Источник: Calvert Watkins, The American Heritage® Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2000.
Всего на *gw- представлено 8 корней из словаря Кальверта Уоткинса (Калверта Воткинса).
Also gwem-. To go, come. Oldest form *gwe2-, colored to *gwa2-, contracted to *gw-.
Derivatives include welcome, adventure, souvenir, acrobat, and diabetes. .
1a. come, from Old English cuman, to come; b. welcome, from Old English wilcuma, a welcome guest, and wilcume, the greeting of welcome, from Germanic compound *wil-kumn-, a desirable guest (*wil-, desirable; see wel-1), from *kumn-, he who comes, a guest; c. become, from Old English becuman, to become, from Germanic compound *bi-kuman, to arrive, come to be (*bi-, intensive prefix; see ambhi). a–c all from Germanic *kuman.
2. Suffixed form *gw(e)m-yo-. venire, venue; advent, adventitious, adventure, avenue, circumvent, contravene, convene, convenient, convent, conventicle, convention, coven, covenant, event, eventual, intervene, invent, inventory, misadventure, parvenu, prevenient, prevent, provenance, provenience, revenant, revenue, souvenir, subvention, supervene, from Latin venre, to come.
3. Suffixed zero-grade form *gw-yo-. base1, basis; abasia, acrobat, adiabatic, amphisbaena, anabaena, anabasis, batophobia, diabase, diabetes, hyperbaton, katabatic, stereobate, stylobate, from Greek bainein, to go, walk, step, with basis (< *gw-ti-,suffixed zero-grade form of *gw-), a stepping, tread, base, -batos (< *gw-to-), going, and -bats (< *gw-t-), agential suffix, “one that goes or treads, one that is based.” 4. Suffixed zero-grade form *gw()-u- in compound *pres-gwu- (see per1).
5. Basic form *gw-. bema, from Greek bma, step, seat, raised platform.
6. Reduplicated form *gwe-gw-. juggernaut, from Sanskrit jagat, moving, the world, originally present participle of *jagti (remade as jigti), he goes.
(Pokorny g- 463.)
To live. Also gwei- (oldest form *gwei3-, with metathesized variant *gwye3-, colored to *gwyo3-, contracted to *gwy-).
Derivatives include quick, vivid, vitamin, whiskey, amphibious, microbe, and hygiene.
(I) Suffixed zero-grade form *gwi-wo-,*gw-wo- (< *gwi-wo-), living.
1a. quick, quicksilver, from Old English cwic, cwicu, living, alive; b.couch grass, quitch grass, from Old English cwice, couch grass (so named from its rapid growth). Both a and b from Germanic *kwi(k)waz.2a. (i) vivify, viviparous, from Latin vvus, living, alive; (ii) viper, weever, wyvern, from Latin vpera, viper, contracted from *vvipera,“bearing live young” (from the belief that it hatches its eggs inside its body), from feminine of earlier *vvo-paros (-paros, bearing; see per-1); b. viand, victual, viva, vivacious, vivid; convivial, revive, survive, from Latin denominative vvere, to live.
3. azoth, from Middle Persian *zhwak, alive, from Old Persian *jvaka-,extension of jva-.
4. Further suffixed form *gw-wo-t-. viable, vital; vitamin, from Latin vta, life.
5. Further suffixed form *gwi-wo-tt-. usquebaugh, whiskey, from Old Irish bethu, life.
(II) Suffixed zero-grade form *gwi-o-. bio-, biota, biotic; aerobe, amphibian, anabiosis, cenobite, dendrobium, microbe, rhizobium, saprobe, symbiosis, from Greek bios, life (> biot, way of life).
(III) Variant form *gwy- (< *gwyo-).
1. azo-; diazo, hylozoism, from Greek zo, life.
2. Suffixed form *gwy-yo-. zodiac, –zoic, zoo-, zoon1, –zoon, from Greek zon, zion, living being, animal.
(IV) Compound suffixed form *yu-gwi-es- (see aiw-).
(V) Possibly Old English cwifer-, nimble: quiver1.
(Pokorny 3. ge- 467.)
Also gwel-. To throw, reach, with further meaning to pierce. Oldest form *gwel1-, with metathesized variant *gwle1-, contracted to *gwl-.
Derivatives include devil, emblem, metabolism, parliament, problem, symbol, ballet, and kill1.
(I) Words denoting to throw, reach. Variant *gwl-, contracted from *gwle-.
1. Suffixed zero-grade form *gw-n--.a. ballista; amphibole, arbalest, astrobleme, bolide, devil, diabolic, embolism, emboly, epiboly, hyperbola, hyperbole, metabolism, palaver, parable, parabola, parley, parliament, parlor, parol, parole, problem, symbol, from Greek ballein, to throw (with o-grade *bol- and variant *bl-); b. ball2, ballad, ballet, bayadere, from Greek ballizein, to dance.
2. Suffixed o-grade form *gwol()--. bolometer, from Greek bol, beam, ray.
3. Possible suffixed o-grade form *gwol()-s-. boule1, abulia, from Greek boul, determination, will (< “throwing forward of the mind”), council.
4. Suffixed full-grade form *gwel-mno-. belemnite, from Greek belemnon, dart, javelin.
(II) Words denoting to pierce.
1. Suffixed o-grade form *gwol-eyo-. a. quell, from Old English cwellan, to kill, destroy; b. quail2, from Middle Dutch quelen, to be ill, suffer. Both a and b from Germanic *kwaljan.
2. Suffixed zero-grade form *gw-yo-. kill1, from Middle English killen, to kill, perhaps from Old English *cyllan, to kill, from Germanic *kuljan.
3. Full-grade form *gwel-. belonephobia, from Greek belon, needle.
(Pokorny 2. gel- 471, 1. gel-470.)
1. Suffixed form *gwen--. a. quean, from Old English cwene, woman, prostitute, wife, from Germanic *kwenn-; b. banshee, from Old Irish ben, woman; c. zenana, from Persian zan, woman.
2. Suffixed lengthened-grade form *gwn-i-. queen, from Old English cwn, woman, wife, queen, from Germanic *kwniz.
3. Suffixed zero-grade form *gw--. –gyne, gyno-, –gynous, –gyny; gynecocracy, gynecology, gynoecium, from Greek gun, woman.
(Pokorny gn 473.)
Heavy. Oldest form *gwer2-.
Derivatives include grave2, grief, aggravate, baritone, guru, brute, and blitzkrieg.
(I) Zero-grade form *gw-.
1. Suffixed form *gw-wi-. grave2, gravid, gravimeter, gravitate, gravity, grief, grieve; aggravate, aggrieve, from Latin gravis, heavy, weighty.
2. Suffixed form *gw-u-.a. barite, barium, baryon, baryta; baritone, barycenter, barysphere, charivari, from Greek barus, heavy; b. guru, from Sanskrit guru-, heavy, venerable.
3. Suffixed form *gw-es-. bar2, baro-; centrobaric, isallobar, isobar, from Greek baros, weight.
4. Possibly *gwr- in Greek compound *u(d)-bri-(see ud-).
(II) Suffixed extended form *gwr-to-. brut, brute, from Latin brtus, heavy, unwieldy, dull, stupid, brutish.
(III) Suffixed extended form *gwr-g-.a. brio, from Spanish brio or Provençal briu, vigor, from Celtic *brg-o-, strength; b. brig, brigade, brigand, brigantine, from Old Italian briga, strife, from Celtic *brg--, strife; c. blitzkrieg, sitzkrieg, from Old High German krg, chrg, stubbornness, from Germanic *krg-.
(IV) Suffixed full-grade form *gwer-n-, millstone. quern, from Old English cweorn, quern.
(Pokorny 2. ger- 476.)
To favor. Oldest form *gwer2-.
1. Suffixed zero-grade form *gw-to-. grace, grateful, gratify, gratis, gratitude, gratuitous, gratuity; agree, congratulate, disgrace, ingrate, ingratiate, maugre, from Latin grtus, pleasing, beloved, agreeable, favorable, thankful, with related suffixed forms *gw-ti-, *gw-t--, *gw-t-olo-.
2. Probably compound zero-grade form *gw-dh()-o-, “he who makes praises” (*-dh()-, to do; see dh-). bard1, from Welsh bardd and Scottish and Irish Gaelic bard, bard, from Celtic bardo-, bard.
(Pokorny 4. ger()- 478.)
To say, speak.
1. Basic form *gwet-. bequeath, quoth, from Old English cwethan, to say, speak, from Germanic *kwithan.
2. Suffixed form *gwet-ti-. bequest, from Old English -cwis, will, from Germanic *kwessiz.
(Pokorny 2. get- 480.)
Ox, bull, cow. Nominative singular form *gwu-s.
Derivatives include cow1, beef, bugle1, and butter..
1. cow1, kine; cowslip, from Old English c, c, ce, cow, from Germanic *kuz (> *kz).
2a. beef, bovine, bugle1, from Latin bs (stem bov-), ox, bull, cow;
b. buccinator, from Latin bcina, horn, trumpet, from *bou-kan-,“bellower” (*-kan-, singer; see kan-).
3a. Boötes, boustrophedon, bucolic, bugloss, bulimia, bumelia, buprestid, butter, butyric, from Greek bous, ox, bull, cow; b. buffalo, from Greek boubalos, buffalo, perhaps from bous.
4.gayal; guar, Gurkha, nilgai, from Sanskrit gau, go-, cow.
5. Suffixed form *gwou-no-. gunny, from Pali goa-, ox.
6. Suffixed form *gwu-ro-. gaur, from Sanskrit gaura, wild ox.
7. Zero-grade suffixed form *gww--. hecatomb, from Greek hekatomb, “sacrifice of a hundred oxen” (hekaton, hundred; see dek).