Индоевропейские корни на *s (Уоткинс)

> Индоевропейские корни на *S
Праиндоевропейский корнеслов: A | B | Bh | D | Dh | E | G, G̑ | Gh, G̑h | Gw | Gwh | I, Y | K, K̑ | Kw | L | M | N | O | P | R | S | T | U, W
Русско-индоевропейский словарь: Б | В | Г | Д | Е, Ё | Ж | З | И | К | Л | М | Н | О | П | Р | С | Т | У | Х | Ц | Ч | Ш | Э | Я
Этимологические словари-источники: Покорного | Старостина | Коблера | Уоткинса
Словари древних и.-е. языков: Авест. | Вен. | Гот. | Др.-греч. | Др.-ирл. | Др.-макед. | Др.-перс. | Иллир. | Лат. | Оск. | Пали | Прус. | Др.-инд. | Ст.-слав. | Тохар. | Умбр. | Фрак. | Фриг. | Хетт. | Ятв.

Словарь Уоткинса: A, B, Bh, D, , E, G, , Gh, Gʷh, I(Y), K, , L, M, N, O, P, R, S, T, U(W).

Источник: Calvert Watkins, The American Heritage® Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2000.

Всего на *s- представлен 81 корень из словаря Кальверта Уоткинса (Калверта Воткинса).

To satisfy. Oldest form *se2-, colored to *sa2-, contracted to *s-.
1. Suffixed zero-grade form *s-to-. a. sad, from Old English sæd, sated, weary, from Germanic *sadaz, sated; b. sate1, from Old English sadian, to sate, from derivative Germanic verb *sadn, to satisfy, sate.
2. Suffixed zero-grade form *s-ti-. satiate, satiety; assai2, asset, satisfy, from Latin satis, enough, sufficient.
3. Suffixed zero-grade form *s-tu-ro-. satire, saturate, from Latin satur, full (of food), sated.
4. Suffixed zero-grade form *s-d-ro-. hadron, from Greek hadros, thick.
(Pokorny s- 876.)
To seek out. Oldest form *se2g-, colored to *sa2g-, contracted to *sg-. Derivatives include seek, ransack, and hegemony. .
1. Suffixed form *sg-yo-. seek, from Old English scan, scan, to seek, from Germanic *skjan.
2. Suffixed form *sg-ni-. soke, from Old English scn, attack, inquiry, right of local jurisdiction, from Germanic *skniz.
3. Zero-grade form *sg-. a.sake1, from Old English sacu, lawsuit, case, from Germanic derivative noun *sak, “a seeking,” accusation, strife; b. (i) forsake, from Old English forsacan, to renounce, refuse (for-,prefix denoting exclusion or rejection; see per1); (ii) ramshackle, ransack, from Old Norse *saka, to seek. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *sakan, to seek, accuse, quarrel. Both a and b from Germanic *sak-.
4. Independent suffixed form *sg-yo-. presage, from Latin sgre, to perceive, “seek to know.”
5. Zero-grade form *sg-. sagacious, from Latin sagx, of keen perception.
6. Suffixed form *sg-eyo-. exegesis, hegemony, from Greek hgeisthai, to lead (< “to track down”).
(Pokorny sg-876.)
To sanctify.
1. Suffixed form *sak-ro-.a. sacred, sacristan, sexton; consecrate, execrate, from Latin sacer, holy, sacred, dedicated; b. compound *sakro-dht-, “performer of sacred rites” (*-dht-, doer; see dh-). sacerdotal, from Latin sacerds, priest.
2. Nasalized form *sa-n-k-. saint, sanctum; corposant, sacrosanct, sanctify, from Latin sancre (past participle snctus), to make sacred, consecrate.
(Pokorny sak- 878.)
1. Extended form *sald-.a. Suffixed form *sald-o-. salt, from Old English sealt, salt, from Germanic *saltam; b. (i) souse1, from Old French sous, pickled meat; (ii) silt, from Middle English cylte, fine sand, from a source probably akin to Danish and Norwegian sylt, salt marsh. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic zero-grade suffixed extended form *sult-j; c. salsa, sauce, sausage, from Latin sallere (past participle salsus < *sald-to-), to salt.
2. sal, salad, salami, salary, sali-, saline; salmagundi, saltcellar, saltpeter, from Latin sl (genitive salis), salt.
3. halo-, from Greek hals (stem hal-), salt, sea.
(Pokorny 1. sal- 878.)
The sun. Oldest form *se2wel-, colored to *sa2wel-, contracted to *swel-, with zero-grade *s(u)wel-. The element *-el- was originally suffixal, and alternated with *-en-, yielding the variant zero-grades *s(u)wen- and (reduced) *sun-. Derivatives include Sunday, south, solar, and helium. .
1. Variant forms *swen-,*sun-. a. (i) sun, from Old English sunne, sun; (ii) sundew, from Middle Dutch sonne, sun. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *sunnn-; b. Sunday, from Old English sunnandæg, Sunday, from Germanic compound *sunnn-dagaz, “day of the sun” (translation of Latin dis slis); c. south, southern, from Old English sth, south, and stherne, southern, from Germanic derivative *sunthaz, “sun-side,” south.
2. Variant form *s()wl-. sol3, Sol, solar, solarium; girasol, insolate, parasol, solanaceous, solanine, solstice, turnsole, from Latin sl, the sun.
3. Suffixed form *swel-yo-. heliacal, helio-, helium; anthelion, aphelion, isohel, parhelion, perihelion, from Greek hlios, sun.
(Pokorny swel- 881.)
To sow. Contracted from *se1-.
1. sow1, from Old English swan, to sow, from Germanic *san.
2. Suffixed form *s-ti-, sowing. a. seed, from Old English sd, seed; b. colza, from Middle Dutch saet and Middle Low German st, seed. Both a and b from Germanic *sdiz, seed.
3. Reduplicated zero-grade form *si-s()-. season, from Latin serere, to sow, sati (< *s-ti), sowing.
4. Suffixed form *s-men-, seed. semé, semen, seminary; disseminate, inseminate, sinsemilla, from Latin smen, seed. (In Pokorny 2. s(i)- 889.)
To sit. Derivatives include sit, soot, séance, siege, obsess, subside, soil1, and chair.
(I) Basic form *sed-.
1. Suffixed form *sed-yo-. a. sit, from Old English sittan, to sit; b. sitz bath, sitzmark, from Old High German sizzen, to sit. Both a and b from Germanic *sitjan.
2. Suffixed form *sed-lo-, seat. settle, from Old English setl, seat, from Germanic *setlaz.
3. Suffixed (stative) form *sed--. séance, sedentary, sederunt, sedile, sediment, sessile, session, sewer2, siege; assess, assiduous, assize, dissident, insessorial, insidious, obsess, possess, preside, reside, subsidy, supersede, surcease, from Latin sedre, to sit.
4. Suffixed form *sed-r-. –hedron; cathedra, cathedral, chair, ephedrine, exedra, Sanhedrin, tetrahedron, from Greek hedr, seat, chair, face of a geometric solid.
5. Prefixed and suffixed form *pi-sed-yo-, to sit upon (*pi, on; see epi). piezo-; isopiestic, from Greek piezein, to press tight.
6. Basic form *sed-. a. edaphic, from Greek edaphos, ground, foundation (with Greek suffix -aphos); b. Upanishad, from Sanskrit upaniad, Upanishad, from -sad, sitting; c. tanist, from Old Irish tnaise, designated successor, from Celtic *tnihessio-,“one who is waited for,” from *to-ad-ni-sed-tio, from *to-ad-ni-sed-, to wait for (*ad-, to; see ad-).
7. Suffixed form *sed-o-, sitting. eisteddfod, from Welsh eistedd, sitting, from Celtic *eks-d-sedo-(*eks-, out, and *d-, out, from; see eghs and de-).
(II) O-grade form *sod-.
1. Perhaps suffixed form *sod-dhlo-. saddle, from Old English sadol, saddle, from Germanic *sadulaz, seat, saddle.
2. Suffixed (causative) form *sod-eyo-.a. set1, from Old English settan, to place; b. beset, from Old English besettan, to set near; c. ersatz, from Old High German irsezzan, to replace, from sezzan, to set. a–c all from Germanic *(bi-)satjan, to cause to sit, set.
3. Suffixed form *sod-yo-. soil1, from Latin solium, throne, seat.
(III) Zero-grade form *-sd-(in compounds), assimilated to *-zd-.
1. Reduplicated form *si-sd- becoming *si-zd-. a. subside, from Latin sdere, to sit down, settle; b. synizesis, from Greek hizein, to sit down, settle down.
2. Compound suffixed form *ni-zd-o-, nest, literally “(bird's place of) sitting down” (*ni-, down). a. nest, from Old English nest, from Germanic *nistaz; b. niche, nick, nide, nidus; eyas, nidicolous, nidifugous, nidify, from Latin ndus. nest.
3. Compound suffixed form *kuzdho-zd- (see (s)keu-).
(IV) Lengthened-grade form *sd-.
1. see2, from Latin sds, seat, residence.
2. Suffixed form *sd-i-,settler. cosset, possibly from Old English -sta, -ste, inhabitant(s), from Germanic *stn-, *sti-.
3. Suffixed form *sd-yo-. seat, from Old Norse sæti, seat, from Germanic *(ge)stjam, seat (*ge-, *ga-, collective prefix; see kom).
4. Suffixed form *sd--. sedate1, from Latin sdre, to settle, calm down.
5. Suffixed form *sd-es-, seat. banshee, from Old Irish síd, fairy mound.
(V) Lengthened o-grade form *sd-.soot, from Old English st, soot (< “that which settles”), from Germanic *stam, from suffixed form *sd-o-.
(Pokorny sed- 884.)
To hold. Oldest form *seh-,becoming *segh- in centum languages. Derivatives include hectic, eunuch, scheme, and scholar. .
1. Suffixed form *segh-es-. Siegfried, from Old High German sigu, sigo, victory, from Germanic *sigiz-, victory (< “a holding or conquest in battle”).
2. hectic; cachexia, cathexis, entelechy, eunuch, Ophiuchus, from Greek ekhein, to hold, possess, be in a certain condition, and hexis, habit, condition.
3. Possible suffixed (abstract noun) form *segh-wr, toughness, steadfastness, with derivative *segh-wr-o-, tough, stern. severe; asseverate, persevere, from Latin sevrus, stern; b. sthenia; asthenia, calisthenics, hypersthene, hyposthenia, thrombosthenin, from Greek sthenos, physical strength, from a possible related abstract noun form *sgh-wen-es- (with zero-grade of the root).
4. O-grade form *sogh-. epoch, from Greek epokh, “a holding back,” pause, cessation, position in time (epi-, on, at; see epi).
5. Zero-grade form *sgh-. a. scheme, from Greek skhma, “a holding,” form, figure; b. scholar, scholastic, scholium, school1, from Greek skhol, “a holding back,” stop, rest, leisure, employment of leisure in disputation, school.
6. Reduplicated form *si-sgh-. ischemia, from Greek iskhein, to keep back.
(Pokorny seh- 888.)
To cut. Derivatives include scythe, Saxon, skin, insect, and sickle. .
1. scythe, from Old English sthe, sigthe, sickle, from Germanic *segith, sickle.
2. Suffixed o-grade form *sok--. saw1; hacksaw, from Old English sagu, sage, saw, from Germanic *sag, a cutting tool, saw.
3. Suffixed o-grade form *sok-yo-. sedge, from Old English secg, sedge, from Germanic *sagjaz,“sword,” plant with a cutting edge.
4. Suffixed o-grade form *sok-so-. a. zax, from Old English seax, knife, from Germanic *sahsam, knife, sword; b. Saxon, from Late Latin Sax (plural Saxons), a Saxon, from West Germanic tribal name *Saxon-, Saxon, traditionally (but doubtfully) regarded as from Germanic *sahsam (as if “warrior with knives”).
5. Extended root *skend-, to peel off, flay. skin, from Old Norse skinn, skin, from Germanic *skinth-.
6. Basic form *sek-. a. secant, –sect, sectile, section, sector, segment; dissect, insect, intersect, resect, transect, from Latin secre, to cut; b. seecatch, from Russian sech', to cut.
7. Lengthened-grade form *sk-.sickle, from Latin scula, sickle.
8. Possible suffixed variant form *sak-so-. sassafras, saxatile; saxicolous, saxifrage, from Latin saxum, stone (< “broken-off piece”?).
(Pokorny 2. sk- 895, sken-(d-) 929.) See also extended roots skei-, sker-1.
To follow. Derivatives include sequel, execute, pursue, and society. .
1. sect, segue, seguidilla, sequacious, sequel, sequence, sue, suit, suite, suitor; consequent, ensue, execute, obsequious, persecute, prosecute, pursue, subsequent, from Latin sequ, to follow.
2. sequester, sequestrum, from Latin sequester, “follower,” mediator, depositary.
3. Suffixed (participial) form *sekw-ondo-. second2, secondo, secund, secundines, from Latin secundus, following, coming next, second.
4. Suffixed form *sekw-os, following. extrinsic, intrinsic, from Latin secus, along, alongside of.
5. Suffixed form *sekw-no-. scarlet, scarlatina, seal1, segno, sigil, sign; assign, consign, designate, insignia, resign, from Latin signum, identifying mark, sign (< “standard that one follows”).
6. Suffixed o-grade form *sokw-yo-. sociable, social, society, socio-; associate, consociate, dissociate, from Latin socius, ally, companion (< “follower”).
(Pokorny 1. sek- 896.)
To perceive, see.
1. see1, from Old English son, to see, from Germanic *sehwan, to see.
2. sight, from Old English sihth, gesiht, vision, spectacle, from Germanic abstract noun *sih-tiz.
(Pokorny 2. sek- 897.)
To say, utter.
1. O-grade form *sokw-. a. Suffixed form *sokw-yo-. say; gainsay, from Old English secgan, to say, from Germanic *sagjan;b. suffixed form *sokw--. (i) saw2, from Old English sagu, a saying, speech; (ii) saga, from Old Norse saga, a saying, narrative. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *sag, a saying.
2. Perhaps suffixed zero-grade form *skw-e-tlo-,narration. a. skald, from Old Norse skld, poet, “satirist”; b. scold, from Middle English scolde, an abusive person, from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Norse skld (see above). Both a and b from North Germanic *skathla. (In Pokorny 2. sek-897.)
To jump.
1. Suffixed zero-grade form *sal-yo-. a. salacious, salient, sally, sauté; assail, assault, desultory, dissilient, exult, insult, resile, result, somersault, from Latin salre, to leap; b. halter2, from Greek hallesthai, to leap, jump.
2. Probably Latin salm (borrowed from Gaulish), salmon (< “the leaping fish”): salmon.
(Pokorny 4. sel- 899.)
One; also adverbially “as one,” together with. Derivatives include simultaneous, hyphen, acolyte, and simple.
(I) Full-grade form *sem-.
1a. hendecasyllabic, hendiadys, henotheism, hyphen, from Greek heis (< nominative singular masculine *hen-s < *hem-s), one; b. Greek he- in hekaton, one hundred (? dissimilated from *hem-katon; see dek). Both a and b from Greek *hem-.
2. Suffixed form *sem-el-. simultaneous; assemble, ensemble, from Latin simul, at the same time.
3. Suffixed form *sem-golo-. single, from Latin singulus, alone, single.
4. Compound *sem-per- (*per, during, for; see per1). sempre; sempiternal, from Latin semper, always, ever (< “once for all”).
(II) O-grade form *som-.
1. bonze, sambal, samhita, samsara, sandhi, Sankhya, sannyasi, Sanskrit, from Sanskrit sam, together.
2. Suffixed form *som-o-. a. same, from Old Norse samr, same, from Germanic *samaz, same; b. homeo-, homo-; anomalous, from Greek homos, same; c. homily, from Greek homlos, crowd.
3. Suffixed form *som-alo-.homolographic, from Greek homalos, like, even, level.
(III) Lengthened o-grade form *sm-.
1. Suffixed form *sm-i-. seem, seemly, from Old Norse smr, fitting, agreeable (< “making one,” “reconciling”), from Germanic *smiz.
2. Suffixed lengthened o-grade form *sm-o-. samizdat, samovar, from Russian sam(o)-, self.
(IV) Zero-grade form *s-.
1. acolyte, anacoluthon, from Greek compound akolouthos, accompanying (-kolouthos, from o-grade of keleuthos, way, path), from ha-, a-, together.
2. Compound form *s-plo- (*-plo-, -fold; see pel-2). a. simple, from Latin simplus, simple; b. haploid, from Greek haploos, haplous, single, simple.
3. Suffixed form *sm-o-. a. some, from Old English sum, one, a certain one; b. –some1, from Old English -sum, -like. Both a and b from Germanic *sumaz.
4. Suffixed form *sm-alo-. similar; assimilate, resemble, from Latin similis, of the same kind, like.
5. Compound *s-kro-, of one growing (see ker-2).
6. Suffixed form *s-tero-.hetero-, from Greek heteros (earlier hateros), one of two, other.
7. Compound *s-plek-,“one-fold,” simple (*-plek-, -fold; see plek-). semplice, simplex, simplicity, from Latin simplex, simple.
8. Extended form *sma. hamadryad, from Greek hama, together with, at the same time.
(Pokorny 2. sem- 902.)
Summer. Also sem- (oldest form *sem2-). Suffixed zero-grade form *s-aro-.summer1, from Old English sumor, summer, from Germanic *sumaraz.
(Pokorny 3. sem- 905.)
Half-, as first member of a compound.
1. sand-blind, from Old English sm-, half, from Germanic *smi-.
2. semi-, from Latin smi-, half.
3. sesqui-, sesterce, from Latin smis, half.
4. hemi-, from Greek hmi-, half.
(Pokorny smi- 905.)
1. seignior, senate, senectitude, senescent, senile, senior, senopia, señor, signore, signory, sir, sire, surly, from Latin senex, old, an elder.
2. shanachie, from Old Irish sen, old.
(Pokorny sen(o)- 907.)
To sing, make an incantation.1a. sing, from Old English singan, to sing; b. Meistersinger, minnesinger, singspiel, from Old High German singan, to sing. Both a and b from Germanic *singan.
2. Suffixed o-grade form *songwh-o-, singing, song. song, from Old English sang, song, song, from Germanic *sangwaz.
(Pokorny sengh- 906.)
To head for, go.
1. widdershins, from Old High German sin(d), direction, from Germanic form *sinthaz.
2. Suffixed (causative) o-grade form *sont-eyo-. send1, from Old English sendan, to send, from Germanic *sandjan, to cause to go.
3. Suffixed o-grade form *sont-o-. godsend, from Old English sand, message, messenger, from Germanic *sandaz, that which is sent.
4. Perhaps suffixed form *sent-yo-. scent, sense, sensillium, sentence, sentient, sentiment, sentinel; assent, consent, dissent, presentiment, resent, from Latin sentre, to feel (< “to go mentally”).
(Pokorny sent- 908.)
To taste, perceive. Suffixed zero-grade form *sap-yo-. sage1, sapid, sapient, sapor, savant, savor, savvy; insipid, from Latin sapere, to taste, have taste, be wise.
(Pokorny sap- 880.)
1. seven; seventeen, seventy, from Old English seofon, seven, with derivatives (hund)seofontig, seventy, and seofontne, seventeen (-tne, ten; see dek), from Germanic *sebum.
2.September, septennial, septet, Septuagint, septuple; septentrion, from Latin septem, seven.
3. hebdomad, hepta-, heptad, from Greek hepta, seven.
(Pokorny sept 909.)
To protect.
1. Extended form *serw-. conserve, observe, preserve, reserve, reservoir, from Latin servre, to keep, preserve.
2. Perhaps suffixed lengthened-grade form *sr-s-. hero, from Greek hrs, “protector,” hero.
(Pokorny 2. ser- 910.)
To line up.
1. series, sertularian; assert, desert3, dissertate, exert, exsert, insert, from Latin serere, to arrange, attach, join (in speech), discuss.
2. Suffixed form *ser-mon-. sermon, from Latin serm (stem sermn-), speech, discourse.
3. Perhaps suffixed form *ser--. sear2, serried, from Latin sera, a lock, bolt, bar (? < “that which aligns”).
4. Suffixed zero-grade form *s-ti-. sorcerer, sort; assort, consort, ensorcel, sortilege, from Latin sors (stem sort-), lot, fortune (perhaps from the lining up of lots before drawing).
(Pokorny 4. ser-911.)
To give birth. Suffixed zero-grade form in derivative noun *su()-nu-, son. son, from Old English sunu, son, from Germanic *sunuz.
(Pokorny 2. seu- 913.) See also s-.
To take liquid. Derivatives include soup, soak, and succulent.
(I) Suffixed zero-grade form *su-yo-, contracted to *s-yo-. hyetal; isohyet, from Greek hetos, rain, from hein, to rain.
(II) Possible extended zero-grade form *sb-.
1a. sup1, from Old English span,spian, to drink, sip; b. soup, sup2, from Old French soup(e), soup; c. sopaipilla, from Old Spanish sopa, food soaked in liquid. a–c all from Germanic *sp-.
2a. sop, from Old English sopp- in soppcuppe, cup for dipping bread in, from Germanic *supp-; b. sip, from Middle English sippen, to sip, from a source probably akin to Low German sippen, to sip, possibly from Germanic *supp-.
(III) Possible extended zero-grade form *sg-.
1. suck, from Old English scan, to suck, from Germanic *sk-.
2. soak, from Old English socian, to steep, from Germanic shortened form *sukn.
3. suction, suctorial; prosciutto, from Latin sgere, to suck.
4. Variant form *sk-. succulent, from Latin scus, succus, juice.
(Pokorny 1. seu-912.)
Also skend-. To leap, climb.
1. scan, scandent, scansion, scansorial, scantling; ascend, condescend, descend, transcend, from Latin scandere, to climb.
2. Suffixed form *skand-alo-. scandal, slander, from Greek skandalon, a snare, trap, stumbling block.
3. Suffixed form *skand-sl-. echelon, escalade, scale2, from Latin sclae, steps, ladder. (Not in Pokorny; compare Sanskrit skandati, he jumps, and Old Irish scendim, I jump.)
To cut, split. Extension of sek-. Derivatives include science, nice, shit, schism, sheath, ski, and esquire. 1a. shin1, from Old English scinu, shin, shinbone (< “piece cut off”); b. chine, from Old French eschine, backbone, piece of meat with part of the backbone. Both a and b from Germanic suffixed form *ski-n-.
2. science, scilicet, sciolism; adscititious, conscience, conscious, nescience, nice, omniscient, plebiscite, prescient, from Latin scre, to know (< “to separate one thing from another,” “discern.”) 3. Suffixed zero-grade form *skiy-en-. skean, from Old Irish scan, knife.
4. Extended root *skeid-.a. (i) shit; gobshite, from Old English *sctan, to defecate; (ii) skate3; blatherskite, from Old Norse skta, to defecate; (iii) shyster, from Old High German skzzan, to defecate. (i)–(iii) all from Germanic *sktan, to separate, defecate; b. suffixed zero-grade form *sk(h)id-yo-. schism, schist, schizo-, from Greek skhizein, to split; c. nasalized zero-grade form *ski-n-d-. scission; exscind, prescind, rescind, from Latin scindere, to split.
5. Extended root *skeit-. a. (i) shed1, from Old English scadan, to separate, from Germanic *skaith-, *skaidan;(ii) sheath, from Old English scath, sheath (< “split stick”), perhaps from Germanic *skaith-; b. ski, from Old Norse skdh, log, stick, snowshoe, from Germanic *skdam;c. o-grade form *skoit-. écu, escudo, escutcheon, esquire, scudo, scutum, squire, from Latin sctum, shield (< “board”).
6. Extended root *skeip-. a. sheave2, from Middle English sheve, pulley (< “piece of wood with grooves”); b. skive, from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Norse skfa, to slice, split; c. shiver2, from Middle English shivere,scivre, splinter, possibly from a Low German source akin to Middle Low German schever, splinter. a–c all from Germanic *skif-.
(Pokorny ski- 919.)
Also kel-. To cut. Derivatives include scalp, skill, cutlass, half, scalpel, and sculpture. 1a. shell, from Old English scell, sciel, shell; b. scagliola, from Italian scaglia, chip. Both a and b from Germanic *skalj, piece cut off, shell, scale.
2a. shale, from Old English sc(e)alu, husk, shell; b. scale1, from Old French escale, husk, shell. Both a and b from Germanic *skal.3a. scall, from Old Norse skalli, bald head (< “closely shaved skull”); b. scalp, from Middle English scalp, top of the head, from a source akin to Old Norse skalpr, sheath, shell. Both a and b from Germanic *skal-.
4. scale3, skoal, from Old Norse skl, bowl, drinking vessel (made from a shell), from Germanic *skl.
5. shield, from Old English scield, shield (< “board”), from Germanic *skelduz.
6a. skill, from Old Norse skil, reason, discernment, knowledge (< “incisiveness”); b. sheldrake, from Middle English scheld, variegated, from a Low German source akin to Middle Dutch schillen, to diversify, with past participle schillede, separated, variegated. Both a and b from Germanic *skeli-.
7. school2, shoal2, from Middle Low German schle, troop, or Middle Dutch scle, both from Germanic *skul, a division.
8. Suffixed variant form *kel-tro-. coulter, cultrate, cutlass, from Latin culter, knife.
9. Suffixed zero-grade form *sk-yo-. scalene, from Greek skallein, to stir up, hoe (> skalenos, uneven).
10. Extended root *skelp-. a. shelf, from Middle Low German schelf, shelf (< “split piece of wood”), from Germanic *skelf-; b. possibly Germanic *halbaz (< variant root *kelp-), divided. half, halve, from Old English healf, half; c. perhaps variant *skalp-. scalpel, sculpture, from Latin scalpere, to cut, scrape, with derivative sculpere (originally as the combining form of scalpere), to carve.
(Pokorny 1. (s)kel- 923.)
To be under an obligation. O-grade (perfect) form *skol-. shall, from Old English sceal (used with the first and third person singular pronouns), shall, from Germanic *skal, I owe, hence I ought.
(Pokorny 2. (s)kel- 927.)
Also ker-. To cut. Derivatives include shears, scabbard, skirmish, carnage, sharp, scrape, and screw.
(I) Basic form *sker-, *ker-.
1a. shear, from Old English scieran, sceran, to cut; b. sheer1, from Low German scheren, to move to and fro, and Dutch scheren, to withdraw, depart. Both a and b from Germanic *skeran.
2a. share2, from Old English scar, plowshare; b. share1, from Old English scearu,scaru, portion, division (but recorded only in the sense of “fork of the body,” “tonsure”). Both a and b from Germanic *skeraz.
3a. shear, from Old English scar, scissors, from Germanic *skr- and *sker-ez-; b. compound *skr-berg-,“sword protector,” scabbard (*berg-, protector; see bhergh-1). scabbard, from Old French escauberc, scabbard, possibly from a Germanic source akin to Old High German scarberc, scabbard. Both a and b from Germanic *skr-.
4. score, from Old Norse skor, notch, tally, twenty, from Germanic *skur-.
5. scar2, skerry, from Old Norse sker, low reef (< “something cut off”), from Germanic suffixed form *skar-jam.
6. Suffixed o-grade extended form *skorp-o-. scarf2, from Old Norse skarfr, diagonally-cut end of a board, from Germanic *skarfaz.
7. Suffixed o-grade extended form *skord-o-. shard, from Old English sceard, a cut, notch, from Germanic *skardaz.
8. Extended form *skerd- in suffixed zero-grade form *skd-o-. a. short, from Old English scort, sceort, “cut,” short; b. shirt, from Old English scyrte, skirt (< “cut piece”); c. skirt, from Old Norse skyrta, shirt. a–c all from Germanic *skurtaz.
9a. scaramouch, scrimmage, skirmish, from Old French eskermir, to fight with a sword, fence, and Old Italian scaramuccia, skirmish, from a source akin to Old High German skirmen, to protect; b. screen, from Middle Dutch scherm, shield. Both a and b from Germanic extended form *skerm-.
10. Variant form *kar-. carnage, carnal, carnassial, carnation, carnival, carrion, caruncle, charnel, crone; carnivorous, charcuterie, incarnate, from Latin car (stem carn-), flesh.
11. Suffixed o-grade form *kor-yo-. coriaceous, corium, cuirass, currier; excoriate, from Latin corium, leather (originally “piece of hide”).
12. Suffixed zero-grade form *k-to-. curt, curtal, kirtle, from Latin curtus, short.
13. Suffixed o-grade form *kor-mo-. corm, from Greek kormos, a trimmed tree trunk.
14. Suffixed o-grade form *kor-i-. coreopsis, from Greek koris, bedbug (< “cutter”).
15. Suffixed zero-grade form *sk--. shore1, from Old English scora, shore, from Germanic *skur-.
(II) Extended roots *skert-, *kert-.
1. Zero-grade form *kt- or o-grade form *kort-. cortex; decorticate, from Latin cortex, bark (< “that which can be cut off”).
2. Suffixed form *kert-sn-. cenacle, from Latin cna, meal (< “portion of food”).
(III) Extended root *skerp-. scurf, probably from a Scandinavian source akin to Old English sceorf, scab, scurf, from Germanic *skerf-.
(IV) Extended root *skerb(h)-, *skreb(h)-.
1a. sharp, from Old English scearp, sharp; b. scarp, from Italian scarpa, embankment, possibly from a Germanic source akin to Gothic skarp, pointed object. Both a and b from Germanic *skarpaz, cutting, sharp.
2a.scrap1, from Old Norse skrap, “pieces,” remains; b. scrape, from Old Norse skrapa, to scratch. Both a and b from Germanic *skrap-.
3a. scrabble, from Middle Dutch schrabben, to scrape; b. scrub1, from Middle Dutch schrobben, to scrape. Both a and b from Germanic *skrab-.
4. shrub1, from Old English scrybb, shrub (< “rough plant”), from Germanic *skrub-.
5. scrobiculate, from Latin scrobis, trench, ditch.
6. screw, scrofula, from Latin scrfa, a sow (< “rooter, digger”).
(V) Extended root *(s)kers-. bias, from Greek epikarsios, at an angle (epi-, at; see epi), from suffixed zero-grade form *ks-yo-.
(Pokorny 4. (s)ker-,Section I. 938.)
Also ker-. To turn, bend. Presumed base of a number of distantly related derivatives. Derivatives include shrink, ranch, rink, curve, crepe, circle, search, and crown. .
1. Extended form *(s)kreg- in nasalized form *(s)kre-n-g-. a. shrink, from Old English scrincan, to wither, shrivel up, from Germanic *skrink-; b. variant *kre-n-g-. (i)ruck2, from Old Norse hrukka, a crease, fold; (ii) flounce1, from Old French fronce, pleat, from Frankish *hrunkjan, to wrinkle. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *hrunk-.
2. Extended form *(s)kregh- in nasalized form *skre-n-gh-. a. ring1, from Old English hring, a ring; b. ranch, range, rank1, rink; arrange, derange, from Old French renc, reng, line, row; c. ringhals, from Middle Dutch rinc (combining form ring-), a ring. a–c all from Germanic *hringaz, something curved, circle.
3. Extended form *kreuk-. a. ridge, from Old English hrycg, spine, ridge; b. rucksack, from Old High German hrukki, back. Both a and b from Germanic hrugjaz.
4. Suffixed variant form *kur-wo-. curb, curvature, curve, curvet, from Latin curvus, bent, curved.
5. Suffixed extended form *kris-ni-. crinoline, from Latin crnis (< *crisnis), hair.
6. Suffixed extended form *kris-t-. crest, crista, cristate, from Latin crista, tuft, crest.
7. Suffixed extended form *krip-so-. crepe, crisp, crispate, from Latin crispus (metathesized from *cripsus), curly.
8. Extended expressive form *krss-. crissum, from Latin crsre, (of women) to wiggle the hips during copulation.
9. Perhaps reduplicated form *ki-kr-o-. circa, circadian, circinate, Circinus, circle, circum-, circus, cirque, search; cricoid, recherché, from Greek kirkos, krikos, a ring.
10. Suffixed o-grade form *kor-no-. corona, crown, koruna, krona1, krona2, krone1, krone2, from Greek kornos, curved.
11. Suffixed variant form *kur-to. kurtosis, from Greek kurtos, convex.
(Pokorny 3. (s)ker- 935.)
Excrement, dung. Oldest form *ser-,becoming *sker- in centum languages.
1. Suffixed unextended form *sk-r, alternating with *sk--.scato-, scoria, skatole, from Greek skr (stem skat- < *sk--t-), dung.
2. Extended form *skert- in taboo metathesis *sterk-os-. a. stercoraceous, from Latin stercus, dung; b. variant forms *(s)terg-, *(s)treg-. dreck, from Middle High German drëc, dung, from Germanic *threkka-.
(Pokorny ser-(d-) 947, 8. (s)ter-1031.)
To cover, conceal. Zero-grade form *(s)ku-.Variant *(s)keu-, zero-grade form *(s)ku-,contracted to *(s)k-. Derivatives include sky, meerschaum, scum, obscure, recoil, and hoard..
1. Suffixed basic form. a. sky, from Old Norse sk, cloud; b. skewbald, from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Norse sk, cloud. Both a and b from Germanic *skeu-jam, cloud (“cloud cover”).
2. Zero-grade form *sk-. a. Suffixed form *sk-mo-. (i) skim, from Old French escume, scum; (ii) meerschaum, from Old High German scm, scum; (iii) scum, from Middle Dutch schm, scum. (i)–(iii) all from Germanic *skmaz, foam, scum (< “that which covers the water”); b. suffixed form *sk-ro-. obscure; chiaroscuro, from Latin obscrus, “covered,” dark (ob-, away from; see epi).
3. Zero-grade form *k-. a. Suffixed form *k-ti-. hide2, from Old English hd, skin, hide, from Germanic *hdiz; b. suffixed form *ku-ti-. cutaneous, cuticle, cutis; cutin, from Latin cutis skin; c. possibly suffixed form *k-lo-. culet, culotte; bascule, recoil, from Latin clus, the rump, backside; d. suffixed form *ku-to-. –cyte, cyto-, from Greek kutos, a hollow, vessel.
4. Extended zero-grade form *kus-. a. (i) hose, hosel, from Old English hosa, hose, covering for the leg; (ii) lederhosen, from Old High German hosa, leg covering. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *husn-; b. suffixed form *kuz-dho- (or suffixed extended form *kudh-to-). (i) hoard, from Old English hord, stock, store, treasure (< “thing hidden away”), from Germanic *huzdam; (ii) compound *kuzdho-zd-, “sitting (over) a treasure” (*-zd-,sitting; see sed-). custody, from Latin custs, guard; c. kishke, from Russian kishka, gut (< “sheath”).
5. Suffixed extended zero-grade form *kut-no-. cunnilingus, from Latin cunnus, vulva (< “sheath”).
6. Extended root *keudh-. a. hide1, from Old English hdan, to hide, cover up, from Germanic suffixed lengthened zero-grade form *hd-jan; b. hut, from French hutte, hut, from Germanic suffixed zero-grade form *hd-jn-; c. huddle, from Low German hudeln, to crowd together, probably from Germanic *hd-.
7. shieling, from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Norse skli, hut, from Germanic suffixed o-grade form *skaw-ala-.
(Pokorny 2. (s)keu- 951.)
To shoot, chase, throw. Derivatives include shoot, shut, and scuttle1. .
1. shoot, from Old English scotan, to shoot, from Germanic *skeutan, to shoot.
2a. shot1, from Old English sceot,scot, shooting, a shot; b. schuss, from Old High German scuz, shooting, a shot; c. scot, scot and lot, from Old Norse skot and Old French escot, contribution, tax (< “money thrown down”); d. wainscot, from Middle Dutch sc(h)ot, crossbar, wooden partition. a–d all from Germanic *skutaz, shooting, shot.
3. shut, from Old English scyttan, to shut (by pushing a crossbar), probably from Germanic *skutjan.
4. shuttle, from Old English scytel, a dart, missile, from Germanic *skutilaz.
5a. sheet2, from Old English scata, corner of a sail; b. sheet1, from Old English scte, piece of cloth. Both a and b from Germanic *skautjn-.6a. scout2, from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Norse skta, mockery (< “shooting of words”); b. shout, from Old Norse skta, a taunt. Both a and b from Germanic *skut-.
(Pokorny 2. (s)keud- 955.)
To cut, separate, sift. Extension of sker-1.
1. scribble, scribe, script, scriptorium, Scripture, serif, shrive; ascribe, circumscribe, conscript, describe, festschrift, inscribe, manuscript, postscript, prescribe, proscribe, rescript, subscribe, superscribe, transcribe, from Latin scrbere, to scratch, incise, write.
2. scarify1, from Greek skarphos, scratching, sketch, pencil.
(Pokorny 4. (s)ker-, Section II. 945.)
To be weak, sleep. Possibly related to slg- through a hypothetical base *sl- (< earlier *sle1-). sleep, from Old English slpan, to sleep, and slp, sleep, from Germanic *slpan, *slpaz. (In Pokorny lb- 655.)
Also lg-. To be slack, be languid. Possibly related to slb- through a hypothetical base *sl- (< earlier *sle1-). Zero-grade form *slg-, becoming *slag-.
1. slack1, from Old English slæc, “loose,” indolent, careless, from Germanic *slak-.
2. Suffixed form *lag-so-. lax, lease, lessor; relax, release, relish, from Latin laxus, loose, slack.
3. Suffixed nasalized form *la-n-g-u-. laches, languid, languish, lush1, from Latin langure, to be languid.
4. Compound *lag-ous-, “with drooping ears” (*ous-, ear; see ous-). lagomorph, from Greek lags, lagos, hare.
5. Suffixed form *lag-no-. algolagnia, from Greek lagnos, lustful, lascivious.
6. Basic form *slg-. catalectic, from Greek lgein, to leave off.
(Pokorny (s)lg- 959.)
1. O-grade form *sloi()-. sloe, from Old English slh, sl, sloe (< “bluish fruit”), from Germanic *slaihwn.
2. Zero-grade form *sl-(contracted from *sli-). a. Suffixed form *sl-wo-. lavender, livid, from Latin lvre, to be bluish; b. Suffixed form *sl-w-. slivovitz, from Serbo-Croatian ljìva, plum.
(Pokorny (s)l- 965.)
To slide, slip. Derivatives include sleeve, lubricate, and slop1.
(I) Basic form *sleubh-.
1. sleeve, from Old English slf, slf, slef, sleeve (into which the arm slips), from Germanic *sleub-.
2.sloven, from Middle Low German slôven, to put on clothes carelessly, from Germanic *slaubjan.
3. Suffixed form *sleubh-ro-. lubricate, lubricity, lubricious, from Latin lbricus, slippery.
(II) Variant Germanic root form *sleup-.
1a. slip3; cowslip, oxlip, from Old English slypa, slyppe, slipa, slime, slimy substance; b. slop1, from Old English *sloppe, dung; c. slop2, from Old English (ofer)slop, surplice. a–c all from Germanic *slup-.
2. sloop, from Middle Dutch slpen, to glide.
(Pokorny sleub(h)- 963.)
To laugh, smile.
1. smirk, from Old English smercian, to smile (with -k- formative), from Germanic reshaped forms *smer-, *smar-.
2.smile, from Middle English smilen, to smile, from a Scandinavian source probably akin to Swedish smila, to smile, from Germanic extended form *sml-.
3. Suffixed form *smei-ro-. marvel, miracle, mirage, mirror; admire, from Latin mrus, wonderful.
4. Prefixed zero-grade form *ko(m)-smi-, smiling with (*ko-, *kom-,together; see kom). comity, from Latin cmis (< cosmis), courteous.
(Pokorny 1. (s)mei- 967.)
To remember.
1. Suffixed zero-grade form *m-no-. mourn, from Old English murnan, to mourn, from Germanic *murnan, to remember sorrowfully.
2. Reduplicated form *me-mor-. a. Mimir, from Old Norse Mimir, a giant who guards the well of wisdom, from Germanic *mi-mer-; b. memorable, memorandum, memory; commemorate, remember, from Latin memor, mindful.
(Pokorny (s)mer- 969.)
To get a share of something.
1. Suffixed (stative) form *mer--. meretricious, merit; demerit, emeritus, turmeric, from Latin merre, merr, to receive a share, deserve, serve.
2. Suffixed form *mer-o-. –mere, meristem, mero-, –merous; allomerism, dimer, isomer, monomer, polymer, trimer, from Greek meros (feminine meris), a part, division. (In Pokorny (s)mer- 969.)
To swim. Oldest form *sne2-, colored to *sna2-, contracted to *sn-.
1. Extended form *sngh-. nekton, from Greek nkhein, to swim.
2. Suffixed zero-grade form *(s)n-to-. natant, natation, natatorial, natatorium; supernatant, from Latin nre, to swim, and frequentative natre, to swim.
3. chersonese, from Greek nsos, island, attributed by some to this root (but more likely obscure).
(Pokorny sn- 971.) See also extension (s)nu-.
To swim, flow, let flow, whence suckle. Oldest form *sne2u-; colored to *sna2u-, contracted to *(s)nu-. Extension of sn-.
1. Suffixed basic form *nw-yo-. naiad, from Greek Naias, fountain nymph, probably from nn, to flow.
2. Variant root form *(s)neu()-. neuston, from Greek nein, to swim.
3. Zero-grade form *(s)n- (< *snu-) in suffixed form *n-tr (with feminine agent suffix). nourish, nurse, nurture, nutrient, nutriment, nutrition, nutritious, nutritive, from Latin ntrx, nurse, and ntrre, to suckle, nourish. (In Pokorny sn-971.)
Also n-. To spin, sew. Contracted from earlier *(s)ne1-.
1. Suffixed form *n-tl-. needle, from Old English ndl, needle, from Germanic *nthl.
2. Suffixed form *sn-m. nemato-; axoneme, chromonema, protonema, synaptinemal comples, treponema, from Greek nma, thread.
3. Suffixed o-grade form *sn-t-. snood, from Old English snd, headband, from Germanic *snd.
(Pokorny (s)n-973.)
Snow; to snow.
1. Suffixed o-grade form *snoigwh-o-. snow, from Old English snw-, snow, from Germanic *snaiwaz.
2. Zero-grade form *snigwh-. névé, nival, niveous, from Latin nix, snow.
(Pokorny sneigh-974.)
Tendon, sinew. Oldest form *sne1u-. Extension of (s)n-. Suffixed form *(s)new--, with further suffixes. a. *neu-r-o-.neuro-, neuron, neurula; aponeurosis, from Greek neuron, sinew; b. metathesized form *nerwo-. nerve; enervate, from Latin nervus, sinew.
(Pokorny snu- 977.)
This, that (nominative). For other cases see to-.
1. the1, from Late Old English the, masculine demonstrative pronoun, replacing se (with th- from oblique forms; see to-).
2. hoi polloi, from Greek ho, the.
3. Feminine form *sy-.she, from Old English so, se, she, from Germanic *sj.
4. Compound variant form *sei-ke (*-ke, “this”; see ko-). sic1, from Latin sc, thus, so, in that manner.
(Pokorny so(s) 978.)
Whole. Also sol- (oldest form *sol2-). Derivatives include solid, catholic, and salvo.
(I) Basic form *sol-.
1. Suffixed form *sol-ido-.solder, soldier, solid, sou; consolidate, from Latin solidus, solid.
2. Suffixed form *sol-wo-. holo-; catholic, from Greek holos, whole.
3. Dialectal geminated form *soll-o-. a. solicit, solicitous; insouciant, from Latin sollus, whole, entire, unbroken; b. solemn, from Latin sollemnis (second element obscure), celebrated at fixed dates (said of religious rites), established, religious, solemn.
(II) Variant form *sol-.
1. Suffixed zero-grade form s-u- giving *sal-u-. salubrious, salutary, salute, from Latin sals, health, a whole or sound condition.
2. Suffixed zero-grade form *s-wo- giving *sala-wo-. safe, sage2, salvage, salvo1, salvo2, save1, save2, from Latin salvus, whole, safe, healthy, uninjured.
(Pokorny solo- 979.)
To thrive, prosper. Contracted from *spe1-.
1. Suffixed o-grade form *sp-ti-. speed; Godspeed, from Old English spd, success, from Germanic *spdiz.
2. Suffixed form *sp-s-. despair, esperance, from Latin sprre, to hope, denominative of sps (plural sprs), hope.
3. Suffixed zero-grade form *sp-ro-. prosper, from Latin prosperus, favorable, prosperous (traditionally regarded as from pr spr, according to one's hope; pr, according to; see per1).
(Pokorny 3. sp(h)(i)- 983.)
To observe. Oldest form *spe-,becoming *spek- in centum languages. Derivatives include espionage, spectrum, despise, suspect, despicable, bishop, and telescope.
(I) Basic form *spek-.
1a. espy, spy, from Old French espier, to watch; b. espionage, from Old Italian spione, spy, from Germanic derivative *speh-n-, watcher. Both a and b from Germanic *spehn.
2. Suffixed form *spek-yo-. specimen, spectacle, spectrum, speculate, speculum, spice; aspect, circumspect, conspicuous, despise, expect, frontispiece, inspect, introspect, perspective, perspicacious, prospect, respect, respite, retrospect, spiegeleisen, suspect, transpicuous, from Latin specere, to look at.
3. species, specious; especial, from Latin specis, a seeing, sight, form.
4. Suffixed form *spek-s, “he who sees,” in Latin compounds. a. Latin haruspex (see gher-); b. Latin auspex (see awi-).
5. Suffixed form *spek--. despicable, from Latin (denominative) dspicr, to despise, look down on (d-, down; see de-).
6. Suffixed metathetical form *skep-yo-. skeptic, from Greek skeptesthai, to examine, consider.
(II) Extended o-grade form *spoko-. scope, –scope, –scopy; bishop, episcopal, horoscope, telescope, from metathesized Greek skopos, one who watches, also object of attention, goal, and its denominative skopein (< *skop-eyo-), to see.
(Pokorny spe- 984.)
To draw, stretch, spin. Derivatives include spider, pansy, pendant1, appendix, penthouse, and spontaneous.
(I) Basic form *spen-.
1. Suffixed form *spen-wo-. a. spider, spin, from Old English spinnan, to spin, and spthra, spider, contracted from Germanic derivative *spin-thrn-, “the spinner”; b. spindle, from Old English spinel, spindle, from Germanic derivative *spin-iln-. Both a and b from Germanic *spinnan, to spin.
2. Extended form *pend-. painter2, pansy, penchant, pendant1, pendentive, pendulous, pendulum, pensile, pension1, pensive, peso, poise1; antependium, append, appendix, avoirdupois, compendium, compensate, counterpoise, depend, dispense, expend, impend, penthouse, perpend, perpendicular, prepense, propend, recompense, stipend, suspend, vilipend, from Latin pendre, to hang (intransitive), and pendere, to cause to hang, weigh, with its frequentative pnsre, to weigh, consider.
3. Perhaps suffixed form *pen-y-. –penia, from Greek peni, lack, poverty (< “a strain, exhaustion”).
4. geoponic, lithopone, from Greek ponos, toil, and ponein, to toil, o-grade derivatives of penesthai, to toil.
(II) O-grade forms *spon-,*pon-.
1a. span2, spancel, from Middle Dutch spannen, to bind; b. spanner, from Old High German spannan, to stretch. Both a and b from Germanic *spannan.
2. span1, from Old English span(n), distance, from Germanic *spanno-.
3. Perhaps Germanic *spang. spangle, from Middle Dutch spange, clasp.
4. Suffixed and extended form *pond-o-. pound1, from Latin pond, by weight.
5. Suffixed and extended form *pond-es-. ponder, ponderous; equiponderate, preponderate, from Latin pondus (stem ponder-), weight, and its denominative ponderre, to weigh, ponder.
6. Suffixed o-grade form *spon-t-. spontaneous, from Latin sponte, of one's own accord, spontaneously (but this is more likely related to the Germanic verb *spanan, to entice, from a homophonous root).
(Pokorny (s)pen-(d-) 988.)
To make an offering, perform a rite, hence to engage oneself by a ritual act. O-grade from *spond-.
1. Suffixed form *spond-eyo-. sponsor, spouse; despond, espouse, respond, from Latin spondre, to make a solemn promise, pledge, betroth.
2. Suffixed form *spond--. spondee, from Greek spond, libation, offering.
(Pokorny spend- 989.)
To strew. Derivatives include sprawl, sperm1, and sporadic.
(I) Zero-grade form *spr-.
1. sprawl, from Old English sprawlian, to sprawl, from Germanic *spr-.
2. Extended form *spreud-. a. sprout, from Old English -sprtan, to sprout (only in -sprtan, to sprout forth); b. spritz, spritzer, from Middle High German sprützen, to spurt, spray; c.sprit, from Old English sprot, pole (< “sprout, stem”); d. bowsprit, from Middle Low German bchsprt, bowsprit. a–d all from Germanic *sprt-.
3. Extended form *spreit-. spray2, spread, from Old English -sprdan, to spread, from Germanic *spraidjan.
(II) Basic form *sper-.
1. Suffixed form *sper-yo-. Diaspora, from Greek speirein, to scatter, with derivative spor, a scattering, sowing (see III.1.).
2. Suffixed form *sper-m. sperm1, from Greek sperma, sperm, seed (< “that which is scattered”).
(III) O-grade form *spor-.
1. Suffixed form *spor--. spore, sporo-; exosporium, from Greek spor, a sowing, seed.
2. Suffixed form *spor-d-. sporadic, from Greek sporas (stem sporad-), scattered, dispersed.
(IV) Extended Germanic root *spr(w)-. spray1, from Middle Dutch spraeien,sprayen, to sprinkle, from Germanic *sprwjan.
(Pokorny 2. (s)p(h)er- 993.)
Ankle. Oldest form *sper2-. Zero-grade form *sp()-.
1. spur, from Old English spura, spora, spur, from Germanic suffixed form *spur-n-.
2. Nasalized zero-grade form *sp-n--. spurn, from Old English spurnan, spornan, to kick, strike against, from Germanic *spurnn.
3. spoor, from Middle Dutch spor, spoor, track of an animal, from Germanic suffixed form *spur-am.
(Pokorny 1. sp(h)er-992.)
To flow.
1. Suffixed o-grade form *srou-mo-. a. stream, from Old English stram, stream; b. maelstrom, from Middle Dutch stroom, stream. Both a and b from Germanic *straumaz, stream.
2. Basic form *sreu-. a. rheo-, –rrhea; catarrh, diarrhea, hemorrhoid, rhyolite, from Greek rhein, to flow, with o-grade rhoos, flowing, a flowing; b. suffixed form *sreu-m. rheum, from Greek rheuma, stream, humor of the body.
3. Suffixed zero-grade form *sru-dhmo-. rhythm, from Greek rhuthmos, measure, recurring motion, rhythm.
4. Suffixed zero-grade form *sru-to-. rhyton, from Greek rhutos, fluid, liquid.
5. Perhaps zero-grade extended form *srug-. sastruga, from Russian struga, deep place.
(Pokorny sreu- 1003.)
To stand; with derivatives meaning “place or thing that is standing.” Oldest form *ste2-, colored to *sta2-, contracted to *st-. Derivatives include steed, stud2, arrest, instant, understand, static, prostitute, insist, ecstasy, and system.
(I) Basic form *st-.
1. Extended form *stdh-. a. steed, from Old English stda, stallion, studhorse (< “place for breeding horses”), from Germanic *std-jn-; b. stud2, from Old English std, establishment for breeding horses, from Germanic *std.
2. Suffixed form *st-lo-. a. stool, from Old English stl, stool; b. Germanic compound *faldistlaz (see pel-2). Both a and b from Germanic *stlaz.
3. estancia, stage, stance, stanch1, stanchion, stanza, stative, stator, stay1, stet; arrest, circumstance, constant, contrast, cost, distant, extant, instant, obstacle, obstetric, oust, rest2, restharrow, restive, substance, from Latin stre, to stand.
4. Suffixed form *st-men-. etamine, stamen, stammel, from Latin stmen, thread of the warp (a technical term).
5. Suffixed form *st-mon-. penstemon, from Greek stmn, thread.
6. Suffixed form *st-ro-. starets, from Old Church Slavonic star, old (“long-standing”).
(II) Zero-grade form *st-(before consonants).
1. Nasalized extended form *st-n-t-.a. stand, from Old English standan, to stand; b. understand, from Old English understandan, to know, stand under (under-, under-; see dher); c. standard, from Frankish *standan, to stand; d. stound, from Old English stund, a fixed time, while, from secondary zero-grade form in Germanic *stund-. a–d all from Germanic *standan.
2. Suffixed form *st-tyo-. stithy, from Old Norse stedhi, anvil, from Germanic *stathjn-.
3. Suffixed form *st-tlo-. staddle, stall2, starling2; stalwart, from Old English stathol, foundation, from Germanic *stathlaz.
4. Suffixed form *st-mno-. a. (i) stem1, from Old English stefn, stem, tree trunk; (ii) stalag, from Old High German stam, stem. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *stamniz; b. estaminet, probably from Walloon stamen, post to which a cow is tied at the feeding-trough, from a source derived from or akin to Germanic *stamniz.
5. Suffixed form *st-ti-. a. (i) stead, from Old English stede, place; (ii) shtetl, from Old High German stat, place. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *stadiz; b. stat2, from Latin statim, at once; c. station, from Latin stati, a standing still; d. armistice, solstice, from Latin -stitium, a stoppage; e. stasis, from Greek stasis (see III.1.b.), a standing, a standstill.
6. Suffixed form *st-to-.a. bestead, from Old Norse stadhr, place, from Germanic *stadaz, placed; b. –stat, static, statice, stato-; astasia, astatine, from Greek statos, placed, standing.
7. Suffixed form *st-no-. a. destine, from Latin dstinre, to make firm, establish (d-,thoroughly; see de-); b. obstinate, from Latin obstinre, to set one's mind on, persist (ob-, on; see epi).
8. Suffixed form *st-tu-. estate, étagère, stage, state, statistics, statue, stature, status, statute; constitute, destitute, institute, prostitute, restitute, substitute, superstition, from Latin status, manner, position, condition, attitude, with derivatives statra, height, stature, statuere, to set up, erect, cause to stand, and superstes (< *-st-t-), witness (“who stands beyond”).
9. Suffixed form *st-dhlo-. stable2; constable, from Latin stabulum, “standing place,” stable.
10. Suffixed form *st-dhli-. establish, stable1, from Latin stabilis, standing firm.
11. Suffixed form *st-t. –stat; enstatite, from Greek -stats, one that causes to stand, a standing.
(III) Zero-grade form *st-, *st()- (before vowels).
1. Reduplicated form *si-st()-. a. assist, consist, desist, exist, insist, interstice, persist, resist, subsist, from Latin sistere, to set, place, stop, stand; b. apostasy, catastasis, diastase, ecstasy, epistasis, epistemology, hypostasis, iconostasis, isostasy, metastasis, prostate, system, from Greek histanai (aorist stanai), to set, place, with stasis (*st-ti-), a standing (see II.5. e.); c. histo-; histiocyte, histogram, from Greek histos, web, tissue (< “that which is set up”).
2. Compound form *tri-st-i-, “third person standing by” (see trei-).
3. Compound form *por-st-i-, “that which stands before” (*por-, before, forth; see per1). post1, from Latin postis, post.
4. Suffixed form *st-o- in compound *upo-st-o-(see upo).
(IV) Extended root *stu- (< *stau-), becoming *stau- before consonants, *stw- before vowels; basic meaning “stout-standing, strong.”
1. Suffixed extended form *stw--. stow, from Old English stw, place, from Germanic *stw.
2. Probable o-grade suffixed extended form *stw-y-. stoa, stoic, from Greek sto (also stoi, sti), porch.
3. Suffixed extended form *stau-ro-. a. (i) store; instauration, from Latin nstaurre, to restore, set upright again (in-, on; see en); (ii) restore, from Latin restaurre, to restore, rebuild (re-, anew, again; see re-); b. staurolite, from Greek stauros, cross, post, stake.
4. Variant *tau-ro-, bull (see tauro-).
(V) Zero-grade extended root *st- (< *stu-). Suffixed form *st-lo-. stylite; amphistylar, astylar, epistyle, hexastyle, hypostyle, octastyle, peristyle, prostyle, stylobate, from Greek stlos, pillar.
(VI) Secondary full-grade form *steu-. Suffixed form *steu-ro-. Theravada, from Sanskrit sthavira-, thick, stout, old.
(VII) Variant zero-grade extended root *stu-. Suffixed form *stu-t-. stud1, from Old English stuthu,studu, post, prop.
(VIII) Secondary full-grade form *steu-.
1. Suffixed form *steu-r-. starboard, from Old English stor-, a steering, from Germanic *steur, “a steering.”
2a. steer1, from Old English steran,stran, to steer; b. stern2, from Middle English sterne, stern of a boat, possibly from a source akin to Old Norse stjrn, a rudder, a steering, derivative of stra, to steer. Both a and b from Germanic denominative *steurjan.
3. Suffixed form *steu-ro-, a larger domestic animal. steer2, from Old English stor, steer, from Germanic *steuraz, ox.
4. Probably Germanic diminutive *steur-ika-. stirk, from Old English strc, stierc, calf.
(Pokorny st- 1004.)
Stone. Oldest form possibly *ste2i-, colored to *sta2i-, contracted to *stai- before consonants and *sty- before vowels.
1. Suffixed o-grade form *stoi-no-. a. stone, from Old English stn; b. steenbok, from Middle Dutch steen, stone; c. tungsten, from Old Norse steinn, stone; d. stein, from Old High German stein, stone. a–d all from Germanic *stainaz.
2. Possibly suffixed form *sty- (earlier *stay-). stearic, stearin, steatite, steato-; steapsin, from Greek stear, solid fat, suet.
(Pokorny (s)ti- 1010.)
To cover. Derivatives include thatch, thug, and detect.
(I) O-grade form *tog-.
1a. thatch, from Old English theccan, to cover; b. deck2, from Middle Dutch decken, to cover; c. deckle, from Old High German decchen, to cover. a–c all from Germanic *thakjan.
2a. thatch, from Old English thæc, thatch; b. deck1, from Middle Dutch dec,decke, roof, covering. Both a and b from Germanic *thakam.
3. Suffixed form *tog--, covering. toga, from Latin toga, toga.
4. Possibly Sanskrit sthagayati, he covers: thug.
(II) Basic form *steg-. stegodon, from Greek stegein, to cover.
(III) Basic form *teg-. tectrix, tectum, tegmen, tegmentum, tegular, tegument, tile, tuille; detect, integument, obtect, protect, from Latin tegere, to cover, and tgula, tile (with lengthened-grade root).
(Pokorny 1. (s)teg- 1013.)
To stick, prick; pointed.
1. Perhaps nasalized form *stengh-. sting, from Old English stingan, to sting, from Germanic *stingan.
2. O-grade form *stogh-. a. stag, from Old English stagga, stag, from Germanic *stag-;b. stochastic, from Greek stokhos, pointed stake or pillar (used as a target for archers), goal.
(Pokorny stegh- 1014.)
To stick; pointed. Partly blended with stegh-. Derivatives include stitch, ticket, instinct, stigma, tiger, and steak.
(I) Zero-grade form *stig-.
1. stickleback, from Old English sticel, a prick, sting, from Germanic suffixed form *stik-ilaz.
2. Suffixed form *stig-i-. stitch, from Old English stice, a sting, prick, from Germanic *stikiz.
3. stick, from Old English sticca, stick, from Germanic expressive form *stikkn-.
4. etiquette, ticket, from Old French estiquier, to stick, from Germanic stative *stikkn, “to be stuck.”
5. snickersnee, from Middle Dutch steken, to stick, stab, from Germanic blended variant *stekan.
6. Nasalized zero-grade form *sti-n-g-. distinguish, extinguish, instinct, from Latin stinguere, to quench, perhaps originally to prick, and its apparent derivative dstinguere, to separate (phonological and semantic transitions obscure).
7. Suffixed form *stig-yo-. stigma; astigmatism, from Greek stizein, to prick, tattoo.
8. Suffixed reduced form *tig-ro-. tiger, from Greek tigris, tiger (from its stripes), from the same Iranian source as Old Persian tigra-, sharp, pointed, and Avestan tighri-, arrow.
(II) Basic form *(s)teig-.
1. instigate, from Latin nstgre, to urge, from -stgre, to spur on, prod.
2. raita, from Sanskrit tejate (verbal adjective tikta-), it is sharp.
(III) Suffixed o-grade form *stoig--. steak, from Old Norse steik, roast, steak, and steikja, to roast (on a spit), from Germanic *staik.
(IV) Extended variant form *teigs-. a. thistle, from Old English thistel; b. distelfink, from Old High German distil, thistle. Both a and b from Germanic *thistilaz, perhaps simplified from earlier *thhstilaz.
(Pokorny (s)teig- 1016.)
To stride, step, rise. Derivatives include stirrup, acrostic and stair.
(I) Basic form *steigh-. sty2; stirrup, from Old English stgan, to go up, rise, from Germanic *stgan.
(II) Zero-grade form *stigh-.
1. stile1, from Old English stigel, series of steps, from Germanic *stigila-.
2. Suffixed form *stigh-to-. stickle, from Old English stiht(i)an, to settle, arrange, from Germanic *stihtan, “to place on a step or base.”
3. Suffixed form *stigh-o-. stich; acrostic, cadastre, distich, hemistich, pentastich, stichometry, stichomythia, from Greek stikhos, row, line, line of verse.
(III) O-grade form *stoigh-.
1. Suffixed form *stoigh-ri-. stair, from Old English stger, stair, step, from Germanic *staigr.
2. stoichiometry, from Greek stoikheion, shadow line, element.
(Pokorny steigh- 1017.)
To put, stand; with derivatives referring to a standing object or place. Derivatives include apostle, stallion, pedestal, stilt, and stout.
(I) Basic form *stel-.
1. Suffixed form *stel-ni-. still1, from Old English stille, quiet, fixed, from Germanic *stilli-.
2. Suffixed form *stel-yo-. apostle, diastole, epistle, peristalsis, systaltic, from Greek stellein, to put in order, prepare, send, make compact (with o-grade and zero-grade forms stol- and stal-).
(II) O-grade form *stol-.
1. Suffixed form *stol-no-. a.stall1; forestall, from Old English steall, standing place, stable; b. stale1; installment1, from Old French estal, place; c. stallion, from Anglo-Norman estaloun, stallion; d. pedestal, from Old Italian stallo, stall; e. install, from Medieval Latin stallum, stall; f. gestalt, from Old High German stellen, to set, place, from Germanic denominative *stalljan. a–f all from Germanic *stalla-.
2. Suffixed form *stol-n-. stolon, from Latin stol, branch, shoot.
3. Suffixed form *stol-ido-. stolid, from Latin stolidus, “firm-standing,” stupid.
4. Suffixed form *stol--. a. stalk1, from Old English stalu, upright piece, stalk, from Germanic *stal; b. stole1, from Greek stol, garment, array, equipment.
(III) Zero-grade form *st-.
1. Suffixed form *st-to-. stultify, from Latin stultus, foolish (< “unmovable, uneducated”).
2. Suffixed zero-grade form *st-no-. stull, stollen, from Old High German stollo, post, support, from Germanic *stulln-.
3. Suffixed zero-grade form *stal-n-. stele, from Greek stl, pillar.
(IV) Extended form *steld-. a. stilt, from Middle English stilte, crutch, stilt, from a source akin to Low German and Flemish stilte, stick, from Germanic *stiltjn-; b. zero-grade form *std-. stout, from Old French estout, stout, from Germanic *stult-,“walking on stilts,” strutting.
(Pokorny 3. stel- 1019.)
To thunder. Oldest form *sten2-.
1. Zero-grade form *st-.a. thunder; Thursday, from Old English thunor, thunder, Thor; b. blunderbuss, dunderhead, from Middle Dutch doner, donder, thunder; c. Thor, from Old Norse Thrr (older form Thunarr), “thunder,” thunder god. a–c all from Germanic *thunaraz.
2. O-grade form *ton-. tornado; astonish, detonate, stun, from Latin tonre, to thunder.
(Pokorny 1. (s)ten- 1021.)
Stiff. Derivatives include stare, starch, stork, starve, and torpedo.
(I) O-grade form *stor-.
1. Suffixed form *stor--. stare, from Old English starian, to stare, from Germanic *starn.
2. Extended form *stor-g-. a. stark, from Old English stearc, hard, severe, from Germanic *starkaz; b. starch, from Old English *stercan, to stiffen, from Germanic denominative *starkjan.
(II) Full-grade form *ster-.
1. stern1, from Old English stierne,styrne, firm, from Germanic *sternjaz.
2. Suffixed form *ster-ewo-. stere, stereo-; cholesterol, from Greek stereos, solid.
3. Lengthened-grade form *str-. sterigma, from Greek strizein, to support.
(III) Zero-grade form *st-.
1. Extended form *stg-. stork, from Old English storc, stork (probably from the stiff movements of the bird), from Germanic *sturkaz.
2. strut, from Old English strtian, to stand out stiffly, from Germanic *strt-.
(IV) Extended form *sterd-.
1. redstart, stark-naked, from Old English steort, tail, from Germanic *stertaz.2a. start, from Old English *styrtan, to leap up (< “move briskly, move stiffly”); b. startle, from Old English steartlian, to kick, struggle. Both a and b from Germanic *stert-.
(V) Extended form *sterbh-. starve, from Old English steorfan, to die (< “become rigid”), from Germanic *sterban.
(VI) Extended form *(s)terp- in suffixed (stative) zero-grade form *tp--. torpedo, torpid, torpor, from Latin torpre, to be stiff.
(Pokorny 1. (s)ter- 1022.)
Also ster-. To spread. Derivatives include destroy, industry, straw, street, and stratagem.
(I) Extended form *streu-.
1. strain2, from Old English stron, something gained, offspring, from Germanic suffixed form *streu-nam.
2. structure; construct, destroy, instruct, instrument, obstruct, substruction, from Latin struere, to pile up, construct.
3. Zero-grade form *stru-. industry, from Latin industrius, diligent, from Archaic Latin indostruus (endo-, within; see en).
4.bremsstrahlung, from Old High German strla, arrow, lightning bolt, from Germanic *strl.
(II) O-grade extended form *strou-.
1. Suffixed form *strou-eyo-.a. strew, from Old English str(o)wian, to strew; b. streusel, from Old High German strouwen, strowwen, to sprinkle, strew. Both a and b from Germanic *strawjan.
2. Suffixed form *strow-o-. straw, from Old English straw, straw, from Germanic *strawam, “that which is scattered.”
(III) O-grade extended form *stroi-. perestroika, from Old Russian stroj, order.
(IV) Basic forms *ster-,*ster-.
1. Nasalized form *ster-n--. estray, stratus, stray, street; consternate, prostrate, substratum, from Latin sternere (past participle strtus from zero-grade *st-to-), to stretch, extend.
2. Suffixed form *ster-no-. sternum; sternocleidomastoid, from Greek sternon, breast, breastbone.
(V) Zero-grade form *st-, *st-.
1. Suffixed form *st-to-. stratagem; stratocracy, from Greek stratos, multitude, army, expedition.
2. Suffixed form *st-to-. strath, from Old Irish srath, a wide river valley, from Celtic *s(t)rato-.
3. Suffixed extended form *st-m. stroma; stromatolite, from Greek strma, mattress, bed.
(Pokorny 5. ster- 1029.)
Star. Oldest form *2ster-.
1. Suffixed form *ster-s-. star, from Old English steorra, star, from Germanic *sterzn-.
2. Suffixed form *str-l-. stellar, stellate; constellation, from Latin stlla, star.
3. Basic form *ster-. aster, asteriated, asterisk, asterism, asteroid, astral, astro-; astraphobia, disaster, from Greek astr, star, with its derivative astron, star, and possible compound astrap, asterop, lightning, twinkling (< “looking like a star”; ps, op-, eye, appearance; see okw-).
4. Esther1, perhaps from Persian sitareh, star, from Iranian stem *str- (or perhaps of Semitic origin; see ctr in Appendix II).
(Pokorny 2. str-1027.)
To wind, turn. European root.
1. strepto-, strop, strophe, strophoid, strophulus; anastrophe, apostrophe1, boustrophedon, catastrophe, diastrophism, from Greek strephein, to wind, turn, twist, with o-grade derivatives stroph, a turning, and strophion, headband.
2. Unaspirated o-grade form *strob-. strobilus; stroboscope, from Greek strobos, a whirling, whirlwind.
3. Unaspirated zero-grade form *stb-. strabismus, strabotomy, from Greek strabos, squinting. (In Pokorny 1. (s)ter-1022.)
To stroke, rub, press. European root. Derivatives include streak, prestige, and restrict.
(I) Basic form *streig-.1a. strike, from Old English strcan, to stroke; b. tricot, from Old French estriquier, to strike. Both a and b from Germanic *strkan.
2. strickle, from Old English stricel, implement for leveling grain, from Germanic diminutive *strik-ila-.
3. streak, from Old English strica, stroke, line, from Germanic *strikn-.
(II) O-grade form *stroig-. stroke1, from Old English *strc, stroke, from Germanic *straik-.
(III) Zero-grade form *strig-.
1. Suffixed form *strig--. strigose, from Latin striga, row of grain, furrow drawn lengthwise over the field.
2. Suffixed form *strig-y-. stria, from Latin stria, furrow, channel.
3. Nasalized zero-grade form *stri-n-g-. strain1, strait, stress, stretto, strict, stringendo, stringent; astringent, constrain, distrain, distress, prestige, restrain, restrict, from Latin stringere, to draw tight, press together.
4. strigil, from Latin strigilis, strigil, possibly akin to stringere.
(Pokorny 1. streig-, 2. streig- 1036, 4. ster-1028.)
Pig. Contracted from *su-; probably a derivative of seu-1.
1. Suffixed form *su-no-. a.swine, from Old English swn, swine; b. keelson, from Old Norse svn, swine. Both a and b from Germanic *swnam.
2. Suffixed form *su-k-. a. (i) hog, from Old English hogg, hog, from British Celtic *hukk-, from Celtic expressive form *sukko-, swine, snout of a swine; (ii) socket, from Anglo-Norman soc, plowshare, perhaps from Celtic *sukko-; b. sow2, from Old English sugu, sow, from Germanic *sug.
3. Basic form *s-. sow2, from Old English s, from Germanic *s-.
4. soil2, from Latin ss, pig.
5. Hyades, hyena; hyoscine, from Greek hs, swine.
(Pokorny s-s 1038.)
Sweet, pleasant. Oldest form *swe2d-, colored to *swa2d-, contracted to *swd-.
1. sweet, from Old English swte, sweet, from Germanic *swtja-.
2. Suffixed form *swd--. suasion; assuasive, dissuade, persuade, from Latin sudre, to advise, urge (< “recommend as good”).
3. Suffixed form *swd-wi-. soave, suave; assuage, from Latin suvis, delightful.
4. Suffixed form *swd-es-. aedes, from Greek dos, pleasure.
5. Suffixed form *swd-on. hedonic, hedonism, from Greek hdon, pleasure.
(Pokorny sd- 1039.)
Pronoun of the third person and reflexive (referring back to the subject of the sentence); further appearing in various forms referring to the social group as an entity, “(we our-)selves.” Derivatives include self, gossip, suicide, secret, sober, sullen, ethic, and idiot. .
1. Suffixed extended form *sel-bho-. self, from Old English self, sylf, self, same, from Germanic *selbaz, self.
2. Suffixed form *s(w)e-bh(o)-.sib; gossip, from Old English sibb, relative, from Germanic *sibja-,“one's own,” blood relation, relative.
3. Suffixed form *se-ge. bustle1, from Old Norse -sk, reflexive suffix (as in bask, to make oneself ready), from sik, oneself (reflexive pronoun), from Germanic *sik, self.
4. Suffixed form *swoi-no-. swain; boatswain, from Old Norse sveinn, herdsman, boy, from Germanic *swainaz, “one's own (man),” attendant, servant.
5. Suffixed form *s(u)w-o-, one's own. a. suicide, from Latin su (genitive), of oneself; b. swami, from Sanskrit svm, “one's own master,” owner, prince, from sva-(< *swo-), one's own.
6. Extended form *sed.secede, secern, seclude, secret, secure, sedition, seduction, sedulous, segregate, select, separate, sever, sure, from Latin sd, s, s-, without, apart (< “on one's own”); c. sober, from Latin compound sbrius, not drunk (brius, drunk; see egwh-).
7. Possibly suffixed lengthened o-grade form *s-lo. sole2, solitary, solitude, solo, sullen; desolate, soliloquy, solipsism, from Latin slus, by oneself alone.
8. Extended root *swdh-, “that which is one's own,” peculiarity, custom. a. sodality, from Latin sodlis, companion (< “one's own,” “relative”); b. suffixed form *swdh-sko-. consuetude, custom, desuetude, mansuetude, mastiff, from Latin suscere, to accustom, get accustomed; c. ethic, ethos; cacoethes, from Greek thos, custom, disposition, trait; d. suffixed form *swedh-no-. ethnic, ethno-, from Greek ethnos, band of people living together, nation, people (< “people of one's own kind”).
9. Suffixed extended form *swet-aro-. hetaera, from Greek hetairos, comrade, companion, earlier hetaros.10. Suffixed extended form *swed-yo-. idio-, idiom, idiot; idiopathy, idiosyncrasy, from Greek idios, personal, private (“particular to oneself”).
11. Suffixed form *swei-no-. Sinn Fein, from Old Irish féin, self.
12. Suffixed (ablatival) form *swe-tos, from oneself. khedive, from Old Iranian khvadta-, lord, by haplology from compound form *khvat-dta-, created from oneself (dta-, created; see dh-).
13. Perhaps suffixed form *swe-tono-. Khotanese, from Khotanese Hvatana-, perhaps “those holding their own (power), masters.”
(Pokorny se- 882.)
Sweat; to sweat.
(I) O-grade form *swoid-.
1. sweat, from Old English swtan, to sweat, from Germanic *swaitaz, sweat, with its denominative *swaitjan, to sweat.
2. Suffixed form *swoid-os-. sudorific; sudoriferous, from Latin sdor, sweat.
3. O-grade form *swoid--. sudatorium, suint; exude, transude, from Latin sdre, to sweat.
(II) Suffixed zero-grade form *swid-r-os-. hidrosis, from Greek hidrs, sweat.
(Pokorny 2. seid-1043.)
Six. Oldest form *s(w)es, becoming *s(w)eks in centum languages.
(I) Form *seks.
1. six; sixteen, sixty, from Old English s(i)ex, six, with derivatives sixtig, sixty, and sixtne, sixteen (-tne, ten; see dek), from Germanic *seks.
2. senary, sex-; seicento, semester, from Latin sex, six.
3. Suffixed form *seks-to-. sestet, sestina, sext, sextant, sextile; sextodecimo, siesta, Sistine, from Latin sextus, sixth.
(II) Form *sweks. hexa-, hexad, from Greek hex, six.
(Pokorny ses 1044.)
To eat, drink.
1. Perhaps Germanic *swil-. swill, from Old English swilian, to wash out, gargle.
2. Extended form *swelk-. swallow1; groundsel1, from Old English swelgan, to swallow, from Germanic *swelgan, *swelhan.
3.manticore, markhor, from Iranian *khvra-, eating.
(Pokorny 1. sel(k-)1045.)
To sound. Also swen- (oldest form *swen2-).
1. Suffixed o-grade form *swon-o-. a. swan1, from Old English swan, swan, from Germanic *swanaz, *swann-, “singer.” b. sone, sonic, sonnet, sound1; unison, from Latin sonus, a sound.
2. Basic variant form *swen-. sonant, sonata, sonorous; assonance, consonant, dissonant, resound, from Latin sonre, to sound.
(Pokorny sen-1046.)
To sleep.
1. Suffixed form *swep-os-.sopor; soporific, from Latin sopor, a deep sleep.
2. Suffixed form *swep-no-. somni-, somnolent; insomnia, from Latin somnus, sleep.
3. Suffixed zero-grade form *sup-no-. hypno-, hypnosis, hypnotic, from Greek hupnos, sleep.
(Pokorny 1. sep-1048.)
To speak, talk. O-grade form *swor-. a.swear, from Old English swerian, to swear, proclaim, from Germanic *swarjan; b. answer, from Old English andswaru, answer, from Germanic *and-swar, “a swearing against,” “rebuttal” (*andi-, against; see ant-).
(Pokorny 1. ser- 1049.)
Sister. Perhaps originally a compound of s(w)e- and *esr, woman, so literally “woman of one's own kin group” in an exogamous society.
1. Zero-grade form *swesr-.a. sister, from Old English sweostor, sister, and Old Norse systir, sister, both from Germanic *swestr-; b. suffixed form *swesr-no-. cousin, from Latin sobrnus, maternal cousin.
2. sororal, sorority; sororicide, from Latin soror, sister.
(Pokorny sesor-1051.)
Pronominal stem; so. Derivative of s(w)e-.
1a. so1, from Old English sw, so; b. such, from Old English swylc, such, from Germanic compound *swa-lk-, “so like,” of the same kind (*lk-, same; see lk-).
2. Adverbial form *swai. nisi, quasi, from Latin s, if, in nisi, unless (n, not; see ne-), and quasi, as if (quam, as; see kwo-). (In Pokorny se- 882.)
Also s-. To bind, sew. Contracted from *s(y)u-.
(I) Basic form *sy-. sew, from Old English seowian, siowan, to sew, from Germanic *siwjan.
(II) Variant form *s-.
1. seam, from Old English sam, seam, from Germanic *saumaz.
2. suture; accouter, couture, from Latin suere (past participle stus), to sew.
3. Suffixed form *s-dhl-. subulate, from Latin sbula, awl (< “sewing instrument”).
4. Suffixed form *s-tro-. sutra; Kamasutra, from Sanskrit stram, thread, string.
(III) Suffixed shortened form *syu-men-. hymen, from Greek humn, thin skin, membrane.
(Pokorny s- 915.)

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