Old Norse thrsta, to squeeze, compress, from Germanic *thrstjan.
3. abstruse, extrude, intrude, obtrude, protrude, from Latin trdere, to thrust, push.
(Pokorny tr-eu-d- 1095.)
Second person singular pronoun; you, thou.
1. Lengthened form *t (accusative *te, *tege). thee, thou1, from Old English th (accusative thec, th), thou, from Germanic *th (accusative *theke).
2. Suffixed extended form *t(w)ei-no-.thine, thy, from Old English thn, thine, from Germanic *thnaz.