Индоевропейские корни на *u\*w (Уоткинс)

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Этимологические словари-источники: Покорного | Старостина | Коблера | Уоткинса
Словари древних и.-е. языков: Авест. | Вен. | Гот. | Др.-греч. | Др.-ирл. | Др.-макед. | Др.-перс. | Иллир. | Лат. | Оск. | Пали | Прус. | Др.-инд. | Ст.-слав. | Тохар. | Умбр. | Фрак. | Фриг. | Хетт. | Ятв.

Словарь Уоткинса: A, B, Bh, D, , E, G, , Gh, Gʷh, I(Y), K, , L, M, N, O, P, R, S, T, U(W).

Источник: Calvert Watkins, The American Heritage® Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2000.

Всего на *u- \ *w- представлен 51 (4 + 47) корень из словаря Кальверта Уоткинса (Калверта Воткинса).

Индоевропейские корни Уоткинса (*u)

*ud-
Also d-. Up, out. Derivatives include utmost, carouse, outlaw, but, and hubris.
1a. out; utmost, from Old English t, out; b. carouse; auslander, from Old High German z, out; c. outlaw, from Old Norse t, out; d. uitlander, from Middle Dutch ute, uut, out; e. utter1, from Middle Low German t, out; f. utter2, from Old English tera, outer, from Germanic suffixed (comparative) form *t-era-;g. but; about, from Old English btan, bte, outside (adverb), from Germanic compound *bi-tana, “at the outside” (*bi-, by, at; see ambhi). a–g all from Germanic *t-, out.
2. Extended form *uds. a. ersatz, from Old High German irsezzan, to replace, from ir-, out; b. ort, from Middle Dutch oor, out; c. Germanic compound *uz-dailjam (see dail-); d. Ursprache, from Old High German ur-, out of, original. a–d all from Germanic *uz, *uz-, out.
3. Suffixed (comparative) form *ud-tero-. hysteresis, hysteron proteron, from Greek husteros, later, second, after.
4. hubris, from Greek compound hubris, violence, outrage, insolence (bri-, perhaps “heavy,” “violent”; see gwer-1), from hu-.
5. vigorish, from Russian vy-, out.
(Pokorny d- 1103.)
*uks-en-
Bull, ox. a. ox, from Old English oxa, ox; b. aurochs, from Old High German ohso, ox. Both a and b from Germanic *uhsn-.
(In Pokorny eg-1118.)
*uper
Over. Derivatives include over, sovereign, sirloin, soprano, and somersault.
1. Extended form *uperi. a. over, over-, from Old English ofer, over; b. orlop, from Middle Low German over, over. Both a and b from Germanic *uberi.
2. Variant form *(s)uper.a. soubrette, sovereign, super-, superable, superior, supreme, supremo, sur-; sirloin, from Latin super, super-, above, over; b. suffixed form *(s)uper-no-. supernal, from Latin supernus, above, upper, top; c. suffixed form *super-bhw-o-, “being above” (*bhw-o-, being; see bheu-). superb, from Latin superbus, superior, excellent, arrogant; d. suffixed (superlative) reduced form *sup-mo-. sum1, summit, from Latin summus, highest, topmost; e. suffixed form *super-o-. sopranino, soprano, supra-; somersault, from Latin supr (feminine ablative singular), above, beyond.
3. Basic form *uper. hyper-, from Greek huper, over.
(Pokorny upér 1105.)
*upo
Under, up from under, over. Derivatives include uproar, open, eavesdrop, supple, valet, vassal, and opal.
1a. up, from Old English up, uppe, up; b. up-, from Old English p-,upp-, up; c. uproar, from Middle Low German up, up; d. aufklärung, from Old High German f, up. a–d all from Germanic *upp-, up.
2. open, from Old English open, open, from Germanic *upanaz, “put or set up,” open.
3. above, from Old English bfan, above, over, from Germanic compound *bi-ufana, “on, above” (*bi-, by, at; see ambhi).
4. Possibly suffixed form *up-t-. oft, often, from Old English oft, often, from Germanic *ufta, frequently.
5. Extended form *upes-. a. eaves, from Old English efes, eaves; b. eavesdrop, from Old English yfesdrype, water from the eaves, from Germanic *obisdrup-, dripping water from the eaves (*drup-, to drip, from *dhrub-; see dhreu-). Both a and b from Germanic *ubasw,*ubizw, vestibule, porch, eaves (< “that which is above or in front”).
6. Variant form *(s)up-. a. soutane, sub-, from Latin sub, under; b. supine; resupinate, from Latin supnus, lying on the back (< “thrown backward or under”); c. suffixed form *sup-ter. subterfuge, from Latin subter, secretly; d. Latin compound supplex (< *sub-plak-; see plk-1).
7. Basic form *upo. hypo-, from Greek hupo, under.
8. Suffixed variant form *ups-o-. hypso-, from Greek hupsos, height, top.
9. Basic form *upo-. Celtic *wo-, under, in compound *wo-rd- (see reidh-).
10. Probably compound *upo-st-o-. valet, varlet, vassal, from Vulgar Latin *vassus, vassal, from Celtic *wasso-,“one who stands under,” servant, young man (*sto-, standing; see st-). 11a. opal, Upanishad, from Sanskrit upa, near to, under; b. Zend-Avesta, from Avestan upa, up to, at (in *upastvaka-,praise). Both a and b from Indo-Iranian *upa.
(Pokorny upo 1106.)

Индоевропейские корни Уоткинса (*w)

*wal-
To be strong.
1. Suffixed (stative) form *wal--. vale2, valence, valetudinarian, valiant, valid, valor, value; ambivalence, avail, convalesce, countervail, equivalent, evaluate, invalid1, invalid2, prevail, valediction, from Latin valre, to be strong.
2. Extended o-grade form *wold(h)-. a. wield, from Old English wealdan, to rule, and wieldan, to govern, from Germanic *waldan, to rule; b. Germanic *wald-, power, rule, in compound *harja-waldaz (see koro-).
3. Suffixed extended o-grade form *wold-ti-. oblast, from Old Church Slavonic vlast, rule.
(Pokorny al- 1111.)
*wap-
Bad, evil. Oldest form *2wap-. Suffixed zero-grade form *up-elo-. evil, from Old English yfel, evil, from Germanic *ubilaz, evil. (Not in Pokorny; compare Hittite uwapp-,evil.)
*we-
We. For oblique cases of the pronoun see nes-2. Suffixed variant form *wey-es. we, from Old English w, we, we, from Germanic *wz.
(Pokorny - 1114.)
*webh-
To weave, also to move quickly. Derivatives include web, weevil, and wobble.
1. weave, woof1, from Old English wefan, to weave, from Germanic *weban.
2. weft, from Old English wefta, weft, cross thread, from Germanic *wefta-.
3. Suffixed o-grade form *wobh-yo-. web, webster, from Old English web(b), web, from Germanic *wabjam, fabric, web.
4. weevil, from Old English wifel, weevil (< “that which moves briskly”), from suffixed Germanic form *webila-. 5a. (i)goffer, from Old French gaufre, honeycomb, waffle; (ii) wafer, from Old North French waufre, wafer. Both (i) and (ii) from a source akin to Middle Low German wfel, honeycomb; b. waffle1, from Middle Dutch wfel, waffle. Both a and b from suffixed Germanic form *wabila-, web, honeycomb.
6. Possibly Germanic *wab-, to move back and forth as in weaving. a. wave, from Old English wafian, to move (the hand) up and down; b. waver, from Middle English waveren, to waver; c. wobble, from Low German wabbeln, to move from side to side, sway.
7. Suffixed zero-grade form *ubh--. hypha, from Greek huph, web.
(Pokorny ebh- 1114.)
*wed-1
Water; wet. Derivatives include water, hydrant, redundant, otter, and vodka.
1. Suffixed o-grade form *wod-r. a. water, from Old English wæter, water; b. kirschwasser, from Old High German wassar, water. Both a and b from Germanic *watar.
2. Suffixed lengthened-grade form *wd-o-. wet, from Old English wt, wt, wet, from Germanic *wd-.
3. O-grade form *wod-. wash, from Old English wæscan, wacsan, to wash, from Germanic suffixed form *wat-skan, to wash.
4. Nasalized form *we-n-d-. winter, from Old English winter, winter, from Germanic *wintruz, winter, “wet season.” 5. Suffixed zero-grade form *ud-r. hydrant, hydro-, hydrous, utricle; anhydrous, clepsydra, dropsy, hydathode, hydatid, from Greek hudr, water.
6. Suffixed nasalized zero-grade form *u-n-d--. undine, undulate; abound, inundate, redound, redundant, surround, from Latin unda, wave.
7. Suffixed zero-grade form *ud-ro-, *ud-r-, water animal. a. otter, from Old English otor, otter, from Germanic *otraz, otter; b. nutria, from Latin lutra, otter (with obscure l-); c. Hydrus, from Greek hudros, a water snake; d. Hydra, hydrilla, from Greek hudr, a water serpent, Hydra.
8. Suffixed zero-grade form *ud-skio-. usquebaugh, whiskey, from Old Irish uisce, water.
9. Suffixed o-grade form *wod--. vodka, from Russian voda, water.
(Pokorny 9. a(e)- 78.)
*wed-2
To speak. Oldest form *2wed-.
1. Possible reduplicated form *we-ud- becoming *awe-ud-, dissimilated to *aweid-, with suffixed o-grade form *awoid-o-,becoming Greek aweid-, to sing (but more likely from a separate root *2weid-). ode; comedy, epode, hymnody, melody, monody, parody, rhapsody, tragedy, from Greek aeidein (Attic idein), to sing, and aoid (Attic id), song, ode, with aoidos (Attic idos), a singer, singing.
2. Suffixed o-grade form *wod-o-. Theravada, from Sanskrit vda, sound, statement.
(Pokorny 6. au- 76.)
*w-
To blow. Contracted from *we1-; oldest basic form *2we1-.
1. Suffixed shortened form *we-dhro-. weather, from Old English weder, weather, storm, wind, from Germanic *wedram wind, weather.
2. Suffixed (participial) form *w-nt-o-, blowing. a. (i) wind1, from Old English wind, wind; (ii) window, from Old Norse vindr, wind. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *windaz; b. vent1, ventail, ventilate, from Latin ventus, wind.
3. wing, from Middle English wenge, wing, from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Norse vængr, wing, from suffixed Germanic form *w-ingjaz.
4. Basic form *w-. nirvana, from Sanskrit vti (stem *v-), it blows.
(Pokorny 10. a(e)- 81.)
*w-r-
Water, liquid, milk. Contracted from *we1-r-; zero-grade *u1-r-, contracted to *r-. Related to eu-dh-. Suffixed zero-grade form *r-n-. urine, from Latin rna, urine.
(In Pokorny 9. a(e)- 78.)
*weg-
To be strong, be lively. Oldest form *we-, becoming *weg- in centum languages. Derivatives include watch, vigilante, reveille, and velocity.
1. Suffixed o-grade form *wog--. wake1, from Old English wacan, to wake up, arise, and wacian, to be awake, from Germanic *wakn.
2. Suffixed o-grade form *wog-no-. waken, from Old English wæcnan, wæcnian, to awake, from Germanic *waknan.
3. watch, from Old English wæccan, to be awake, from Germanic *wakjan.
4. Suffixed form *weg-yo-. Wicca, wicked, witch; bewitch, from Old English wicca, sorcerer, wizard (feminine wicce, witch), from Germanic *wikkjaz, necromancer (< “one who wakes the dead”).
5. bivouac, from Old High German wahta, watch, vigil, from Germanic *wahtw. 6a. wait, from Old North French waitier, to watch; b. waft, from Middle Dutch and Middle Low German wachten, to watch, guard. Both a and b from Germanic *waht-.
7. Suffixed (causative) o-grade form *wog-eyo-. vegetable, from Latin vegre, to be lively.
8. Suffixed (stative) form *weg--. vigor; ravigote, from Latin vigre, to be lively.
9. Suffixed form *weg-(e)li-. vedette, vigil, vigilant, vigilante; reveille, surveillant, from Latin vigil, watchful, awake.
10. Suffixed form *weg-slo-. velocity, from Latin vlx, fast, “lively.”
(Pokorny e- 1117.)
*wegh-
To go, transport in a vehicle. Oldest form *weh-,becoming *wegh- in centum languages. Derivatives include weight, away, wagon, earwig, devious, trivial, and vex.
1. weigh1, from Old English wegan, to carry, balance in a scale, from Germanic *wegan.
2. wee, from Old English wg(e), weight, unit of weight, from Germanic lengthened-grade form *wg.
3. Suffixed form *wegh-ti-. weight, from Old English wiht, gewiht, weight, from Germanic *wihti-. 4a. way; always, away, from Old English weg, way; b. Norwegian, from Old Norse vegr, way; c. thalweg, from Old High German weg, way. a–c all from Germanic *wegaz, course of travel, way.
5. Suffixed o-grade form *wogh-no-. a. wain, from Old English wæ(g)n, wagon; b. wagon, from Middle Dutch wagen, wagon. Both a and b from Germanic *wagnaz.
6. Suffixed o-grade form *wogh-lo-. a. walleyed, from Old Norse vagl, chicken roost, perch, beam, eye disease, from Germanic *waglaz; b. ochlocracy, ochlophobia, from Greek okhlos, populace, mob (< “moving mass”).
7. Distantly related to this root are: a. (i)graywacke, from Old High German waggo, wacko, boulder rolling on a riverbed, from Germanic *wag-, “to move about”; (ii) wag1, from Middle English waggen, to wag, possibly from Germanic *wag-; b. vogue, from Old French voguer, to row, sail, from Old Saxon *wogn, to rock, sway, from Germanic *wga-, water in motion; c. (i) earwig, from Old English wicga, insect (< “thing that moves quickly”); (ii) wiggle, from Middle Dutch and Middle Low German wiggelen, to move back and forth, wag. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *wig-.
8. Basic form *wegh-. vector, vehement, vehicle; advection, convection, evection, invective, inveigh, from Latin vehere (past participle vectus), to carry.
9. Suffixed basic form *wegh-y-. foy, via, viatical, voyage; convey, convoy, deviate, devious, envoi, envoy1, invoice, obviate, obvious, ogee, ogive, pervious, previous, trivial, trivium, viaduct, from Latin via, way, road.
10. Suffixed form *wegh-s-. vex, from Latin vexre, to agitate (< “to set in motion”).
11. Probably suffixed form *wegh-so-. convex, from Latin convexus, “carried or drawn together (to a point),” convex (com-, together; see kom).
(Pokorny eh- 1118.)
*wei-
To turn, twist; with derivatives referring to suppleness or binding. Also wei- (earlier *wei1-). Derivatives include wire, vise, and iris.
(I) Form *wei-.
1a. wire, from Old English wr, wire; b. garland, from Old French garlande, wreath, from Frankish *wiara,*weara, wire. Both a and b from Germanic suffixed form *w-ra-, *w-ra-.
2. Probably suffixed Germanic form *wai-ra-. seaware, from Old English wr, seaweed.
3. Suffixed zero-grade form *wi-ri-. ferrule, from Latin viriae, bracelets (of Celtic origin).
4. Suffixed form *wei-ti-. withy, from Old English wthig, willow, withy, from Germanic *wth-, willow.
5. Suffixed zero-grade form *wi-t-. withe, from Old English withthe, supple twig, from Germanic *withjn-.
(II) Form *wei-, zero-grade *w- (< *wi-).
1. Suffixed form *w-ti-. vise; viticulture, from Latin vtis, vine.
2. Suffixed form *w-t- becoming *witt-. vitta, from Latin vitta, headband.
3. Suffixed form *w-men-. Mimbres, from Latin vmen, withy, wicker.
4. Probably suffixed form *w-ri-. iridaceous, irido-, iris, Iris; iridium, iritis, from Greek ris, rainbow, and ris, rainbow goddess.
5. Perhaps suffixed form *w-n-. inion; exine, inosine, inositol, inotropic, from Greek s, sinew.
(Pokorny 1. ei- 1120.)
*weid-
To see. Derivatives include guide, wisdom, kaleidoscope, Hades, unwitting, envy, idea, history, and penguin.
(I) Full-grade form *weid-.
1a. twit, from Old English wtan, to reproach; b. guide, guidon, from Old Provençal guidar, to guide; c. guy1, from Old French guier, to guide; d. wite, from Old English wte, fine, penalty, from Germanic derivative noun *wti-. a–d all from Germanic *wtan, to look after, guard, ascribe to, reproach.
2. Suffixed form *weid-to-. a. wise1, from Old English ws, wise; b. wisdom, from Old English wsdm, learning, wisdom (-dm, abstract suffix; see dh-); c. wiseacre, from Old High German wzag, knowledgeable; d. (i) wise2, from Old English wse, ws, manner; (ii) guise, from Old French guise, manner. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *wssn-, appearance, form, manner. a–d all from Germanic *wssaz.
3. Suffixed form *weid-es-. eidetic, eidolon, idol, idyll, –oid; idocrase, kaleidoscope, from Greek eidos, form, shape.
(II) Zero-grade form *wid-.1a. wit1, from Old English wit,witt, knowledge, intelligence; b. witenagemot, from Old English wita, wise man, councilor. Both a and b from Germanic *wit-.
2. wit2, wot; unwitting, from Old English witan, to know, from Germanic *witan (Old English first and third person singular wt, from Germanic *wait, from Indo-European o-grade form *woid-).
3. Suffixed form *wid-to-. iwis, from Old English gewis, gewiss, certain, sure, from Germanic *(ga)wissa-, known (*ga-, past participial prefix; see kom-).
4. Form *wid-- (with the participial form *weid-to-). vide, view, visa, visage, vision, visit, visor, vista, voyeur; advice, advise, belvedere, black-a-vised, clairvoyant, envy, evident, improvise, interview, invidious, previse, provide, prudent, purvey, purview, review, revise, supervise, survey, from Latin vidre, to see, look.
5. Suffixed form *wid-es-y-. idea, ideo-, from Greek ide, appearance, form, idea.
6. Suffixed form *wid-tor-. history, story1; polyhistor, from Greek histr, wise, learned, learned man.
7. hadal, Hades, from Greek Haids (also Aids), the underworld, perhaps “the invisible” and from *wid-.
8. Suffixed nasalized zero-grade form *wi-n-d-o-. a. colcannon, from Old Irish find, white (< “clearly visible”); b. penguin, from Welsh gwyn, gwynn, white.
9. Celtic *wid-, seer, in compound *dru-wid- (see deru-).
(III) Suffixed o-grade form *woid-o-. Veda; Rig-Veda, from Sanskrit veda, knowledge.
(Pokorny 2. (e)di-(misprint for (e)id-) 1125.)
*wei-
To go after someting, pursue with vigor, desire, with noun forms meaning force, power. Related to w-ro-.
1. Zero-grade form *w- (< *wi-). vim, violate, violent, from Latin vs, force, with irregular derivatives violre, to treat with force, and violentus, vehement.
2. Suffixed o-grade form *woi()-ty-. gain1; rowen, from Old French, gaaignier, gaignier, to obtain, from Germanic *waithanjan, to hunt, plunder, denominative verb from *wai-thj, “pursuit,” hunting.
3. Suffixed zero-grade form *wi-to- becoming *w-to-. invite, from Latin invtre, to invite (in-, in; see en).
(Pokorny 3. ei- 1123.)
*weik-1
Clan (social unit above the household). Oldest form *wei-, becoming *weik- in centum languages.
1. Suffixed form *weik-sl-. villa, village, villain, villanelle, villein; bidonville, nasty, from Latin vlla, country house, farm.
2. Suffixed o-grade form *woik-o-. a. vicinage, vicinity; bailiwick, from Latin vcus, quarter or district of a town, neighborhood; b. androecium, autoecious, diocese, dioecious, dioicous, ecesis, ecology, economy, ecumenical, heteroecious, monoecious, parish, parochial, from Greek oikos, house, and its derivatives oiki, a dwelling, and oiksis, dwelling, administration.
3. Zero-grade form *wik-. Vaisya, from Sanskrit via, dwelling, house.
(Pokorny ei- 1131.)
*weik-2
Also weig-. To bend, wind. Derivatives include wicker, weak, and vicarious.
(I) Form *weig-.
1a. wych elm, from Old English wice, wych elm (having pliant branches); b. wicker, from Middle English wiker, wicker, from a Scandinavian source akin to Swedish viker, willow twig, wand; c. wicket, from Old North French wiket, wicket (< “door that turns”), from a Scandinavian source probably akin to Old Norse vikja, to bend, turn. a–c all from Germanic *wik-.
2a. weak, from Old Norse veikr, pliant; b. weakfish, from Middle Dutch weec, weak, soft. Both a and b from Germanic *waikwaz.
3. week, from Old English wicu, wice, week, from Germanic *wikn-, “a turning,” series.
(II) Form *weik-. Zero-grade form *wik-. a. vicar, vicarious, vice-; vicissitude, from Latin *vix (genitive vicis), turn, situation, change; b. vetch, from Latin vicia, vetch (< “twining plant”).
(Pokorny 4. eik- 1130.)
*weik-3
To fight, conquer.
1. wight2, from Old Norse vgr, able in battle, from Germanic *wk-.
2. Nasalized zero-grade form *wi-n-k-. vanquish, victor, vincible; convict, convince, evict, evince, from Latin vincere, to conquer.
3. Zero-grade form *wik-. Ordovician, from Celtic Ordovices (*ordo-wik-), “those who fight with hammers” (*ordo-, hammer).
(Pokorny 2. eik-1128.)
*weip-
To turn, vacillate, tremble ecstatically. Derivatives include wipe, whip, and vibrate.
1. O-grade form *woip-. waif1, waif2, waive, waiver, from Anglo-Norman waif, ownerless property, from a Scandinavian source probably akin to Old Norse veif, waving thing, flag, from Germanic *waif-.
2. Variant form *weib-.a. wipe, from Old English wpian, to wipe; b. guipure, from Old French guiper, to cover with silk; c. whip, from Middle English wippen, to whip. a–c all from Germanic *wpjan, to move back and forth.
3. Perhaps suffixed nasalized zero-grade form *wi-m-p-ila-. a. wimple, from Old English wimpel, covering for the neck (< “something that winds around”); b. gimp1, guimpe, from Old High German wimpal, guimpe; c. perhaps Middle Dutch wimmel, auger (< “that which turns in boring”): wimble.
4. Suffixed zero-grade variant form *wib-ro-. vibrate, from Latin vibrre, to vibrate.
(Pokorny eip-1131.)
*wekti-
Thing, creature. a. whit, wight1; aught2, naught, not, from Old English wiht, person, thing; b. nix2, from Old High German wiht, thing, being. Both a and b from Germanic *wihti-.
(Pokorny ek-ti- 1136.)
*wekw-
To speak.
1. O-grade form *wkw-. a. vocal, voice, vowel, from Latin vx, voice; b. Calliope, from Greek ops, voice.
2. Suffixed o-grade form *wokw--. vocable, vocation, vouch; advocate, avocation, convoke, equivocal, evoke, invoke, provoke, revoke, univocal, from Latin vocre, to call.
3. Suffixed form *wekw-es-. epic, epos; epopee, orthoepy, from Greek epos, song, word.
(Pokorny ek- 1135.)
*wel-1
To wish, will. Derivatives include wealth, gallop, gallant, and voluptuous.
1. well2, from Old English wel, well (< “according to one's wish”), from Germanic *wel-.
2. weal1, wealth, from Old English wela, weola, well-being, riches, from Germanic *weln-.
3. will1, from Old English willa, desire, will power, from Germanic *wiljn-.
4. will2; nill, willy-nilly, from Old English willan, to desire, from Germanic *wil(l)jan.
5. Germanic compound *wil-kumn- (see gw-).
6. O-grade form *wol-.a. gallop, from Old French galoper, to gallop; b. wallop, from Old North French *waloper, to gallop; c. gallant; gallimaufry, from Old French galer, to rejoice, from Frankish Latin *walre, to take it easy, from Frankish *wala, good, well. a–c all from Germanic *wal-.
7. Basic form *wel-. velleity, volition, voluntary; benevolent, malevolence, from Latin velle (present stem vol-), to wish, will.
8. Probably suffixed extended form *wel-p-i-. voluptuary, voluptuous, from Latin volupts, pleasure, from an adjective *volupis, pleasing (probably preserved in the adverb volup, with pleasure, from neuter *volupe).
(Pokorny 2. el-1137.)
*wel-2
To turn, roll; with derivatives referring to curved, enclosing objects. Derivatives include waltz, willow, wallow, revolve, valley, and helix.
1a. waltz, from Old High German walzan, to roll, waltz; b. welter, from Middle Low German or Middle Dutch welteren, to roll. Both a and b from Germanic *walt-.
2. whelk1, from Old English weoluc,weoloc, mollusk (having a spiral shell), whelk, from Germanic *weluka-.
3. Perhaps Germanic *wel-. willow, from Old English welig, willow (with flexible twigs).
4. Perhaps Germanic *welk-. walk, from Old English wealcan, to roll, toss, and wealcian, to muffle up.
5. O-grade form *wol-. a. well1, from Old English wiella,wælla, welle, a well (< “rolling or bubbling water,” “spring”); b. gaberdine, from Old High German walln, to roam; c. wallet, possibly from Old North French *walet, roll, knapsack. a–c all from Germanic *wall-.
6. Perhaps suffixed o-grade form *wol--. a. wale, from Old English walu, streak on the skin, weal, welt; b. Old High German *-walu, a roll, round stem, in compound *wurzwalu (see wrd-). Both a and b from Germanic *wal.
7. Extended form *welw-. a. wallow, from Old English wealwian, to roll (in mud), from Germanic *walwn; b. vault1, vault2, volt2, voluble, volume, volute, volutin, volvox, voussoir; archivolt, circumvolve, convolve, devolve, evolve, involucrum, involve, multivoltine, revolve, from Latin volvere, to roll; c. suffixed o-grade form *wolw--. volva, vulva, from Latin vulva, volva, covering, womb; d. suffixed zero-grade form *ww--. valve, valvule, from Latin valva, leaf of a door (< “that which turns”); e. suffixed zero-grade form *wu-ti-. Alyce clover, from Greek halusis, chain; f. suffixed form *welu-tro-. elytron, from Greek elutron, sheath, cover.
8. Suffixed form wel-n-. ileus; neurilemma, from Greek eilein (< *welnein), to turn, squeeze.
9. Perhaps variant *wall-. vail1, vale1, valley, from Latin valls, vallis, valley (< “that which is surrounded by hills”).
10. Possibly suffixed form *wel-en-. Helen; elecampane, inulin, from the Greek name Helen (oldest form Welen), Helen.
11. Suffixed form *wel-ik-. helicon, helix; helicopter, from Greek helix, spiral object.
12. Suffixed form *wel-mi-nth-. helminth; anthelmintic, platyhelminth, from Greek helmis, helmins (stem helminth-), parasitic worm.
(Pokorny 7. el- 1140.)
*wel-
To strike, wound. Oldest form *wel2-.
1. Suffixed o-grade form *wol()-o-. a. Valhalla, from Old Norse Valhöll, Valhalla; b. Valkyrie, from Old Norse Valkyrja, “chooser of the slain,” name of one of the twelve war goddesses (-kyrja, chooser; see geus-). Both a and b from Old Norse valr, the slain in battle, from Germanic *walaz.
2. Suffixed basic form *wel-nes-. vulnerable, from Latin vulnus (stem vulner-), a wound.
3. Suffixed zero-grade form *w-to-. berdache, from Old Iranian *varta- (Avestan varta-), seized, prisoner.
(In Pokorny 8. el-1144.)
*wem-
To vomit. Oldest form *wem1-.
1. wamble, from Middle English wam(e)len, to feel nausea, stagger, from a Scandinavian source probably akin to Old Norse vamla, qualm, and Danish vamle, to become sick, from Germanic *wam-.
2. vomit; nux vomica, from Latin vomere, to vomit.
3. emesis, emetic, from Greek emein, to vomit.
(Pokorny em-1146.)
*wen-1
To desire, strive for. Derivatives include win, wont, wish, venerate, venereal, venom, and venison.
1. Suffixed form *wen-w-. win, from Old English winnan, to win, from Germanic *winn(w)an, to seek to gain.
2. Suffixed zero-grade form *w-y-. wynn, winsome, from Old English wynn, wen, pleasure, joy, from Germanic *wunj.
3. Suffixed (stative) zero-grade form *w--, to be contented. won1, wont, from Old English wunian, to become accustomed to, dwell, from Germanic *wunn.
4. Suffixed (causative) o-grade form *won-eyo-. wean, from Old English wenian, to accustom, train, wean, from Germanic *wanjan.
5. ween, from Old English wnan, to expect, imagine, think, from Germanic denominative *wnjan, to hope, from *wniz, hope.
6. Suffixed zero-grade form *w-sko-. wish, from Old English wscan, to desire, wish, from Germanic *wunsk-.7. Perhaps o-grade form *won-. a. Vanir, from Old Norse Vanir, the Vanir; b. vanadium, from Old Norse Vanads, name of the goddess Freya. Both a and b from Germanic *wana-.
8. Suffixed form *wen-es-. a. venerate, venereal, venery1, Venus, from Latin venus, love; b. suffixed form *wen-es-no-. venom, from Latin vennum, love potion, poison.
9. Possibly suffixed form *wen-eto-, “beloved.” Wend, from Old High German Winid, Wend, from Germanic *Weneda-, a Slavic people.
10. Suffixed form *wen-y-. venial, from Latin venia, favor, forgiveness.
11. Lengthened-grade form *wn--. venery2, venison, from Latin vnr, to hunt.
12. Suffixed basic form *wen-o-. wanderoo, from Sanskrit vanam, forest.
13. Possibly zero-grade suffixed form *w-ig-. banyan, from Sanskrit vaik, vija, merchant (? < “seeking to gain”).
(Pokorny 1. en- 1146.)
*wen-2
To beat, wound.
1. Suffixed zero-grade form *w-to-. wound1, from Old English wund, a wound, from Germanic *wundaz.
2. Suffixed o-grade form *won-yo-. wen1, from Old English wen(n),wæn(n), wen, from Germanic *wanja-, a swelling.
(Pokorny en- 1108.)
*wer-1
To raise, lift, hold suspended. Oldest form *2wer-.
1. Basic form *awer-. aorta, arsis, arterio-, arteriole, artery; meteor, from Greek eirein, to raise, and artri, windpipe, artery.
2. Possibly from this root is Greek r, air (from an obscure basic form *wer-): aerial, aero-, air, aria; malaria.
3. Zero-grade form *aur-. aura, from Greek aur, breath, vapor (related to Greek r, air; see 2 above).
(Pokorny 1. er- 1150.)
*wer-2
Conventional base of various Indo-European roots; to turn, bend. Derivatives include stalwart, weird, vertebra, wrath, wrong, wrestle, briar1, rhapsody, and worm.
(I) Root *wert-, to turn, wind.
1. Germanic *werth-.a. (i) –ward, from Old English -weard, toward (< “turned toward”); (ii) inward, from Old English inweard, inward, from Germanic *inwarth, inward (*in, in; see en). Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic variant *warth;b. perhaps Germanic derivative *werthaz, “toward, opposite,” hence “equivalent, worth.” worth1; stalwart, from Old English weorth, worth, valuable, and derivative noun weorth, wierth, value.
2. worth2, from Old English weorthan, to befall, from Germanic *werthan, to become (< “to turn into”).
3. Zero-grade form *wt-. weird, from Old English wyrd, fate, destiny (< “that which befalls one”), from Germanic *wurthi-.
4. versatile, verse1, version, versus, vertebra, vertex, vertigo, vortex; adverse, anniversary, avert, bouleversement, controversy, converse1, convert, dextrorse, divert, evert, extrorse, extroversion, extrovert, introrse, introvert, invert, malversation, obvert, peevish, pervert, prose, retrorse, revert, sinistrorse, subvert, tergiversate, transverse, universe, from Latin vertere, to turn, with its frequentative versre, to turn, and passive versr, to stay, behave (< “to move around a place, frequent”).
5. verst, from Russian versta, line, from Balto-Slavic *wirst-, a turn, bend.
(II) Root *wreit-, to turn. a. wreath, from Old English writha, band (< “that which is wound around”); b. writhe, from Old English wrthan, to twist, torture; c. wrath, wroth, from Old English wrth, angry (< “tormented, twisted”). a–c all from Germanic *wrth-, *wraith-.
(III) Root *wergh-, to turn.
1. worry, from Old English wyrgan, to strangle, from Germanic *wurgjan.
2. Nasalized variant *wrengh-.a. wring, from Old English wringan, to twist, from Germanic *wreng-;b. (i) wrong, from Middle English wrong, wrong, from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Norse *vrangr, rangr, curved, crooked, wrong; (ii) wrangle, from Middle English wranglen, to wrangle, from a Low German source akin to wrangeln, to wrestle. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *wrang-.
(IV) Root *werg-, to turn.
1. Nasalized variant form *wreng-. a. wrench, from Old English wrencan, to twist; b. wrinkle, from Old English gewrinclian, to wind (ge-, collective prefix; see kom). Both a and b from Germanic *wrankjan.
2. verge2; converge, diverge, from Latin vergere, to turn, tend toward.
(V) Root *wreik-, to turn.
1a. wry, from Old English wrgian, to turn, bend, go; b. wriggle, from Middle Low German wriggeln, to wriggle. Both a and b from Germanic *wrg-.
2a. wrist, from Old English wrist, wrist; b. gaiter, from Old French guietre, gaiter, from Frankish *wrist-.Both a and b from Germanic *wristiz, from *wrihst-.
3. wrest, wrestle, from Old English wrstan, to twist, from secondary Germanic derivative *wraistjan.
4. Possibly o-grade form *wroik-.briar1, brusque, from Late Latin brcus, heather, from Gaulish *brko-.
(VI) ribald, from Old French riber, to be wanton, from Germanic root *wrib-.
(VII) Root *werb-,also *werbh-, to turn, bend.
1. warp, from Old English weorpan, to throw away, from Germanic *werp-, *warp-, “to fling by turning the arm.” 2. reverberate, from Latin verber, whip, rod.
3. verbena, vervain, from Latin verbna, sacred foliage.
4. Zero-grade form *wb-. rhabdomancy, rhabdovirus, from Greek rhabdos, rod.
5. Nasalized variant form *wrembh-. rhombus, from Greek rhombos, magic wheel, rhombus.
(VIII) Root *werp-, to turn, wind.
1. Metathesized form *wrep-. wrap, from Middle English wrappen, to wrap, from a source akin to Danish dialectal vravle, to wind, from Germanic *wrap-.
2. Zero-grade form *wp-. raphe, rhaphide; rhapsody, staphylorrhaphy, tenorrhaphy, from Greek rhaptein, to sew.
(IX) Root *wmi-, worm; rhyme word to kwmi-.
1. worm, from Old English wyrm, worm, from Germanic *wurmiz.
2. vermeil, vermi-, vermicelli, vermicular, vermin, from Latin vermis, worm.
(Pokorny 3. er-1152.)
*wer-3
To perceive, watch out for. Derivatives include wary, lord, reward, guard, and panorama.
(I) O-grade form *wor-.
1. Suffixed form *wor-o-. a. wary, from Old English wær, watchful; b. aware, from Old English gewær, aware (ge-, collective and intensive prefix; see kom); c. ware2, from Old English warian, to beware. a–c all from Germanic *waraz.
2. Suffixed form wor-to-. a. (i) ward; lord, steward, from Old English weard, a watching, keeper; (ii) warder2, from Old English weardian, to ward, guard; b. warden; award, reward, wardrobe, from Old North French warder, to guard; c. guard; garderobe, regard, from Old French guarder,to guard; d. rearward2, from Anglo-Norman warde, guard. a–d all from Germanic *wardaz, guard, and *wardn, to guard.
3. ware1, from Old English waru, goods, protection, guard, from Germanic *war.
4. Suffixed form *wor-wo-. Arcturus, pylorus, from Greek ouros, a guard.
5. Probably variant *(s)wor-, *s(w)or-. ephor, panorama, from Greek horn, to see.
(II) Suffixed (stative) form *wer--. revere1, from Latin verr, to respect, feel awe for.
(Pokorny 8. er-1164.)
*wer-4
To cover. Derivatives include overt, cover, warranty, garage, garrison, and garnish.
(I) Basic form *wer-.
1.weir, from Old English wer, dam, fish trap, from Germanic *wer-jn-.
2. Compound form *ap-wer-yo- (*ap-, off, away; see apo-). aperient, apéritif, aperture; overt, overture, pert, from Latin aperre, to open, uncover.
3. Compound form *op-wer-yo- (*op-, over; see epi). cover, operculum; kerchief, from Latin operre, to cover.
4. Suffixed form *wer-tro-.ambarella, from Sanskrit va, enclosure, from lengthened-grade derivative *vrt(r)a-.
(II) O-grade form *wor-.
1. warn, from Old English *war(e)nian, to take heed, warn, from Germanic *war-nn.
2a. (i) guaranty, from Old French garant, warrant, authorization; (ii) warrant, warrantee, warranty, from Old North French warant, warrant, and warantir, to guarantee; b. garage, from Old French garer, to guard, protect; c. garret, garrison, from Old French g(u)arir, to defend, protect; d. warren, from Old North French warenne, enclosure, game preserve; e.garment, garnish, garniture, from Old French g(u)arnir, to equip. a–e all from Germanic *war-.
3. Suffixed form *wor-o-.a. Germanic *warn-, protector, in compound *burg-warn- (see bhergh-2); b. barbican, from Old Iranian compound *pari-vraka-, protective (*pari-,around; see per1).
(Pokorny 5. er-1160.)
*wer-5
Also wer-. To speak. Oldest form *wer1-, with variant *wre1-, contracted to *wr-.
1. Suffixed zero-grade form *w-dho-. word, from Old English word, word, from Germanic *wurdam.
2. Suffixed form *wer-dho-. verb, verve; adverb, proverb, from Latin verbum, word.
3. Suffixed form *wer-yo-.irony, from Greek eirein, to say, speak.
4. Variant form *wr-. a. Suffixed form *wr-tor-. rhetor, from Greek rhtr, public speaker; b. suffixed form *wr-m. rheme, from Greek rhma, word.
(Pokorny 6. er-1162.)
*wr-o-
True, trustworthy. Oldest form *wr1-o-. Derivatives include warlock and verdict.
1. warlock, from Old English wr, faith, pledge, from Germanic *wra-.
2. veracious, verism, verity, very; aver, verdict, veridical, verify, verisimilar, voir dire, from Latin vrus, true.
3. Normal grade *wero-, from *wer-o-, in Celtic compound *ro-wero- (see per1).
(Pokorny 11. er-1165.)
*werg-
To do. Oldest form *wer-,becoming *werg- in centum languages. Derivatives include work, allergy, surgery, wrought, and orgy.
(I) Suffixed form *werg-o-.1a. work; handiwork, from Old English weorc, werc, work; b. boulevard, bulwark, from Old High German werc, work. Both a and b from Germanic *werkam, work.
2. erg, ergative, –urgy; adrenergic, allergy, argon, cholinergic, demiurge, dramaturge, endergonic, endoergic, energy, ergograph, ergometer, ergonomics, exergonic, exergue, exoergic, georgic, hypergolic, lethargy, liturgy, metallurgy, surgery, synergid, synergism, thaumaturge, from Greek ergon, work, action.
(II) Zero-grade form *wg-.
1. Suffixed forms *wg-yo-, *wg-to-.a. wrought, from Old English wyrcan, to work; b. irk, from Old Norse yrkja, to work. Both a and b from Germanic *wurkjan, to work, participle *wurhta-.
2. Suffixed form *wg-t-. wright, from Old English wryhta, maker, wright, from Germanic *wurhtj-.
(III) O-grade form *worg-. a. organ, organon, from Greek organon (with suffix -ano-), tool; b. orgy, from Greek orgia, secret rites, worship (< “service”).
(Pokorny 2. er- 1168.)
*wers-
To confuse, mix up. Compare ers-.
(I) Suffixed basic form.
1a. war, from Old North French werre, war; b. guerrilla, from Spanish guerra, war. Both a and b from Germanic *werra-, from *werz-a-.
2. worse, from Old English wyrsa, worse, from Germanic comparative *wers-izn-.
3. worst, from Old English wyrsta, worst, from Germanic superlative *wers-istaz.
(II) Suffixed zero-grade form *ws-ti-. wurst; liverwurst, from Old High German wurst, sausage (< “mixture”), from Germanic *wursti-.
(Pokorny ers-1169.)
*wes-1
To live, dwell, pass the night, with derivatives meaning “to be.” Oldest form *2wes-.
1. O-grade (perfect tense) form *wos-. was, from Old English wæs, was, from Germanic *was-.
2. Lengthened-grade form *ws-. were, from Old English wre (subjunctive), wron (plural), were, from Germanic *wz-.
3. wassail, from Old Norse vesa, vera, to be, from Germanic *wesan.
4. Perhaps suffixed form *wes-t-. Vesta, from Latin Vesta, household goddess.
5. Possibly suffixed variant form *was-tu-. astute, from Latin astus, skill, craft (practiced in a town), from Greek astu, town (< “place where one dwells”).
6. Suffixed form *wes-eno-. divan, from Old Persian vahanam, house.
(Pokorny 1. es-1170.)
*wes-2
To clothe. Extension of eu-1.
1. Suffixed o-grade (causative) form *wos-eyo-. wear, from Old English werian, to wear, carry, from Germanic *wazjan.
2. Suffixed form *wes-ti-. vest; devest, invest, revet, travesty, from Latin vestis, garment.
3. Suffixed form *wes-nu-. himation, from Greek hennunai, to clothe, with nominal derivative heima, hma (< *wes-m), garment.
(Pokorny 5. es-1172.)
*wes-3
To buy.
1. Suffixed form *wes-no-. venal, vend, from Latin vnum, sale.
2. Suffixed o-grade form *wos-no-. duopsony, monopsony, from Greek neisthai, to buy.
3. Suffixed form *wes--. bazaar, from Persian bzr, from Old Iranian *vah-carana-,“sale-traffic.” 4. Perhaps suffixed form *wes-li-. vile; revile, vilify, vilipend, from Latin vlis, cheap, base.
(Pokorny 8. es-1173.)
*wes-pero-
Evening, night.
(I) Reduced form *wes-.
1. Suffixed form *wes-to-.a. west, from Old English west, west; b. western, from Old English westerne, western; c. westerly, from Old English westra, more westerly. a–c all from Germanic *west-.
2. Possibly Germanic *wis-,west, in Late Latin Visigoth, “West Goths” (Goth, the Goths): Visigoth.
(II) Basic form *wespero-.
1. pipistrelle, vesper, vespertilionid, from Latin vesper, evening.
2. Hesperian, Hesperides, Hesperus, from Greek hesperos, evening.
(Pokorny esperos 1173.)
*wes
Spring. vernal; primavera1, from Latin vr, spring (phonologically irregular).
(Pokorny es- 1174.)
*wet-1
To blow, inspire, spiritually arouse. Related to w-. Oldest form *2wet-. Derivatives include Wednesday and atmosphere.
1. Lengthened-grade form *wt-. a. Woden; Wednesday, from Old English Wden, Woden; b. Odin, from Old Norse dhinn, Odin; c. Wotan, from Old High German Wuotan. a–c all from Germanic suffixed form *wd-eno-, *wd-ono-, “raging,” “mad,” “inspired,” hence “spirit,” name of the chief Teutonic god *Wd-enaz;d. wood2, from Old English wd, mad, insane, from Germanic *wdaz; e. Celtic *wt-. vatic, from Latin vts, prophet, poet, from a Celtic source akin to Old Irish fáith, seer.
2. O-grade form *wot-. wedeln, from Old High German wedil, fan, from Germanic suffixed form *wath-ila-.
3. Suffixed variant form *wat-no-.fan1, van3, from Latin vannus, a winnowing fan.
4. Oldest basic form *wet- becoming *awet- in suffixed form *awet-mo-. atmosphere, from Greek atmos (< *aetmos), breath, vapor.
(Pokorny 1. t- 1113.)
*wet-2
Year.
1. Suffixed form *wet-ru-. wether; bellwether, from Old English wether, wether, from Germanic *wethruz, perhaps “yearling.” 2. Suffixed form *wet-es-. a. veteran; inveterate, from Latin vetus, old (< “having many years”); b.veterinary, from Latin veternus, of beasts of burden, of cattle (perhaps chiefly old cattle); c. etesian, from Greek etos, year.
3. Suffixed form *wet-olo-.veal, vitellus, from Latin vitulus, calf, yearling.
(Pokorny et-1175.)
*wi-
Apart, in half.
1. Suffixed form *wi-ito-. wide, from Old English wd, wide (< “far apart”), from Germanic *wdaz.
2. Suffixed (comparative) form *wi-tero-. a. with, withers, from Old English wither, against, with its derivative with, with, against; b. guerdon; widdershins, from Old High German widar, against. Both a and b from Germanic *withr, against.
(Pokorny 1. - 1175.)
*wkt-
Twenty. Compound of wi-, in half, hence two, and *(d)kt- (nominative dual), decade, reduced zero-grade form of dek. Oldest form *wt-,becoming *wkt- in centum languages.
1. vicenary, vigesimal, vigintillion, from Latin vgint, twenty.
2. eicosanoid, eicosapentaenoic acid, icosahedron, from Greek eikosi, twenty.
3. pachisi, from Sanskrit viati, twenty.
(Pokorny -t- 1177.)
*w-ro-
Man. Contracted from *wi-ro-,derivative of wei-. Derivatives include werewolf, world, and virtuoso.
1a. werewolf, wergeld, from Old English wer, man; b. (i) world, from Old English weorold, world; (ii) Weltanschauung, Weltschmerz, from Old High German weralt, world. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic compound *wer-ald-, “life or age of man” (*-ald-, age; see al-2); c. loup-garou, from Old French garoul, werewolf, from Frankish *wer-wulf, “man-wolf” (*wulf, wolf; see wkwo-). Both a and b from Germanic *weraz, from shortened form *wiraz.
2. virago, virile, virtue, virtuosa, virtuoso; decemvir, decurion, duumvir, triumvir, from Latin vir, man.
3. curia, from Latin cria, curia, court, possibly from *co-vir-ia,“men together” (*co-, together; see kom).
(Pokorny ro-s 1177.)
*wkwo-
Wolf.
1a. wolf, from Old English wulf, wolf; b. aardwolf, from Middle Dutch wolf, wulf, wolf; c. wolfram, from Old High German wolf, wolf; d. Frankish *wulf, wolf, in compound *wer-wulf (see w-ro-). a–d all from Germanic *wulfaz.
2. Taboo variant *lupo-. lobo, lupine1, lupine2, lupus, robalo; loup-garou, from Latin lupus, wolf.
3. Taboo variant *lukwo-. a. lycanthrope, lycopodium, from Greek lukos, wolf; b. suffixed form *lukw-ya. lytta; alyssum, from Greek lussa, martial rage, madness, rabies (“wolf-ness”).
(Pokorny kos 1178.)
*wp--
Fox.
1. vulpine, from Latin vulps, fox.
2. Taboo variant *lpk-. alopecia, from Greek alpx, fox.
(Pokorny p- 1179.)
*ws
You (plural). rendezvous, from Latin vs, you.
(In Pokorny 1. u- 513.)
*wrd-
Branch, root. Oldest form *wre2d-, colored to *wra2d-, contracted to *wrd-. Derivatives include root1, wort, radish, and licorice.
(I) Basic form *wrd-. root1; rutabaga, from Old Norse rt, root, from Germanic *wrt-.
(II) Zero-grade form *wd-.1a. wort1, from Old English wyrt, plant, herb; b. Gewürztraminer, from Old High German wurz, plant, root; c. mangel-wurzel, from German Wurzel, root (< *wurzwala, rootstock; *-wala, a roll, round stem; see wel-2). a–c all from Germanic *wurtiz.
2. Suffixed form *wd-y-. wort2, from Old English wyrt, brewer's wort, from Germanic *wurtj-.
3. radical, radicle, radish, radix; deracinate, eradicate, irradicable, from Latin rdx, root.
4. Suffixed form *wrd-mo-. ramose, ramus; ramify, from Latin rmus, branch.
5. Perhaps suffixed reduced form *w()d-ya. rhizo-, rhizome; coleorhiza, licorice, mycorrhiza, from Greek rhiza, root.
(Pokorny (e)rd- 1167.)

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