Источник: Calvert Watkins, The American Heritage® Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2000.
Всего на *kw- представлено 12 корней из словаря Кальверта Уоткинса (Калверта Воткинса).
And (enclitic). sesqui-, ubiquity, from Latin -que, and.
(Pokorny 1. ke 635.)
To pay, atone, compensate. Suffixed o-grade form *kwoi-n-. pain, penal, penalty, pine2, punish; impunity, penology, punitory, repine, subpoena, from Greek poin, fine, penalty.
(Pokorny 1. kei-(t-) 636.)
To pile up, build, make. O-grade form *kwoi-. a. cheetah, from Sanskrit kya, body; b. suffixed form *kwoi-wo-, making, in denominative verb *kwoiw-eyo-. poem, poesy, poet, poetic, –poiesis, –poietic; epopee, mythopoeic, onomatopoeia, pharmacopoeia, from Greek poiein, to make, create.
(Pokorny 2. kei- 637.)
Also kwye-. To rest, be quiet. Oldest forms *kwei1-, *kwye1-.
Derivatives include while, coy, and requiem.
(I) Suffixed zero-grade form *kw-lo- (< *kwi-lo-).
1a. while, from Old English hwl, while; b. whilom, from Old English hwlum, sometimes. Both a and b from Germanic *hwl.
2. Possibly Latin tranquillus, tranquil (trns, across, beyond; see ter-2): tranquil.
(II) Variant form *kwy- (< *kwye-).
1. Suffixed form *kwy-t-. requiem, from Latin quis, rest, quiet.
2. Suffixed form *kwy-ske-. coy, quiet, quit; acquiesce, acquit, quitclaim, quite, quitrent, requiescat, from Latin quiscere (past participle quitus), to rest.
(Pokorny kei- 638.)
Also kweid-. White; to shine. Oldest form *weit-, becoming *kweit- in centum languages.
1. Suffixed variant form *kweid-o-. a. white; Whitsunday, from Old English hwt, white; b. witloof, from Middle Dutch wit, white; c. whiting2, from Middle Dutch wijting, whiting; d. (i) edelweiss, from Old High German hwz, wz, white; (ii) bismuth, from obsolete German Bismut, Wismut, perhaps obscurely related to Old High German wz, white. a–d all from Germanic *hwtaz.
2. Suffixed o-grade variant form *kwoid-yo-. wheat, from Old English hwte, wheat (from the fine white flour it yields), from Germanic *hwaitjaz.
(Pokorny 3. ei-628.)
Also kwel-. To revolve, move around, sojourn, dwell.
Derivatives include colony, cult, wheel, cyclone, pulley, and bucolic.
(I) Basic form *kwel-. colony, cult, cultivate, culture, Kultur; incult, inquiline, silvicolous, from Latin colere, to till, cultivate, inhabit (< *kwel-o-).
(II) Suffixed form *kwel-es-. telic, telium, telo-, telos; entelechy, talisman, teleology, teleost, teleutospore, from Greek telos, “completion of a cycle,” consummation, perfection, end, result.
(III) Suffixed reduplicated form *kw(e)-kwl-o-, circle.
1. wheel, from Old English hwol, hweogol, wheel, from Germanic *hwewlaz.
3. chakra, chukker, from Sanskrit cakram, circle, wheel.
4. Metathesized form *kwe-lkw-o-. charkha, from Old Persian *carka-.
(IV) O-grade form *kwol-.
1. Suffixed form *kwol-so-,“that on which the head turns,” neck. a. (i) hawse, from Old Norse hls, neck, ship's bow; (ii) ringhals, from Middle Dutch hals, neck; (iii) habergeon, hauberk, from Old French hauberc, hauberk, from Germanic compound *h(w)als-berg-, “neck-protector,” gorget (*bergan, to protect; see bhergh-1). (i)–(iii) all from Germanic *h(w)alsaz; b. col, collar, collet, cullet; accolade, decollate1, décolleté, machicolate, machicolation, torticollis, from Latin collum, neck.
2. Suffixed form *kwol--. –colous; pratincole, from Latin -cola and incola, inhabitant (in-,in; see en).
3. Suffixed form *kwol-o-.a. ancillary, from Latin anculus, “he who bustles about,” servant (an-, short for ambi-, around, about; see ambhi); b. pole1, pulley, from Greek polos, axis of a sphere; c. bucolic, from Greek boukolos, cowherd, from -kolos, herdsman.
4. Suffixed form *kwol-es- (probably a blend of o-grade *kwol-o- and expected e-grade *kwel-es-). calash, kolacky, from Slavic kolo, koles-, wheel.
5. Suffixed o-grade form *kwol-eno- in Old Iranian compound *vah-carana- (see wes-3).
6. Suffixed zero-grade variant form *kw-i-. palimpsest, palindrome, palingenesis, palinode, from Greek palin, again (< “revolving”).
(Pokorny 1. kel-639.)
Far (in space and time).
1. Lengthened-grade form *kwl-. tele-, from Greek tle, far off.
2. Suffixed zero-grade form *kw-ai. paleo-, from Greek palai, long ago.
(Pokorny 2. kel- 640.)
Holy. Oldest form *wen-,becoming *kwen- in centum languages. Suffixed zero-grade form *kw-s-lo-. housel, from Old English hsl, hsel, sacrifice, Eucharist, from Germanic *hunslam.
(Pokorny *en- 630.)
1. Suffixed form *kwenth-es-. nepenthe, from Greek penthos, grief.
2. Zero-grade form *kwth-. pathetic, patho-, pathos, –pathy; apathy, pathognomonic, sympathy, from Greek pathos, suffering, passion, emotion, feelings.
(Pokorny kenth- 641.)
1. Prakrit, puggree, Sanskrit, from Sanskrit karoti, he makes.
2. Suffixed form *kwer-r with dissimilated form *kwel-r. peloria, from Greek pelr, monster (perhaps “that which does harm”).
3. Suffixed form *kwer-s-. tera-, terato-, from Greek teras, monster.
4. Suffixed form *kwer-m. karma, from Sanskrit karma, act, deed.
(Pokorny 1. ker- 641.)
To pant, wheeze. Oldest form *wes-,becoming *kwes- in centum languages.
1. wheeze, from Old Norse hvæsa, to hiss, from Germanic *hwsjan.2. quarrel1, querulous, from Latin quer, to complain.
3. Suffixed zero-grade form *kus-ti-. cyst, cysto-, from Greek kustis, bladder, bag (< “bellows”).
(Pokorny es- 631.)
To shake. Contracted from *kwe1t-. Zero-grade form *kwt-, becoming *kwat-. a. cascara, cask, scutch, squash2; concuss, discuss, percuss, rescue, soukous, succussion, from Latin quatere (past participle quassus, in composition -cussus), to shake, strike; b. pasta, paste1, pastel, pastiche, pastis, pastry, pâté, patisserie, patty, from Greek passein, to sprinkle.
(Pokorny kt- 632.)
Derivatives include four, squad, quarantine, and farthing.
(I) O-grade form *kwetwor-.
1a. four, from Old English fower, four; b. forty, from Old English fowertig, forty; c. fourteen; fortnight, from Old English fowertne, fourteen (-tne, ten; see dek). a–c all from Germanic *fe(d)wor-, probably from *kwetwor-.
2. quatrain; cater-cornered, quattrocento, from Latin quattuor, four.
3. czardas, from Old Iranian cathwr, four.
(II) Multiplicatives *kweturs,*kwetrus, and combining forms *kwetur-, *kwetru-.
1. cahier, carillon, carnet, casern, quaternary, quaternion, quire1, from Latin quater, four times.
2. cadre, quadrate, quadrille1, quarrel2, quarry2; escadrille, squad, square, trocar, from Latin quadrum, square.
3. quadri-, from Latin quadri-, four.
4. quadrant, from Latin quadrns, a fourth part.
5. quarantine, from Latin quadrgint, forty (-gint, ten times; see dek).
6. quadricentenary, from Latin quadri(n)gent, four hundred.
7. Variant form *kwet(w)-.a. tetra-, from Greek tetra-, four; b. tessera; diatessaron, from Greek tessares, tettares, four; c. tetrad, from Greek tetras, group of four; d. zero-grade form *kwt(w)-. trapezium, from Greek tra-, four.
(III) Ordinal adjective *kwetur-to-.
1a. fourth, from Old English fortha, fowertha, fourth; b. firkin, from Middle Dutch veerde, fourth; c. farthing, from Old English forthing, forthung, fourth part of a penny; d. filler2, from Old High German fiordo, fourth. a–d all from Germanic *fe(d)worthn-.2. quadrille2, quadroon, quart, quartan, quarter, quarto, from Latin qurtus, fourth, quarter.
Also kwi-.Stem of relative and interrogative pronouns.
Derivatives include who, whether, either, quorum, quip, and quality.
1a. who, whose, whom, from Old English hw, hwæs, hwm, who, whose, whom, from Germanic personal pronouns *hwas, *hwasa, *hwam;b. what, from Old English hwæt, what, from Germanic pronoun *hwat;c. why, from Old English hw, why, from Germanic adverb *hw; d.which, from Old English hwilc, hwelc, which, from Germanic relative pronoun *hwa-lk- (*lk-, body, form; see lk-); e. how, from Old English h, how, from Germanic adverb *hw; f. (i) when, from Old English hwenne, hwanne, when; (ii) whence, from Old English hwanon, whence. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic adverb *hwan-; g. whither, from Old English hwider, whither, from Germanic adverb *hwithr; h. where, from Old English hwr, where, from Germanic adverb *hwar-.a–h all from Germanic *hwa-, *hwi-.
2a. whether; neither, from Old English hwæther, hwether, which of two, whether; b. either, from Old English ghwæther, ther, either, from Germanic phrase *aiwo gihwatharaz, “ever each of two” (*aiwo,*aiwi, ever, and *gi- from *ga-, collective prefix; see aiw- and kom). Both a and b from Germanic *hwatharaz.
3. qua, quibble, quorum, from Latin qu, who.
4. hidalgo, quiddity, quidnunc, quip; kickshaw, from Latin quid, what, something.
5. quasi, from Latin quasi, as if (< quam + s, if; see swo-), from quam, as, than, how.
6. quodlibet, from Latin quod, what.
7. Suffixed form *kwo-ti. a. quote, quotidian, quotient; aliquot, from Latin quot, how many; b. further suffixed form *kwo-ty-o-. posology, from Greek posos, how much.
8. quondam, from Latin quom, when.
9. cooncan, from Latin quem, whom.
10. quantity, from Latin quantus, how great.
11. quality; kickshaw, from Latin qulis, of what kind.
12. cue2, from Latin quand, when (from *kwm + -d, to, til; see de-).
13. neuter, from Latin uter, either of two, ultimately from *kwo-tero- (becoming -cuter in such compounds as necuter, neither, from which uter was abstracted out by false segmentation).
14.. ubiquity, from Latin ubi, where, ultimately from locative case *kwo-bhi (becoming -cubi in such compounds as alicubi, somewhere, from which ubi was abstracted out by false segmentation, perhaps under the influence of ibi, there).
15. cheese3, from Old Persian *ci-ciy, something ( < *kwid-kwid).
(Pokorny ko- 644.)
Dog. Oldest form *won-,becoming *kwon- in centum languages.
1. cynic; cynosure, Procyon, quinsy, from Greek kun, dog.
2. Suffixed zero-grade form *kw-to-.a. hound, from Old English hund, dog; b. dachshund, from Old High German hunt, dog; c. keeshond, from Middle Dutch hond, dog. a–c all from Germanic *hundaz.
3. Nominative form *kw. corgi, from Welsh ci, dog.
4. Variant *kan-i-. canaille, canary, canicular, canine, chenille, kennel1, from Latin canis, dog.
(Pokorny on- 632.)
Body, form, appearance. Probably a verbal root meaning “to appear.”
1. Suffixed form *kwrep-es-. midriff, from Old English hrif, belly from Germanic *hrefiz-.
2. Suffixed zero-grade form *kwp-es-. corporal1, corporal3, corporate, corporeal, corposant, corps, corpse, corpulence, corpus, corpuscle, corsage, corse, corset; leprechaun, from Latin corpus, body, substance.
(Pokorny 1. krep-620.)
Worm. Rhyme word to *wmi-,worm (see wer-2). carmine, crimson, kermes, from Arabic qirmiz, kermes,
borrowed from Sanskrit compound kmi-ja-, “(red dye) produced by worms” (-ja-,produced; see gen-), from kmi-, worm.