Индоевропейские корни на *bh (Уоткинс)

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Этимологические словари-источники (по авторам): Покорный | Старостин | Коблер | Уоткинс | Wiki

Лексика праязыков и.-е. ветвей: Алб. | Анат. | Арийск. | Арм.-фр. | Балт. | Герм. | Гр.-мак. | Илл.-вен. | Итал. | Кельт. | Слав. | Тох. |
Словари древних и.-е. языков: Авест. | Вен. | Гал. | Гот. | Др.-гр. | Др.-ирл. | Др.-мак. | Др.-перс. | Илл. | Кар. | Лат. | Лид. | Лик. | Лув. | Оск. | Пал. | Пали | Прус. | Др.-инд. | Ст.-сл. | Тох. | Умб. | Фрак. | Фриг. | Хет. | Ятв.

Словарь Уоткинса: A, B, Bh, D, , E, G, , Gh, Gʷh, I(Y), K, , L, M, N, O, P, R, S, T, U(W).

Источник: Calvert Watkins, The American Heritage® Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2000.

Всего на *bh- представлено 35 корней из словаря Кальверта Уоткинса (Калверта Воткинса).

To shine.
Oldest form *bhe2-, colored to *bha2-, contracted to *bh-.
Derivatives include beacon, berry, banner, fantasy, and phase..
1. Suffixed zero-grade form *bh-w-.a. beacon, from Old English bac(e)n, beacon; b. beckon, from Old English bcnan, becnan, to make a sign, beckon, from Germanic denominative *bauknjan; c. buoy, from Old French boue, buoy. a–c all from Germanic *baukna-, beacon, signal.
2. Perhaps Germanic *bazja-, berry (< “bright-colored fruit”). a. berry; mulberry, from Old English berie, berige, berry, and Old High German beri, berry; b. frambesia, from Old French framboise, raspberry, alteration of Frankish *brm-besi, “bramble berry..
3a. bandoleer, from Spanish banda, sash; b. banderilla, banderole, banner, banneret1, banneret2, from Late Latin bandum, banner, standard. Both a and b from Germanic *bandwa-,“identifying sign,” banner, standard, sash, also “company united under a (particular) banner..
4. Suffixed zero-grade form *bh-w-es-. phos-, phot, photo-; phosphorus, from Greek phs (stem pht-), light.
5. Suffixed zero-grade form *bh-w-. Phaëthon, from Greek phaeithein, to shine, burn.
6. Extended and suffixed zero-grade form *bh-n-yo-. fantasy, pant, –phane, phantasm, phantom, phase, pheno-, phenomenon; diaphanous, emphasis, epiphany, hierophant, phanerogam, Phanerozoic, phantasmagoria, phosphene, sycophant, theophany, tiffany, from Greek phainein, “to bring to light,” cause to appear, show, and phainesthai (passive), “to be brought to light,” appear, with zero-grade noun phasis (*bh-ti-), an appearance.
(Pokorny 1. bh- 104.)
To speak.
Oldest form *bhe2-, colored to *bha2-, contracted to *bh-.
Derivatives include fate, infant, prophet, abandon, banish, symphony, confess, and blame..
1. fable, fabliau, fabulous, fado, fairy, fandango, fate, fay2; affable, fantoccini, ineffable, infant, infantry, preface, from Latin fr, to speak.
2. –phasia; apophasis, prophet, from Greek phanai, to speak.
3a. ban1, from Old English bannan, to summon, proclaim, and Old Norse banna, to prohibit, curse; b. banal, banns; abandon, from Old French ban, feudal jurisdiction, summons to military service, proclamation, Old French bandon, power, and Old English gebann, proclamation; c. banish, from Old French banir, to banish; d. contraband, from Late Latin bannus, bannum, proclamation; e. bandit, from Italian bandire, to muster, band together (< “to have been summoned”). a–e all from Germanic suffixed form *ban-wan, *bannan, to speak publicly (used of particular kinds of proclamation in feudal or prefeudal custom; “to proclaim under penalty, summon to the levy, declare outlaw”).
4. Suffixed form *bh-ni-. a. boon1, from Old Norse bn, prayer, request; b. bee1, perhaps from Old English bn, prayer, from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Norse bn, prayer. Both a and b from Germanic *bni-.
5. Suffixed form *bh-ma. a. fame, famous; defame, infamous, from Latin fma, talk, reputation, fame; b. euphemism, Polyphemus, from Greek phm, saying, speech.
6. Suffixed o-grade form *bh-n-. phone2, –phone, phoneme, phonetic, phono-, –phony; anthem, antiphon, aphonia, cacophonous, euphony, symphony, from Greek phn, voice, sound, and (denominative) phnein, to speak.
7. Suffixed zero-grade form *bh-to-. confess, profess, from Latin fatr, to acknowledge, admit.
8. blame, blaspheme, from Greek blasphmos, blasphemous, perhaps from *ms-bh-mo-,“speaking evil” (blas-, evil; see mel-3).
(Pokorny 2. bh- 105.)
Broad bean.
1. fava bean, favela, from Latin faba, broad bean.
2. Variant form *bha-un-. bean, from Old English ban, broad bean, bean of any kind, from Germanic *baun.
3. Possible suffixed form *bha-ko-. phacoemulsification, from Greek phakos, lentil.
(Pokorny bhabh 106.)
1. better, from Old English betera, better, from Germanic (comparative) *batiz.
2.best, from Old English bet(e)st, best, from Germanic (superlative) *batistaz.
3. boot2, from Old English bt, remedy, aid, from Germanic noun *bt.
4. batten1, ultimately from Old Norse batna, to improve, from Germanic verb *batnan, to become better.
(Pokorny bhd- 106.)
To share out, apportion, also to get a share.
1. –phage, –phagia, phago-, –phagous; esophagus, from Greek phagein, to eat (< “to have a share of food”).
2. porgy, from Greek phagros, whetstone (“eater, that eats metal”), also a name for the sea bream, from Greek suffixed form *phag-ro-.
3. nebbish, from a Slavic source akin to Czech neboh, poor, unfortunate, from Common Slavic *ne-bog, poor (“un-endowed”).
4. pagoda; Bhagavad-Gita, from Sanskrit bhaga, good fortune.
5. bhakti, from Sanskrit bhajati, he apportions.
6. Extended form *bhags-. baksheesh, buckshee, from Persian bakhshdan, to give, from Avestan bakhsh-.
(Pokorny 1. bhag- 107.)
Oldest form *bhhu-,becoming *bhghu- in centum languages. bough, from Old English bg, bh, bough, from Germanic *bguz.
(Pokorny bhghú-s (misprint for bhhú-s) 108.)
Beech tree.
1a. book, from Old English bc, written document, composition; b. buckwheat, from Middle Dutch boek, beech; c. Bokmål, from Norwegian bok, book. a–c all from Germanic *bk, beech, also “beech staff for carving runes on” (an early Germanic writing device).
2. beech, from Old English bce, beech, from Germanic *bkjn-.
(Pokorny bhgó-s 107.)
1. beard, from Old English beard, beard, from Germanic *bardaz.
2. halberd, from Old High German barta, beard, ax, from Germanic *bard, beard, also hatchet, broadax.
3. barb1, barbel1, barbellate, barber, barbette, barbicel, barbule; rebarbative, from Latin barba, beard.
(Pokorny bhardh 110.)
Also bhars-. Barley.
1a. barn, from Old English bere, barley, from Germanic *bariz-;b. barley, from Old English bærlic, barley-like, barley, from Germanic *barz-.
2. farina, farinaceous, farraginous, farrago, from Latin far (stem farr-), spelt, grain.
(Pokorny bhares- 111.)
To strike.
Oldest form *bhe2u-, colored to *bha2u-, contracted to *bhau-.
Derivatives include beat, buttock, halibut, button, and refute..
1. beat, from Old English batan, to beat, from Germanic *bautan.
2.beetle3; battledore, from Old English btl, hammer, mallet, from Germanic *bautilaz, hammer.
3. baste3, probably from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Norse beysta, to beat, denominative from Germanic *baut-sti-.
4. buttock, from Old English diminutive buttuc, end, strip of land, from Germanic *btaz.
5a. halibut, from Middle Dutch butte, flatfish; b. turbot, from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Swedish but, flatfish. Both a and b from Germanic *butt-, name for a flatfish.
6. bouton, butt1, button, buttress; abut, rebut, sackbut, from Old French bo(u)ter, to strike, push, from Germanic *buttan.
7. Variant zero-grade form *bh- (< *bhu-, metathesized from *bhu-).
Suffixed form *bh-t--. a. confute, from Latin cnftre, to check, suppress, restrain (com-, intensive prefix; see kom); b. refute, from Latin reftre, to drive back, rebut (re-, back; see re-).
8. Possibly reduced suffixed form *bhu-tu- (*bhu-). footle; clafouti, from Latin futuere, to have intercourse with (a woman).
(Pokorny 1. bhu- 112.)
To run.
1. beck2, from Old Norse bekkr, a stream, from Germanic *bakjaz, a stream.
2. –phobe, –phobia, from Greek phobos, panic, flight, fear, from phebesthai, to flee in terror.
(Pokorny bheg- 116.)
A bee. bee1, from Old English bo, a bee, from Germanic suffixed form *bn-.
(Pokorny bhei- 116.)
To split; with Germanic derivatives referring to biting (hence also to eating and to hunting) and woodworking.
Derivatives include bite, bitter, and fission..
1a. beetle1, bite, from Old English btan, to bite; b. tsimmes, from Old High German bzan, bizzan, to bite. Both a and b from Germanic *btan.
2. Zero-grade form *bhid-. a.bit2, from Old English bite, a bite, sting, from Germanic *bitiz; b. (i) bit1, from Old English bita, a piece bitten off, morsel; (ii) bitt, from a Germanic source akin to Old Norse biti, bit, crossbeam. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *bitn-; c. suffixed form *bhid-ro-. bitter, from Old English bit(t)er, “biting,” sharp, bitter.
3. O-grade form *bhoid-. a. bait1, from Old Norse beita (verb), to hunt with dogs, and beita (noun), pasture, food; b. abet, from Old French beter, to harass with dogs. Both a and b from Germanic *baitjan.
4. bateau, boat; boatswain, from Old English bt, boat, from Germanic *bait-, a boat (< “dugout canoe” or “split planking”).
5. Nasalized zero-grade form *bhi-n-d-. –fid, fissi-, fissile, fission, fissure, vent2, from Latin findere, to split.
(Pokorny bheid- 116.)
To trust, confide, persuade.
Derivatives include bide, fiancé, and infidel..
1. Probably Germanic *bdan, to await (< “to await trustingly, expect, trust”). abide, abode, from Old English bdan, to wait, stay.
2. fiancé, fiducial, fiduciary; affiance, affiant, affidavit, confidant, confide, confident, defiance, defy, diffident, from Latin fdere, to trust, confide, and fdus, faithful.
3. Suffixed o-grade form *bhoidh-es-. federal, federate; confederate, from Latin foedus (stem foeder-), treaty, league.
4. Zero-grade form *bhidh-. faith, fay3, fealty, fideism, fidelity; infidel, perfidy, from Latin fids, faith, trust.
(Pokorny 1. bheidh- 117.)
To shine, flash, burn; shining white and various bright colors.
Derivatives include blue, bleach, blind, blond, blanket, black, flagrant, and flame.
(I) Suffixed full-grade form *bhel-o-.
1a. beluga, from Russian bely, white; b. Beltane, from Scottish Gaelic bealltainn, from Old Irish beltaine,“fire of Bel” (ten, tene, fire; see tep-), from Bel, name of a pagan Irish deity akin to the Gaulish divine name Belenos, from Celtic *bel-o-.
2. phalarope, from Greek phalaros, having a white spot.
(II) Extended root *bhle1-, contracted to *bhl-.
1. Suffixed form *bhl-wo-. blue, from Old French bleu, blue, from Germanic *blwaz, blue.
2. Suffixed zero-grade form *bh-wo-. flavescent, flavo-; flavin, flavone, flavoprotein, from Latin flvus, golden or reddish yellow.
(III) Various extended Germanic forms.
1. bleach, from Old English blcan, to bleach, from Germanic *blaikjan, to make white.
2. bleak1, from Old Norse bleikr, shining, white, from Germanic *blaikaz, shining, white.
3. blitzkrieg, from Old High German blëcchazzen, to flash, lighten, from Germanic *blikkatjan.
4a. blaze1, from Old English blæse, torch, bright fire; b. blesbok, from Middle Dutch bles, white spot; c. blemish, from Old French ble(s)mir, to make pale. a–c all from Germanic *blas-, shining, white.
5a. blind; blindfold, purblind, from Old English blind, blind; b. blende, from Old High German blentan, to blind, deceive; c. blend, from Old Norse blanda, to mix; d. blond, from Old French blond, blond. a–d all from Germanic *blendaz, clouded, and *bland-, *bland-ja-, to mix, mingle (< “make cloudy”).
6a. blench1, from Old English blencan, to deceive; b. blanch, blank, blanket; blancmange, from Old French blanc, white. Both a and b from Germanic *blenk-, *blank-, to shine, dazzle, blind.
7. blush, from Old English blyscan, to glow red, from Germanic *blisk-, to shine, burn.
(IV) Extended root *bhleg-, to shine, flash, burn.
1. O-grade form bhlog-. black, from Old English blæc, black, from Germanic *blakaz, burned.
2. Zero-grade form *bhg-.a. fulgent, fulgurate; effulgent, foudroyant, refulgent, from Latin fulgre, to flash, shine, and fulgur, lightning; b. fulminate, from Latin fulmen (< *fulg-men), lightning, thunderbolt.
3a. flagrant; conflagrant, conflagration, deflagrate, from Latin flagrre, to blaze; b. chamise, flambé, flambeau, flamboyant, flame, flamingo, flammable; inflame, from Latin flamma (< *flag-ma), a flame.
4. phlegm, phlegmatic, Phlegethon, from Greek phlegein, to burn.
5. O-grade form *bhlog-. phlogiston, phlox; phlogopite, from Greek phlox, a flame, also a wallflower.
(Pokorny 1. bhel- 118, bheleg- 124, bhleu-(k)- 159.)
To blow, swell; with derivatives referring to various round objects and to the notion of tumescent masculinity.
Derivatives include boulevard, boulder, phallus, balloon, ballot, and fool..
1. Zero-grade form bh-.a. bowl1, from Old English bolla, pot, bowl; b. bole, from Old Norse bolr, tree trunk; c. bulk, from Old Norse bulki, cargo (< “rolled-up load”); d. rocambole, from Old High German bolla, ball; e. boulevard, bulwark, from Middle High German bole, beam, plank; f. boll, from Middle Dutch bolle, round object; g. biltong, from Middle Dutch bille, buttock; h. boulder, from a Scandinavian source akin to Swedish bullersten, “rounded stone,” boulder, from *buller-, “round object.” a–h all from Germanic *bul-.
2. Suffixed zero-grade form *bh-n-. a. bull1, from Old Norse boli, bull, from Germanic *bulln-; b. bullock, from Old English bulluc, bull, from Germanic *bulluka-;c. phallus; ithyphallic, from Greek phallos, phallus; d. possibly Latin full, a fuller: full2.
3. O-grade form *bhol-.a. bollix, from Old English beallucas, testicles; b. ball1, from Old English *beall, ball; c. bilberry, probably from a Scandinavian source akin to Danish bolle, round roll; d. balloon, ballot, ballottement, from Italian dialectal balla, ball; e. pall-mall, from Italian palla, ball; f. bale1, from Old French bale, rolled-up bundle. a–f all from Germanic *ball-.
4. Possibly suffixed o-grade form *bhol-to-. a. bold, from Old English bald, beald, bold; b. bawd, from Old Saxon bald, bold; c. Balder, from Old Norse ballr, baldr, brave. a–c from Germanic *balthaz, bold.
5. Suffixed o-grade form *bhol-n-. fils2, follicle, folly, fool, from Latin follis, bellows, inflated ball.
6. Possibly Greek phal(l)aina, whale: baleen.
7. Conceivably from this root (but more likely unrelated) is Greek phellos, cork, cork oak: phellem; phelloderm, phellogen.
(Pokorny 3. bhel- 120.) The following derivatives of this root are entered separately: bhel-3, bhelgh-, bhleu-.
To thrive, bloom. Possibly from bhel-2.
Derivatives include foliage, blossom, flora, bleed, bless, and blade.
(I) Suffixed o-grade form *bhol-yo-, leaf.
1. foil2, foliage, folio, folium; cinquefoil, defoliate, exfoliate, feuilleton, milfoil, perfoliate, portfolio, trefoil, from Latin folium, leaf.
2. –phyll, phyllo-, –phyllous; chervil, gillyflower, podophyllin, from Greek phullon, leaf.
(II) Extended form *bhl- (< *bhle-).
1. O-grade form *bhl-. a.
Suffixed form *bhl-w-. blow3, from Old English blwan, to flower, from Germanic *bl-w-; b. (i) bloom1, from Old Norse blm,blmi, flower, blossom; (ii) bloom2, from Old English blma, a hammered ingot of iron (semantic development obscure). Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic suffixed form *bl-mn-;c. blossom, from Old English blstm, blstma, flower, blossom, from Germanic suffixed form *bl-s-; d. ferret2, flora, Flora, floral, floret, floriated, florid, florin, florist, –florous, flour, flourish, flower; cauliflower, deflower, effloresce, enfleurage, florigen, millefleur, from Latin fls (stem flr-), flower, from Italic suffixed form *fl-s-; e. suffixed form *bhl-to-,possibly in the meaning “swell, gush, spurt” in Germanic *bldam, blood. (i) blood, from Old English bld, blood; (ii) bleed, from Old English *bldan, to bleed, from Germanic denominative *bldjan;(iii) bless, from Old English bloedsian, bltsian, to consecrate, from Germanic *bldisn, to treat or hallow with blood.
2. emblements, from Medieval Latin bldum, bladium, produce of the land, grain, from Germanic suffixed form *bl-da-.
3. Suffixed zero-grade form *bhl-to-. blade, from Old English blæd, leaf, blade, from Germanic *bladaz.
(Pokorny 4. bhel- 122.)
To swell. Extension of bhel-2.
Oldest form *bhelh-,becoming *bhelgh- in centum languages.
1. O-grade form *bholgh-. bellows, belly, from Old English bel(i)g, bælig, bag, bellows, from Germanic *balgiz.
2. Zero-grade form *bhgh-. billow, from Old Norse bylgja, a wave, from Germanic *bulgjan.
3. Zero-grade form *bhgh-. bolster, from Old English bolster, cushion, from Germanic *bulgstraz.
4. O-grade form *bholgh-. blagging, budget, bulge, from Latin bulga, leather sack, from Celtic *bolg-.
(Pokorny bhelh- 125.)
To bind.
Derivatives include bind, bandanna, and bundle..
1a. bind; woodbine, from Old English bindan, to bind; b. bindlestiff, from Old High German binten, to bind. Both a and b from Germanic *bindan.
2. bandanna, from Sanskrit bandhati, he ties.
3. O-grade form *bhondh-. a. bend2; ribbon, from Old English bend, band, and Old French bende, band; b. bend1, from Old English bendan, to bend; c. band1, bond, from Old Norse band, band, fetter; d. gum band, from Old High German band, band; e. band1, from Old French bande, bond, tie, link. a–e all from Germanic *band-.
4. Suffixed form *bhond-o-. bund1; cummerbund, from Old Iranian banda-, bond, fetter.
5. Zero-grade form *bhdh-. a. bund2, from Middle High German bunt, league; b. bundle, from Middle Dutch bondel, sheaf of papers, bundle. Both a and b from Germanic *bund-.
(Pokorny bhendh-127.)
To carry; also to bear children.
Derivatives include birth, fertile, suffer, furtive, and metaphor..
1a. (i) bear1, from Old English beran, to carry; (ii) forbear1, from Old English forberan, to bear, endure (for-, for-; see per1). Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *beran; b. bier, from Old English br, br, bier, and Old French biere bier, both from Germanic *br; c. bore3, from Old Norse bra, wave, billow, from Germanic *br-..
2a. bairn, from Old English bearn, child, from Germanic *barnam;b. barrow1, from Old English bearwe, basket, wheelbarrow, from Germanic *barwn-.
3a. burly, from Old English *borlic, excellent, exalted (< “borne up”), from Germanic *bur-; b. burden1, from Old English byrthen, burden, from Germanic *burthinja-; c. birth, from a source akin to Old Norse burdhr, birth, from Germanic *burthiz; d. birr1, from Old Norse byrr, favorable wind, perhaps from Germanic *burja-.
4. Compound root *bhrenk-, to bring (< *bher- + *enk-, to reach; see nek-2). bring, from Old English bringan, to bring, from Germanic *brengan.
5. –fer, fertile; afferent, circumference, confer, defer1, defer2, differ, efferent, infer, offer, prefer, proffer, refer, suffer, transfer, vociferate, from Latin ferre, to carry.
6. Prefixed and suffixed zero-grade form *pro-bhr-o-, “something brought before one” (*pro-, before; see per1). opprobrium, from Latin probrum, a reproach.
7. Possibly suffixed zero-grade form *bh-tu- in Latin words having to do with “chance” (? < “a bringing, that which is brought”). a. fortuitous, from Latin fortutus, happening by chance; b. Fortuna, fortune, from Latin fortna, chance, good luck, fortune, and Fortna, goddess of good fortune.
8. Probably lengthened o-grade form *bhr-. ferret1, furtive, furuncle; furunculosis, from Latin fr, thief.
9. feretory, –phore, –phoresis, –phorous; amphora, anaphora, diaphoresis, euphoria, metaphor, periphery, pheromone, telpher, tocopherol, from Greek pherein, to carry, with o-grade noun phoros, a carrying.
10. paraphernalia, from Greek phern, dowry (“something brought by a bride”).
11. sambal, from Sanskrit bharati, he carries, brings.
(Pokorny 1. bher- 128.)
Bright, brown.
1. Suffixed variant form *bhr-no-. a. brown, from Old English brn, brown; b. bruin, from Middle Dutch bruun; c. brunet, burnet, burnish, from Old French brun, shining, brown. a–c all from Germanic *brnaz.
2. Reduplicated form *bhibhru-,*bhebhru-, “the brown animal,” beaver. beaver1, from Old English be(o)for, beaver, from Germanic *bebruz.
3. bear2, from Old English bera, bear, from Germanic *ber, “the brown animal,” bear.
4. berserker, from Old Norse björn, bear, from Germanic *bernuz.
(Pokorny 5. bher- 136.)
To shine; bright, white.
Oldest form *bher-,becoming *bherg- in centum languages.
1. bright, from Old English beorht, bright, from Germanic *berhtaz, bright.
2. “The white tree,” the birch (also the ash). a. birch, birk, from Old English birc(e), birch, from Germanic *birkjn-;b. probably suffixed zero-grade form *bhrag-s-. fraxinella, from Latin fraxinus, ash tree.
(Pokorny bher- 139.)
To hide, protect.
Oldest form *bherh-,becoming *bhergh- in centum languages.
1a. Germanic compound *h(w)als-berg- (see kwel-1); b. Germanic compound *skr-berg- (see sker-1). Both a and b from Germanic *bergan, to protect.
2. Zero-grade form *bhgh-. a. bury, from Old English byrgan, to bury, from Germanic *burgjan;b. burial, from Old English byrgels, burial, from Germanic derivative *burgisli-.
3a. borrow, from Old English borgian, to borrow, from Germanic *borgn, to pledge, lend, borrow; b. bargain, from Old French bargaignier, to haggle, from Germanic derivative *borganjan.
(Pokorny bherh-145.)
High; with derivatives referring to hills and hill-forts.
Oldest form *bherh-, becoming *bhergh- in centum languages.
Derivatives include iceberg, bourgeois, burglar, force, and fortify..
1a. barrow2, from Old English beorg, hill; b. iceberg, from Middle Dutch bergh, mountain; c. inselberg, from Old High German berg, mountain; d. Germanic compound *harja-bergaz (see koro-). a–d all from Germanic *bergaz, hill, mountain.
2. belfry, from Old French berfroi, tower, from Germanic compound *berg-frij-, “high place of safety,” tower (*frij-,peace, safety; see pr-).
3. Zero-grade form *bhgh-.a. borough, burg, from Old English burg, burh, byrig, (fortified) town; b. burgomaster, from Middle Dutch burch, town; c. bourg, bourgeois, burgess, burglar; faubourg, from Late Latin burgus, fortified place, and Old French burg, borough; d. burgher, from Old High German burgri, townsman, from Germanic compound *burg-warn-, “city protector” (*warn-,protector; see wer-4). a–d all from Germanic *burgs, hill-fort.
4. Possibly suffixed zero-grade form *bhgh-to-. force, fort, fortalice, forte1, forte2, fortis, fortissimo, fortitude, fortress; comfort, deforce, effort, enforce, fortify, pianoforte, reinforce, from Latin fortis, strong (but this is also possibly from dher-).
(Pokorny bhereh- 140.)
To breathe. Probably imitative. Zero-grade form *bhs-. psyche1, psychic, psycho-; metempsychosis, from Greek pskh, spirit, soul, from pskhein (< *bhs--kh-), to breathe.
(Pokorny 2. bhes- 146.)
To be aware, to make aware.
Derivatives include bid, forbid, and Buddha2..
1a. bid, from Old English bodan, to proclaim; b. forbid, from Old English forbodan, to forbid; c. verboten, from Old High German farbiotan, to forbid. a–c all from Germanic *(for)beudan (*for, before; see per1).
2. bode1, from Old English bodian, to announce, from boda, messenger, from Germanic *budn-.
3. beadle, from Old English bydel, herald, messenger, and Old High German butil, herald, both from Germanic *budilaz, herald.
4. ombudsman, from Old Norse bodh, command, from Germanic *budam.
5. Buddha2; bodhisattva, bo tree, from Sanskrit bodhati, he awakes, is enlightened, becomes aware, and bodhi, perfect knowledge.
(Pokorny bheudh- 150.)
Also bheu-. To be, exist, grow.
Derivatives include be, husband, imp, physics, future, neighbor, and beam.
(I) Extended forms *bhwiy(o)-, *bhw-.
1. be; forebear, from Old English bon, to be, from Germanic *biju, I am, will be.
2. fiat, from Latin fier, to become.
3. Possibly suffixed form *bhw-lyo-, seen by some as the source of Latin flius, son, but this is more likely from dh(i)-.
(II) Lengthened o-grade form *bhw-. a. bondage, bound4; bustle1, husband, from Old Norse ba, to live, prepare, and bask, to make oneself ready (-sk, reflexive suffix; see s(w)e-); b. Bauhaus, from Old High German ban, to dwell; c. booth, from Middle English bothe, market stall, from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Danish bth, dwelling, stall. a–c from Germanic *bwan.
(III) Zero-grade form *bhu-.
1a. build, from Old English byldan, to build, from bold, dwelling, house, from Germanic *buthla-; b. boodle, from Middle Dutch bdel, riches, property, from alternate Germanic form *bthla.
2. physic, physics, physio-, physique, –phyte, phyto-, phyton; apophysis, diaphysis, diphyodont, epiphysis, euphuism, hypophysis, imp, Monophysite, neophyte, periphyton, symphysis, tracheophyte, from Greek phuein, to bring forth, make grow, phutos,phuton, a plant, and phusis, growth, nature.
3. Suffixed form *bhu-t-. a. eisteddfod, from Welsh bod, to be; b. bothy, from Old Irish both, a hut.
4. Suffixed form *bhu-tu-. future, from Latin futrus, “that is to be,” future.
(IV) Zero-grade form *bh- (< *bhu-).
1a. bower1, from Old English br,“dwelling space,” bower, room; b. neighbor, from Old English gebr, dweller (ge-, collective prefix; see kom); c. Boer, boor, from Middle Dutch gheboer, ghebuer, peasant. a–c all from Germanic *bram, dweller, especially farmer.
2. byre, from Old English bre, stall, hut, from Germanic *brjam, dwelling.
3. bylaw, from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Norse br, settlement, from Germanic *bwi-.
4. Suffixed form *bh-lo-. phyle, phyletic, phylum; phylogeny, from Greek phlon, tribe, class, race, and phl, tribe, clan.
(V) Zero-grade reduced suffixal form *-bhw-, in Latin compounds.
1. Latin dubius, doubtful, and dubitre, to doubt, from *du-bhw-io- (see dwo-).
2. Latin probus, upright, from *pro-bhw-o-,“growing well or straightforward” (see per1).
3. Latin superbus, superior, proud, from *super-bhw-o-, “being above” (see uper).
(VI) Possibly Germanic *baumaz (and *bagmaz), tree (? < “growing thing”). a. beam, from Old English bam, tree, beam; b. boom2, from Middle Dutch boom, tree; c. bumpkin1, bumpkin2, from Flemish boom, tree.
(Pokorny bheu- 146.)
To bend; with derivatives referring to bent, pliable, or curved objects.
Derivatives include bagel, buxom, and bog.
(I) Variant form *bheugh- in Germanic *beug-.
1a. bee2, from Old English bag, a ring; b. bagel, from Old High German boug, a ring. Both a and b from Germanic *baugaz..
2a. bow3; akimbo, from Old English boga, a bow, arch; b. Germanic compound *elino-bugn- (see el-); c. bow1, from a source akin to Middle Low German boog, bow of a boat; d. bowline, bowsprit, from Middle Low German bch, bow of a boat. a–d all from Germanic *bugn-.
3. bow2, buxom, from Old English bgan, to bend, from Germanic bgan.
4. bail3, from Middle English beil, a handle, perhaps from Old English *bgel or from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Swedish *böghil, both from Germanic *baugil-.
5. bight, from Old English byht, a bend, angle, from Germanic *buhtiz.
(II) bog, from Scottish and Irish Gaelic bog, soft, from Celtic *buggo-, “flexible.”
(Pokorny 3. bheug- 152.)
To blow. Contracted from *bhle1-, or possibly lengthened grade *bhl2- from alternative root *bhle2-. Possibly identical to bhel-3 II *bhl- above.
Derivatives include blaze, flatus, and flavor..
1. blow1, from Old English blwan, to blow, from Germanic suffixed form *bl-w-.
2a. bladder, from Old English bldre, blister, bladder; b. blather, from Old Norse bladhra (noun), bladder, and bladhra (verb), to prattle. Both a and b from Germanic suffixed form *bldram, “something blown up..
3a. blast, from Old English blst, a blowing, blast; b. isinglass, from Middle Dutch blas(e), a bladder; c. blasé, blaze3, from Middle Dutch blsen, to blow up, swell. a–c all from Germanic extended form *bls-.
4. Zero-grade form *bh- (> *bhl-). flabellum, flageolet, flatulent, flatus, flavor; afflatus, conflate, deflate, inflate, insufflate, soufflé, from Latin flre, to blow.
(In Pokorny 3. bhel- 120.)
To swell, well up, overflow. Extension of bhel-2.
1. Possibly Germanic *blaut-. bloat, from Old Norse blautr, soft, wet.
2. Extended form *bhleugw-. fluctuate, fluent, fluid, flume, fluor, fluoro-, flush2, fluvial, flux; affluent, confluent, effluent, effluvium, efflux, fluoride, fluviomarine, influence, influenza, influx, mellifluous, reflux, solifluction, superfluous, from Latin fluere, to flow, and -fluus, flowing.
3. Zero-grade form *bhlu-. phlyctena, from Greek phlein, phlzein, to boil over.
4. Possibly Greek phloos, phloios, tree bark (< “swelling with growth”): phloem.
(Pokorny bhleu- 158.)
Naked. a. bare1, from Old English bær, bare; b. ballast, from Old Swedish and Old Danish bar, bare. Both a and b from Germanic *bazaz.
(Pokorny bhoso-s 163.)
Brother, male agnate.
1a. brother, from Old English brthor, brother; b. bully1, from Middle Dutch broeder, brother. Both a and b from Germanic *brthar-.
2. Fra, fraternal, fraternity, fraternize, friar; confrere, fratricide, from Latin frter, brother.
3. phratry, from Greek phrtr, fellow member of a clan.
4. pal, from Sanskrit bhrt, bhrtar-, brother.
(Pokorny bhrter-163.)
To break.
Derivatives include breach, fraction, frail1, infringe, and suffrage..
1a. break, from Old English brecan, to break; b. breach, from Old English brc, a breaking; c. brash2, breccia, from Italian breccia, breccia, rubble, breach in a wall, from Old High German *brehha, from brehhan, to break; d.bray2, from Old French breier, to break; e. brioche, from Old French brier, dialectal variant of broyer, to knead. a–e all from Germanic *brekan.
2. bracken, brake4, from Middle English brake(n), bracken, probably from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Norse *brakni, undergrowth; b. brake5, from Middle Low German brake, thicket. Both a and b from Germanic *brak-,bushes (< “that which impedes motion”).
3. brake2, from Middle Low German brake, flax brake, from Germanic *brk-, crushing instruments.
4. Nasalized zero-grade form *bh-n-g-. fractal, fracted, fraction, fractious, fracture, fragile, fragment, frail1, frangible; anfractuous, chamfer, defray, diffraction, infract, infrangible, infringe, irrefrangible, ossifrage, refract, refrain2, refringent, sassafras, saxifrage, septifragal, from Latin frangere, to break.
5a. suffragan, suffrage, from Latin suffrgium, the right to vote, from suffrgr, to vote for (? < “to use a broken piece of tile as a ballot”); b.irrefragable, from Latin refrgr, to vote against.
(Pokorny 1. bhre- 165 (but not on good evidence).)
Also bhreu-, bhreu-. To boil, bubble, effervesce, burn; with derivatives referring to cooking and brewing.
Oldest form *bhreu1-.
Derivatives include brew, bread, broth, brood, breed, ferment, and fervent.
1. brew, from Old English browan, to brew, from Germanic *breuwan, to brew.
2. bread, from Old English brad, piece of food, bread, from Germanic *braudam, (cooked) food, (leavened) bread.
3a. blaff, broth, from Old English broth, broth; b. brewis, broil2; embroil, imbroglio, from Vulgar Latin *brodum, broth. Both a and b from Germanic *brudam, broth.
(II) Variant form *bhr- (from *bhre-).
1a. brood, from Old English brd, offspring, brood; b. breed, from Old English brdan, to beget or cherish offspring, breed, from Germanic denominative *brdjan, to rear young. Both a and b from Germanic derivative *brd-, “a warming,” hatching, rearing of young..
2a. bratwurst, sauerbraten, from Old High German brt, brto, roast meat; b. brawn, from Old French braon, meat. Both a and b from Germanic derivative *brd-n-, roast flesh. Both 1 and 2 from Germanic *brdan, to warm.
(III) Variant form *bhres-.a. braise, braze2, brazier2, breeze2, bresaola, from Old French brese, burning coal, ember; b. braciola, from Italian dialectal bras’a, burning coal. Both a and b from Germanic *bres-.
(IV) Reduced form *bher-,especially in derivatives referring to fermentation.
1a. Suffixed form *bher-men-, yeast. barm, barmy, from Old English beorma, yeast, from Germanic *bermn-;b. further suffixed form *bhermen-to-. ferment, from Latin fermentum, yeast.
2. Extended form *bherw-. fervent, fervid, fervor; defervescence, effervesce, from Latin fervre, to be boiling or fermenting.
(V) As a very archaic word for a spring.
1. Suffixed zero-grade form *bhru-n(e)n-. bourn1, burn2, from Old English burn,burna, spring, stream, from Germanic *brunnn-.
2. Suffixed form *bhrw-. phreatic, from Greek phrear, spring.
(Pokorny bh(e)reu- 143, 2. bher- 132.)
Eyebrow. Contracted from *bhru-.
1.brow, from Old English br-, eyebrow, eyelid, eyelash, from Germanic *brs.
2. Possibly in the sense of a beam of wood, and perhaps a log bridge. bridge1, from Old English brycg(e), bridge, from Germanic *brugj (with cognates in Celtic and Slavic).
(Pokorny 1. bhr- 172, 2. bhr- 173.)

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