Источник: Calvert Watkins, The American Heritage® Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2000.
Всего на *u- \ *w- представлен 51 (4 + 47) корень из словаря Кальверта Уоткинса (Калверта Воткинса).
Индоевропейские корни Уоткинса (*u)
Also d-. Up, out.
Derivatives include utmost, carouse, outlaw, but, and hubris.
1a. out; utmost, from Old English t, out; b. carouse; auslander, from Old High German z, out; c. outlaw, from Old Norse t, out; d. uitlander, from Middle Dutch ute, uut, out; e. utter1, from Middle Low German t, out; f. utter2, from Old English tera, outer, from Germanic suffixed (comparative) form *t-era-;g. but; about, from Old English btan, bte, outside (adverb), from Germanic compound *bi-tana, “at the outside” (*bi-, by, at; see ambhi). a–g all from Germanic *t-, out.
2. Extended form *uds. a. ersatz, from Old High German irsezzan, to replace, from ir-, out; b. ort, from Middle Dutch oor, out; c. Germanic compound *uz-dailjam (see dail-); d. Ursprache, from Old High German ur-, out of, original. a–d all from Germanic *uz, *uz-, out.
3. Suffixed (comparative) form *ud-tero-. hysteresis, hysteron proteron, from Greek husteros, later, second, after.
4. hubris, from Greek compound hubris, violence, outrage, insolence (bri-, perhaps “heavy,” “violent”; see gwer-1), from hu-.
5. vigorish, from Russian vy-, out.
(Pokorny d- 1103.)
Bull, ox. a. ox, from Old English oxa, ox; b. aurochs, from Old High German ohso, ox. Both a and b from Germanic *uhsn-.
(In Pokorny eg-1118.)
Derivatives include over, sovereign, sirloin, soprano, and somersault.
1. Extended form *uperi. a. over, over-, from Old English ofer, over; b. orlop, from Middle Low German over, over. Both a and b from Germanic *uberi.
2. Variant form *(s)uper.a. soubrette, sovereign, super-, superable, superior, supreme, supremo, sur-; sirloin, from Latin super, super-, above, over; b. suffixed form *(s)uper-no-. supernal, from Latin supernus, above, upper, top; c. suffixed form *super-bhw-o-, “being above” (*bhw-o-, being; see bheu-). superb, from Latin superbus, superior, excellent, arrogant; d. suffixed (superlative) reduced form *sup-mo-. sum1, summit, from Latin summus, highest, topmost; e. suffixed form *super-o-. sopranino, soprano, supra-; somersault, from Latin supr (feminine ablative singular), above, beyond.
3. Basic form *uper. hyper-, from Greek huper, over.
(Pokorny upér 1105.)
Under, up from under, over.
Derivatives include uproar, open, eavesdrop, supple, valet, vassal, and opal.
1a. up, from Old English up, uppe, up; b. up-, from Old English p-,upp-, up; c. uproar, from Middle Low German up, up; d. aufklärung, from Old High German f, up. a–d all from Germanic *upp-, up.
2. open, from Old English open, open, from Germanic *upanaz, “put or set up,” open.
3. above, from Old English bfan, above, over, from Germanic compound *bi-ufana, “on, above” (*bi-, by, at; see ambhi).
4. Possibly suffixed form *up-t-. oft, often, from Old English oft, often, from Germanic *ufta, frequently.
5. Extended form *upes-. a. eaves, from Old English efes, eaves; b. eavesdrop, from Old English yfesdrype, water from the eaves, from Germanic *obisdrup-, dripping water from the eaves (*drup-, to drip, from *dhrub-; see dhreu-). Both a and b from Germanic *ubasw,*ubizw, vestibule, porch, eaves (< “that which is above or in front”).
6. Variant form *(s)up-. a. soutane, sub-, from Latin sub, under; b. supine; resupinate, from Latin supnus, lying on the back (< “thrown backward or under”); c. suffixed form *sup-ter. subterfuge, from Latin subter, secretly; d. Latin compound supplex (< *sub-plak-; see plk-1).
7. Basic form *upo. hypo-, from Greek hupo, under.
8. Suffixed variant form *ups-o-. hypso-, from Greek hupsos, height, top.
9. Basic form *upo-. Celtic *wo-, under, in compound *wo-rd- (see reidh-).
10. Probably compound *upo-st-o-. valet, varlet, vassal, from Vulgar Latin *vassus, vassal, from Celtic *wasso-,“one who stands under,” servant, young man (*sto-, standing; see st-). 11a. opal, Upanishad, from Sanskrit upa, near to, under; b. Zend-Avesta, from Avestan upa, up to, at (in *upastvaka-,praise). Both a and b from Indo-Iranian *upa.
(Pokorny upo 1106.)
Индоевропейские корни Уоткинса (*w)
To be strong.
1. Suffixed (stative) form *wal--. vale2, valence, valetudinarian, valiant, valid, valor, value; ambivalence, avail, convalesce, countervail, equivalent, evaluate, invalid1, invalid2, prevail, valediction, from Latin valre, to be strong.
2. Extended o-grade form *wold(h)-. a. wield, from Old English wealdan, to rule, and wieldan, to govern, from Germanic *waldan, to rule; b. Germanic *wald-, power, rule, in compound *harja-waldaz (see koro-).
3. Suffixed extended o-grade form *wold-ti-. oblast, from Old Church Slavonic vlast, rule.
(Pokorny al- 1111.)
Bad, evil. Oldest form *2wap-. Suffixed zero-grade form *up-elo-. evil, from Old English yfel, evil, from Germanic *ubilaz, evil. (Not in Pokorny; compare Hittite uwapp-,evil.)
We. For oblique cases of the pronoun see nes-2. Suffixed variant form *wey-es. we, from Old English w, we, we, from Germanic *wz.
(Pokorny - 1114.)
To weave, also to move quickly.
Derivatives include web, weevil, and wobble.
1. weave, woof1, from Old English wefan, to weave, from Germanic *weban.
2. weft, from Old English wefta, weft, cross thread, from Germanic *wefta-.
3. Suffixed o-grade form *wobh-yo-. web, webster, from Old English web(b), web, from Germanic *wabjam, fabric, web.
4. weevil, from Old English wifel, weevil (< “that which moves briskly”), from suffixed Germanic form *webila-. 5a. (i)goffer, from Old French gaufre, honeycomb, waffle; (ii) wafer, from Old North French waufre, wafer. Both (i) and (ii) from a source akin to Middle Low German wfel, honeycomb; b. waffle1, from Middle Dutch wfel, waffle. Both a and b from suffixed Germanic form *wabila-, web, honeycomb.
6. Possibly Germanic *wab-, to move back and forth as in weaving. a. wave, from Old English wafian, to move (the hand) up and down; b. waver, from Middle English waveren, to waver; c. wobble, from Low German wabbeln, to move from side to side, sway.
7. Suffixed zero-grade form *ubh--. hypha, from Greek huph, web.
(Pokorny ebh- 1114.)
Derivatives include water, hydrant, redundant, otter, and vodka.
1. Suffixed o-grade form *wod-r. a. water, from Old English wæter, water; b. kirschwasser, from Old High German wassar, water. Both a and b from Germanic *watar.
2. Suffixed lengthened-grade form *wd-o-. wet, from Old English wt, wt, wet, from Germanic *wd-.
3. O-grade form *wod-. wash, from Old English wæscan, wacsan, to wash, from Germanic suffixed form *wat-skan, to wash.
4. Nasalized form *we-n-d-. winter, from Old English winter, winter, from Germanic *wintruz, winter, “wet season.” 5. Suffixed zero-grade form *ud-r. hydrant, hydro-, hydrous, utricle; anhydrous, clepsydra, dropsy, hydathode, hydatid, from Greek hudr, water.
6. Suffixed nasalized zero-grade form *u-n-d--. undine, undulate; abound, inundate, redound, redundant, surround, from Latin unda, wave.
7. Suffixed zero-grade form *ud-ro-, *ud-r-, water animal. a. otter, from Old English otor, otter, from Germanic *otraz, otter; b. nutria, from Latin lutra, otter (with obscure l-); c. Hydrus, from Greek hudros, a water snake; d. Hydra, hydrilla, from Greek hudr, a water serpent, Hydra.
8. Suffixed zero-grade form *ud-skio-. usquebaugh, whiskey, from Old Irish uisce, water.
9. Suffixed o-grade form *wod--. vodka, from Russian voda, water.
(Pokorny 9. a(e)- 78.)
To speak. Oldest form *2wed-.
1. Possible reduplicated form *we-ud- becoming *awe-ud-, dissimilated to *aweid-, with suffixed o-grade form *awoid-o-,becoming Greek aweid-, to sing (but more likely from a separate root *2weid-). ode; comedy, epode, hymnody, melody, monody, parody, rhapsody, tragedy, from Greek aeidein (Attic idein), to sing, and aoid (Attic id), song, ode, with aoidos (Attic idos), a singer, singing.
2. Suffixed o-grade form *wod-o-. Theravada, from Sanskrit vda, sound, statement.
(Pokorny 6. au- 76.)
To blow. Contracted from *we1-; oldest basic form *2we1-.
1. Suffixed shortened form *we-dhro-. weather, from Old English weder, weather, storm, wind, from Germanic *wedram wind, weather.
2. Suffixed (participial) form *w-nt-o-, blowing. a. (i) wind1, from Old English wind, wind; (ii) window, from Old Norse vindr, wind. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *windaz; b. vent1, ventail, ventilate, from Latin ventus, wind.
3. wing, from Middle English wenge, wing, from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Norse vængr, wing, from suffixed Germanic form *w-ingjaz.
4. Basic form *w-. nirvana, from Sanskrit vti (stem *v-), it blows.
(Pokorny 10. a(e)- 81.)
Water, liquid, milk. Contracted from *we1-r-; zero-grade *u1-r-, contracted to *r-. Related to eu-dh-. Suffixed zero-grade form *r-n-. urine, from Latin rna, urine.
(In Pokorny 9. a(e)- 78.)
To be strong, be lively. Oldest form *we-, becoming *weg- in centum languages.
Derivatives include watch, vigilante, reveille, and velocity.
1. Suffixed o-grade form *wog--. wake1, from Old English wacan, to wake up, arise, and wacian, to be awake, from Germanic *wakn.
2. Suffixed o-grade form *wog-no-. waken, from Old English wæcnan, wæcnian, to awake, from Germanic *waknan.
3. watch, from Old English wæccan, to be awake, from Germanic *wakjan.
4. Suffixed form *weg-yo-. Wicca, wicked, witch; bewitch, from Old English wicca, sorcerer, wizard (feminine wicce, witch), from Germanic *wikkjaz, necromancer (< “one who wakes the dead”).
5. bivouac, from Old High German wahta, watch, vigil, from Germanic *wahtw. 6a. wait, from Old North French waitier, to watch; b. waft, from Middle Dutch and Middle Low German wachten, to watch, guard. Both a and b from Germanic *waht-.
7. Suffixed (causative) o-grade form *wog-eyo-. vegetable, from Latin vegre, to be lively.
8. Suffixed (stative) form *weg--. vigor; ravigote, from Latin vigre, to be lively.
9. Suffixed form *weg-(e)li-. vedette, vigil, vigilant, vigilante; reveille, surveillant, from Latin vigil, watchful, awake.
10. Suffixed form *weg-slo-. velocity, from Latin vlx, fast, “lively.”
(Pokorny e- 1117.)
To go, transport in a vehicle. Oldest form *weh-,becoming *wegh- in centum languages.
Derivatives include weight, away, wagon, earwig, devious, trivial, and vex.
1. weigh1, from Old English wegan, to carry, balance in a scale, from Germanic *wegan.
2. wee, from Old English wg(e), weight, unit of weight, from Germanic lengthened-grade form *wg.
3. Suffixed form *wegh-ti-. weight, from Old English wiht, gewiht, weight, from Germanic *wihti-. 4a. way; always, away, from Old English weg, way; b. Norwegian, from Old Norse vegr, way; c. thalweg, from Old High German weg, way. a–c all from Germanic *wegaz, course of travel, way.
5. Suffixed o-grade form *wogh-no-. a. wain, from Old English wæ(g)n, wagon; b. wagon, from Middle Dutch wagen, wagon. Both a and b from Germanic *wagnaz.
6. Suffixed o-grade form *wogh-lo-. a. walleyed, from Old Norse vagl, chicken roost, perch, beam, eye disease, from Germanic *waglaz; b. ochlocracy, ochlophobia, from Greek okhlos, populace, mob (< “moving mass”).
7. Distantly related to this root are: a. (i)graywacke, from Old High German waggo, wacko, boulder rolling on a riverbed, from Germanic *wag-, “to move about”; (ii) wag1, from Middle English waggen, to wag, possibly from Germanic *wag-; b. vogue, from Old French voguer, to row, sail, from Old Saxon *wogn, to rock, sway, from Germanic *wga-, water in motion; c. (i) earwig, from Old English wicga, insect (< “thing that moves quickly”); (ii) wiggle, from Middle Dutch and Middle Low German wiggelen, to move back and forth, wag. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *wig-.
8. Basic form *wegh-. vector, vehement, vehicle; advection, convection, evection, invective, inveigh, from Latin vehere (past participle vectus), to carry.
9. Suffixed basic form *wegh-y-. foy, via, viatical, voyage; convey, convoy, deviate, devious, envoi, envoy1, invoice, obviate, obvious, ogee, ogive, pervious, previous, trivial, trivium, viaduct, from Latin via, way, road.
10. Suffixed form *wegh-s-. vex, from Latin vexre, to agitate (< “to set in motion”).
11. Probably suffixed form *wegh-so-. convex, from Latin convexus, “carried or drawn together (to a point),” convex (com-, together; see kom).
(Pokorny eh- 1118.)
To turn, twist; with derivatives referring to suppleness or binding. Also wei- (earlier *wei1-).
Derivatives include wire, vise, and iris.
(I) Form *wei-.
1a. wire, from Old English wr, wire; b. garland, from Old French garlande, wreath, from Frankish *wiara,*weara, wire. Both a and b from Germanic suffixed form *w-ra-, *w-ra-.
2. Probably suffixed Germanic form *wai-ra-. seaware, from Old English wr, seaweed.
3. Suffixed zero-grade form *wi-ri-. ferrule, from Latin viriae, bracelets (of Celtic origin).
4. Suffixed form *wei-ti-. withy, from Old English wthig, willow, withy, from Germanic *wth-, willow.
5. Suffixed zero-grade form *wi-t-. withe, from Old English withthe, supple twig, from Germanic *withjn-.
(II) Form *wei-, zero-grade *w- (< *wi-).
1. Suffixed form *w-ti-. vise; viticulture, from Latin vtis, vine.
2. Suffixed form *w-t- becoming *witt-. vitta, from Latin vitta, headband.
3. Suffixed form *w-men-. Mimbres, from Latin vmen, withy, wicker.
4. Probably suffixed form *w-ri-. iridaceous, irido-, iris, Iris; iridium, iritis, from Greek ris, rainbow, and ris, rainbow goddess.
5. Perhaps suffixed form *w-n-. inion; exine, inosine, inositol, inotropic, from Greek s, sinew.
(Pokorny 1. ei- 1120.)
Derivatives include guide, wisdom, kaleidoscope, Hades, unwitting, envy, idea, history, and penguin.
(I) Full-grade form *weid-.
1a. twit, from Old English wtan, to reproach; b. guide, guidon, from Old Provençal guidar, to guide; c. guy1, from Old French guier, to guide; d. wite, from Old English wte, fine, penalty, from Germanic derivative noun *wti-. a–d all from Germanic *wtan, to look after, guard, ascribe to, reproach.
2. Suffixed form *weid-to-. a. wise1, from Old English ws, wise; b. wisdom, from Old English wsdm, learning, wisdom (-dm, abstract suffix; see dh-); c. wiseacre, from Old High German wzag, knowledgeable; d. (i) wise2, from Old English wse, ws, manner; (ii) guise, from Old French guise, manner. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *wssn-, appearance, form, manner. a–d all from Germanic *wssaz.
3. Suffixed form *weid-es-. eidetic, eidolon, idol, idyll, –oid; idocrase, kaleidoscope, from Greek eidos, form, shape.
(II) Zero-grade form *wid-.1a. wit1, from Old English wit,witt, knowledge, intelligence; b. witenagemot, from Old English wita, wise man, councilor. Both a and b from Germanic *wit-.
2. wit2, wot; unwitting, from Old English witan, to know, from Germanic *witan (Old English first and third person singular wt, from Germanic *wait, from Indo-European o-grade form *woid-).
3. Suffixed form *wid-to-. iwis, from Old English gewis, gewiss, certain, sure, from Germanic *(ga)wissa-, known (*ga-, past participial prefix; see kom-).
4. Form *wid-- (with the participial form *weid-to-). vide, view, visa, visage, vision, visit, visor, vista, voyeur; advice, advise, belvedere, black-a-vised, clairvoyant, envy, evident, improvise, interview, invidious, previse, provide, prudent, purvey, purview, review, revise, supervise, survey, from Latin vidre, to see, look.
5. Suffixed form *wid-es-y-. idea, ideo-, from Greek ide, appearance, form, idea.
6. Suffixed form *wid-tor-. history, story1; polyhistor, from Greek histr, wise, learned, learned man.
7. hadal, Hades, from Greek Haids (also Aids), the underworld, perhaps “the invisible” and from *wid-.
8. Suffixed nasalized zero-grade form *wi-n-d-o-. a. colcannon, from Old Irish find, white (< “clearly visible”); b. penguin, from Welsh gwyn, gwynn, white.
9. Celtic *wid-, seer, in compound *dru-wid- (see deru-).
(III) Suffixed o-grade form *woid-o-. Veda; Rig-Veda, from Sanskrit veda, knowledge.
(Pokorny 2. (e)di-(misprint for (e)id-) 1125.)
To go after someting, pursue with vigor, desire, with noun forms meaning force, power. Related to w-ro-.
1. Zero-grade form *w- (< *wi-). vim, violate, violent, from Latin vs, force, with irregular derivatives violre, to treat with force, and violentus, vehement.
2. Suffixed o-grade form *woi()-ty-. gain1; rowen, from Old French, gaaignier, gaignier, to obtain, from Germanic *waithanjan, to hunt, plunder, denominative verb from *wai-thj, “pursuit,” hunting.
3. Suffixed zero-grade form *wi-to- becoming *w-to-. invite, from Latin invtre, to invite (in-, in; see en).
(Pokorny 3. ei- 1123.)
Clan (social unit above the household). Oldest form *wei-, becoming *weik- in centum languages.
1. Suffixed form *weik-sl-. villa, village, villain, villanelle, villein; bidonville, nasty, from Latin vlla, country house, farm.
2. Suffixed o-grade form *woik-o-. a. vicinage, vicinity; bailiwick, from Latin vcus, quarter or district of a town, neighborhood; b. androecium, autoecious, diocese, dioecious, dioicous, ecesis, ecology, economy, ecumenical, heteroecious, monoecious, parish, parochial, from Greek oikos, house, and its derivatives oiki, a dwelling, and oiksis, dwelling, administration.
3. Zero-grade form *wik-. Vaisya, from Sanskrit via, dwelling, house.
(Pokorny ei- 1131.)
Also weig-. To bend, wind.
Derivatives include wicker, weak, and vicarious.
(I) Form *weig-.
1a. wych elm, from Old English wice, wych elm (having pliant branches); b. wicker, from Middle English wiker, wicker, from a Scandinavian source akin to Swedish viker, willow twig, wand; c. wicket, from Old North French wiket, wicket (< “door that turns”), from a Scandinavian source probably akin to Old Norse vikja, to bend, turn. a–c all from Germanic *wik-.
2a. weak, from Old Norse veikr, pliant; b. weakfish, from Middle Dutch weec, weak, soft. Both a and b from Germanic *waikwaz.
3. week, from Old English wicu, wice, week, from Germanic *wikn-, “a turning,” series.
(II) Form *weik-. Zero-grade form *wik-. a. vicar, vicarious, vice-; vicissitude, from Latin *vix (genitive vicis), turn, situation, change; b. vetch, from Latin vicia, vetch (< “twining plant”).
(Pokorny 4. eik- 1130.)
To fight, conquer.
1. wight2, from Old Norse vgr, able in battle, from Germanic *wk-.
2. Nasalized zero-grade form *wi-n-k-. vanquish, victor, vincible; convict, convince, evict, evince, from Latin vincere, to conquer.
3. Zero-grade form *wik-. Ordovician, from Celtic Ordovices (*ordo-wik-), “those who fight with hammers” (*ordo-, hammer).
(Pokorny 2. eik-1128.)
To turn, vacillate, tremble ecstatically.
Derivatives include wipe, whip, and vibrate.
1. O-grade form *woip-. waif1, waif2, waive, waiver, from Anglo-Norman waif, ownerless property, from a Scandinavian source probably akin to Old Norse veif, waving thing, flag, from Germanic *waif-.
2. Variant form *weib-.a. wipe, from Old English wpian, to wipe; b. guipure, from Old French guiper, to cover with silk; c. whip, from Middle English wippen, to whip. a–c all from Germanic *wpjan, to move back and forth.
3. Perhaps suffixed nasalized zero-grade form *wi-m-p-ila-. a. wimple, from Old English wimpel, covering for the neck (< “something that winds around”); b. gimp1, guimpe, from Old High German wimpal, guimpe; c. perhaps Middle Dutch wimmel, auger (< “that which turns in boring”): wimble.
4. Suffixed zero-grade variant form *wib-ro-. vibrate, from Latin vibrre, to vibrate.
Thing, creature. a. whit, wight1; aught2, naught, not, from Old English wiht, person, thing; b. nix2, from Old High German wiht, thing, being. Both a and b from Germanic *wihti-.
(Pokorny ek-ti- 1136.)
1. O-grade form *wkw-. a. vocal, voice, vowel, from Latin vx, voice; b. Calliope, from Greek ops, voice.
2. Suffixed o-grade form *wokw--. vocable, vocation, vouch; advocate, avocation, convoke, equivocal, evoke, invoke, provoke, revoke, univocal, from Latin vocre, to call.
3. Suffixed form *wekw-es-. epic, epos; epopee, orthoepy, from Greek epos, song, word.
(Pokorny ek- 1135.)
To wish, will.
Derivatives include wealth, gallop, gallant, and voluptuous.
1. well2, from Old English wel, well (< “according to one's wish”), from Germanic *wel-.
2. weal1, wealth, from Old English wela, weola, well-being, riches, from Germanic *weln-.
3. will1, from Old English willa, desire, will power, from Germanic *wiljn-.
4. will2; nill, willy-nilly, from Old English willan, to desire, from Germanic *wil(l)jan.
5. Germanic compound *wil-kumn- (see gw-).
6. O-grade form *wol-.a. gallop, from Old French galoper, to gallop; b. wallop, from Old North French *waloper, to gallop; c. gallant; gallimaufry, from Old French galer, to rejoice, from Frankish Latin *walre, to take it easy, from Frankish *wala, good, well. a–c all from Germanic *wal-.
7. Basic form *wel-. velleity, volition, voluntary; benevolent, malevolence, from Latin velle (present stem vol-), to wish, will.
8. Probably suffixed extended form *wel-p-i-. voluptuary, voluptuous, from Latin volupts, pleasure, from an adjective *volupis, pleasing (probably preserved in the adverb volup, with pleasure, from neuter *volupe).
(Pokorny 2. el-1137.)
To turn, roll; with derivatives referring to curved, enclosing objects.
Derivatives include waltz, willow, wallow, revolve, valley, and helix.
1a. waltz, from Old High German walzan, to roll, waltz; b. welter, from Middle Low German or Middle Dutch welteren, to roll. Both a and b from Germanic *walt-.
2. whelk1, from Old English weoluc,weoloc, mollusk (having a spiral shell), whelk, from Germanic *weluka-.
3. Perhaps Germanic *wel-. willow, from Old English welig, willow (with flexible twigs).
4. Perhaps Germanic *welk-. walk, from Old English wealcan, to roll, toss, and wealcian, to muffle up.
5. O-grade form *wol-. a. well1, from Old English wiella,wælla, welle, a well (< “rolling or bubbling water,” “spring”); b. gaberdine, from Old High German walln, to roam; c. wallet, possibly from Old North French *walet, roll, knapsack. a–c all from Germanic *wall-.
6. Perhaps suffixed o-grade form *wol--. a. wale, from Old English walu, streak on the skin, weal, welt; b. Old High German *-walu, a roll, round stem, in compound *wurzwalu (see wrd-). Both a and b from Germanic *wal.
7. Extended form *welw-. a. wallow, from Old English wealwian, to roll (in mud), from Germanic *walwn; b. vault1, vault2, volt2, voluble, volume, volute, volutin, volvox, voussoir; archivolt, circumvolve, convolve, devolve, evolve, involucrum, involve, multivoltine, revolve, from Latin volvere, to roll; c. suffixed o-grade form *wolw--. volva, vulva, from Latin vulva, volva, covering, womb; d. suffixed zero-grade form *ww--. valve, valvule, from Latin valva, leaf of a door (< “that which turns”); e. suffixed zero-grade form *wu-ti-. Alyce clover, from Greek halusis, chain; f. suffixed form *welu-tro-. elytron, from Greek elutron, sheath, cover.
8. Suffixed form wel-n-. ileus; neurilemma, from Greek eilein (< *welnein), to turn, squeeze.
9. Perhaps variant *wall-. vail1, vale1, valley, from Latin valls, vallis, valley (< “that which is surrounded by hills”).
10. Possibly suffixed form *wel-en-. Helen; elecampane, inulin, from the Greek name Helen (oldest form Welen), Helen.
11. Suffixed form *wel-ik-. helicon, helix; helicopter, from Greek helix, spiral object.
12. Suffixed form *wel-mi-nth-. helminth; anthelmintic, platyhelminth, from Greek helmis, helmins (stem helminth-), parasitic worm.
(Pokorny 7. el- 1140.)
To strike, wound. Oldest form *wel2-.
1. Suffixed o-grade form *wol()-o-. a. Valhalla, from Old Norse Valhöll, Valhalla; b. Valkyrie, from Old Norse Valkyrja, “chooser of the slain,” name of one of the twelve war goddesses (-kyrja, chooser; see geus-). Both a and b from Old Norse valr, the slain in battle, from Germanic *walaz.
2. Suffixed basic form *wel-nes-. vulnerable, from Latin vulnus (stem vulner-), a wound.
3. Suffixed zero-grade form *w-to-. berdache, from Old Iranian *varta- (Avestan varta-), seized, prisoner.
(In Pokorny 8. el-1144.)
To vomit. Oldest form *wem1-.
1. wamble, from Middle English wam(e)len, to feel nausea, stagger, from a Scandinavian source probably akin to Old Norse vamla, qualm, and Danish vamle, to become sick, from Germanic *wam-.
2. vomit; nux vomica, from Latin vomere, to vomit.
3. emesis, emetic, from Greek emein, to vomit.
To desire, strive for.
Derivatives include win, wont, wish, venerate, venereal, venom, and venison.
1. Suffixed form *wen-w-. win, from Old English winnan, to win, from Germanic *winn(w)an, to seek to gain.
2. Suffixed zero-grade form *w-y-. wynn, winsome, from Old English wynn, wen, pleasure, joy, from Germanic *wunj.
3. Suffixed (stative) zero-grade form *w--, to be contented. won1, wont, from Old English wunian, to become accustomed to, dwell, from Germanic *wunn.
4. Suffixed (causative) o-grade form *won-eyo-. wean, from Old English wenian, to accustom, train, wean, from Germanic *wanjan.
5. ween, from Old English wnan, to expect, imagine, think, from Germanic denominative *wnjan, to hope, from *wniz, hope.
6. Suffixed zero-grade form *w-sko-. wish, from Old English wscan, to desire, wish, from Germanic *wunsk-.7. Perhaps o-grade form *won-. a. Vanir, from Old Norse Vanir, the Vanir; b. vanadium, from Old Norse Vanads, name of the goddess Freya. Both a and b from Germanic *wana-.
8. Suffixed form *wen-es-. a. venerate, venereal, venery1, Venus, from Latin venus, love; b. suffixed form *wen-es-no-. venom, from Latin vennum, love potion, poison.
9. Possibly suffixed form *wen-eto-, “beloved.” Wend, from Old High German Winid, Wend, from Germanic *Weneda-, a Slavic people.
10. Suffixed form *wen-y-. venial, from Latin venia, favor, forgiveness.
11. Lengthened-grade form *wn--. venery2, venison, from Latin vnr, to hunt.
12. Suffixed basic form *wen-o-. wanderoo, from Sanskrit vanam, forest.
13. Possibly zero-grade suffixed form *w-ig-. banyan, from Sanskrit vaik, vija, merchant (? < “seeking to gain”).
(Pokorny 1. en- 1146.)
To beat, wound.
1. Suffixed zero-grade form *w-to-. wound1, from Old English wund, a wound, from Germanic *wundaz.
2. Suffixed o-grade form *won-yo-. wen1, from Old English wen(n),wæn(n), wen, from Germanic *wanja-, a swelling.
(Pokorny en- 1108.)
To raise, lift, hold suspended. Oldest form *2wer-.
1. Basic form *awer-. aorta, arsis, arterio-, arteriole, artery; meteor, from Greek eirein, to raise, and artri, windpipe, artery.
2. Possibly from this root is Greek r, air (from an obscure basic form *wer-): aerial, aero-, air, aria; malaria.
3. Zero-grade form *aur-. aura, from Greek aur, breath, vapor (related to Greek r, air; see 2 above).
(Pokorny 1. er- 1150.)
Conventional base of various Indo-European roots; to turn, bend.
Derivatives include stalwart, weird, vertebra, wrath, wrong, wrestle, briar1, rhapsody, and worm.
(I) Root *wert-, to turn, wind.
1. Germanic *werth-.a. (i) –ward, from Old English -weard, toward (< “turned toward”); (ii) inward, from Old English inweard, inward, from Germanic *inwarth, inward (*in, in; see en). Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic variant *warth;b. perhaps Germanic derivative *werthaz, “toward, opposite,” hence “equivalent, worth.” worth1; stalwart, from Old English weorth, worth, valuable, and derivative noun weorth, wierth, value.
2. worth2, from Old English weorthan, to befall, from Germanic *werthan, to become (< “to turn into”).
3. Zero-grade form *wt-. weird, from Old English wyrd, fate, destiny (< “that which befalls one”), from Germanic *wurthi-.
4. versatile, verse1, version, versus, vertebra, vertex, vertigo, vortex; adverse, anniversary, avert, bouleversement, controversy, converse1, convert, dextrorse, divert, evert, extrorse, extroversion, extrovert, introrse, introvert, invert, malversation, obvert, peevish, pervert, prose, retrorse, revert, sinistrorse, subvert, tergiversate, transverse, universe, from Latin vertere, to turn, with its frequentative versre, to turn, and passive versr, to stay, behave (< “to move around a place, frequent”).
5. verst, from Russian versta, line, from Balto-Slavic *wirst-, a turn, bend.
(II) Root *wreit-, to turn. a. wreath, from Old English writha, band (< “that which is wound around”); b. writhe, from Old English wrthan, to twist, torture; c. wrath, wroth, from Old English wrth, angry (< “tormented, twisted”). a–c all from Germanic *wrth-, *wraith-.
(III) Root *wergh-, to turn.
1. worry, from Old English wyrgan, to strangle, from Germanic *wurgjan.
2. Nasalized variant *wrengh-.a. wring, from Old English wringan, to twist, from Germanic *wreng-;b. (i) wrong, from Middle English wrong, wrong, from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Norse *vrangr, rangr, curved, crooked, wrong; (ii) wrangle, from Middle English wranglen, to wrangle, from a Low German source akin to wrangeln, to wrestle. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *wrang-.
(IV) Root *werg-, to turn.
1. Nasalized variant form *wreng-. a. wrench, from Old English wrencan, to twist; b. wrinkle, from Old English gewrinclian, to wind (ge-, collective prefix; see kom). Both a and b from Germanic *wrankjan.
2. verge2; converge, diverge, from Latin vergere, to turn, tend toward.
(V) Root *wreik-, to turn.
1a. wry, from Old English wrgian, to turn, bend, go; b. wriggle, from Middle Low German wriggeln, to wriggle. Both a and b from Germanic *wrg-.
2a. wrist, from Old English wrist, wrist; b. gaiter, from Old French guietre, gaiter, from Frankish *wrist-.Both a and b from Germanic *wristiz, from *wrihst-.
3. wrest, wrestle, from Old English wrstan, to twist, from secondary Germanic derivative *wraistjan.
4. Possibly o-grade form *wroik-.briar1, brusque, from Late Latin brcus, heather, from Gaulish *brko-.
(VI) ribald, from Old French riber, to be wanton, from Germanic root *wrib-.
(VII) Root *werb-,also *werbh-, to turn, bend.
1. warp, from Old English weorpan, to throw away, from Germanic *werp-, *warp-, “to fling by turning the arm.” 2. reverberate, from Latin verber, whip, rod.
3. verbena, vervain, from Latin verbna, sacred foliage.
4. Zero-grade form *wb-. rhabdomancy, rhabdovirus, from Greek rhabdos, rod.
5. Nasalized variant form *wrembh-. rhombus, from Greek rhombos, magic wheel, rhombus.
(VIII) Root *werp-, to turn, wind.
1. Metathesized form *wrep-. wrap, from Middle English wrappen, to wrap, from a source akin to Danish dialectal vravle, to wind, from Germanic *wrap-.
2. Zero-grade form *wp-. raphe, rhaphide; rhapsody, staphylorrhaphy, tenorrhaphy, from Greek rhaptein, to sew.
(IX) Root *wmi-, worm; rhyme word to kwmi-.
1. worm, from Old English wyrm, worm, from Germanic *wurmiz.
2. vermeil, vermi-, vermicelli, vermicular, vermin, from Latin vermis, worm.
(Pokorny 3. er-1152.)
To perceive, watch out for.
Derivatives include wary, lord, reward, guard, and panorama.
(I) O-grade form *wor-.
1. Suffixed form *wor-o-. a. wary, from Old English wær, watchful; b. aware, from Old English gewær, aware (ge-, collective and intensive prefix; see kom); c. ware2, from Old English warian, to beware. a–c all from Germanic *waraz.
2. Suffixed form wor-to-. a. (i) ward; lord, steward, from Old English weard, a watching, keeper; (ii) warder2, from Old English weardian, to ward, guard; b. warden; award, reward, wardrobe, from Old North French warder, to guard; c. guard; garderobe, regard, from Old French guarder,to guard; d. rearward2, from Anglo-Norman warde, guard. a–d all from Germanic *wardaz, guard, and *wardn, to guard.
3. ware1, from Old English waru, goods, protection, guard, from Germanic *war.
4. Suffixed form *wor-wo-. Arcturus, pylorus, from Greek ouros, a guard.
5. Probably variant *(s)wor-, *s(w)or-. ephor, panorama, from Greek horn, to see.
(II) Suffixed (stative) form *wer--. revere1, from Latin verr, to respect, feel awe for.
(Pokorny 8. er-1164.)
Derivatives include overt, cover, warranty, garage, garrison, and garnish.
(I) Basic form *wer-.
1.weir, from Old English wer, dam, fish trap, from Germanic *wer-jn-.
2. Compound form *ap-wer-yo- (*ap-, off, away; see apo-). aperient, apéritif, aperture; overt, overture, pert, from Latin aperre, to open, uncover.
3. Compound form *op-wer-yo- (*op-, over; see epi). cover, operculum; kerchief, from Latin operre, to cover.
4. Suffixed form *wer-tro-.ambarella, from Sanskrit va, enclosure, from lengthened-grade derivative *vrt(r)a-.
(II) O-grade form *wor-.
1. warn, from Old English *war(e)nian, to take heed, warn, from Germanic *war-nn.
2a. (i) guaranty, from Old French garant, warrant, authorization; (ii) warrant, warrantee, warranty, from Old North French warant, warrant, and warantir, to guarantee; b. garage, from Old French garer, to guard, protect; c. garret, garrison, from Old French g(u)arir, to defend, protect; d. warren, from Old North French warenne, enclosure, game preserve; e.garment, garnish, garniture, from Old French g(u)arnir, to equip. a–e all from Germanic *war-.
3. Suffixed form *wor-o-.a. Germanic *warn-, protector, in compound *burg-warn- (see bhergh-2); b. barbican, from Old Iranian compound *pari-vraka-, protective (*pari-,around; see per1).
(Pokorny 5. er-1160.)
Also wer-. To speak. Oldest form *wer1-, with variant *wre1-, contracted to *wr-.
1. Suffixed zero-grade form *w-dho-. word, from Old English word, word, from Germanic *wurdam.
2. Suffixed form *wer-dho-. verb, verve; adverb, proverb, from Latin verbum, word.
3. Suffixed form *wer-yo-.irony, from Greek eirein, to say, speak.
4. Variant form *wr-. a. Suffixed form *wr-tor-. rhetor, from Greek rhtr, public speaker; b. suffixed form *wr-m. rheme, from Greek rhma, word.
(Pokorny 6. er-1162.)
True, trustworthy. Oldest form *wr1-o-.
Derivatives include warlock and verdict.
1. warlock, from Old English wr, faith, pledge, from Germanic *wra-.
2. veracious, verism, verity, very; aver, verdict, veridical, verify, verisimilar, voir dire, from Latin vrus, true.
3. Normal grade *wero-, from *wer-o-, in Celtic compound *ro-wero- (see per1).
(Pokorny 11. er-1165.)
To do. Oldest form *wer-,becoming *werg- in centum languages.
Derivatives include work, allergy, surgery, wrought, and orgy.
(I) Suffixed form *werg-o-.1a. work; handiwork, from Old English weorc, werc, work; b. boulevard, bulwark, from Old High German werc, work. Both a and b from Germanic *werkam, work.
1. Suffixed forms *wg-yo-, *wg-to-.a. wrought, from Old English wyrcan, to work; b. irk, from Old Norse yrkja, to work. Both a and b from Germanic *wurkjan, to work, participle *wurhta-.
2. Suffixed form *wg-t-. wright, from Old English wryhta, maker, wright, from Germanic *wurhtj-.
(III) O-grade form *worg-. a. organ, organon, from Greek organon (with suffix -ano-), tool; b. orgy, from Greek orgia, secret rites, worship (< “service”).
(Pokorny 2. er- 1168.)
To confuse, mix up. Compare ers-.
(I) Suffixed basic form.
1a. war, from Old North French werre, war; b. guerrilla, from Spanish guerra, war. Both a and b from Germanic *werra-, from *werz-a-.
2. worse, from Old English wyrsa, worse, from Germanic comparative *wers-izn-.
3. worst, from Old English wyrsta, worst, from Germanic superlative *wers-istaz.
(II) Suffixed zero-grade form *ws-ti-. wurst; liverwurst, from Old High German wurst, sausage (< “mixture”), from Germanic *wursti-.
To live, dwell, pass the night, with derivatives meaning “to be.” Oldest form *2wes-.
1. O-grade (perfect tense) form *wos-. was, from Old English wæs, was, from Germanic *was-.
2. Lengthened-grade form *ws-. were, from Old English wre (subjunctive), wron (plural), were, from Germanic *wz-.
3. wassail, from Old Norse vesa, vera, to be, from Germanic *wesan.
4. Perhaps suffixed form *wes-t-. Vesta, from Latin Vesta, household goddess.
5. Possibly suffixed variant form *was-tu-. astute, from Latin astus, skill, craft (practiced in a town), from Greek astu, town (< “place where one dwells”).
6. Suffixed form *wes-eno-. divan, from Old Persian vahanam, house.
(Pokorny 1. es-1170.)
To clothe. Extension of eu-1.
1. Suffixed o-grade (causative) form *wos-eyo-. wear, from Old English werian, to wear, carry, from Germanic *wazjan.
2. Suffixed form *wes-ti-. vest; devest, invest, revet, travesty, from Latin vestis, garment.
3. Suffixed form *wes-nu-. himation, from Greek hennunai, to clothe, with nominal derivative heima, hma (< *wes-m), garment.
(Pokorny 5. es-1172.)
1. Suffixed form *wes-no-. venal, vend, from Latin vnum, sale.
2. Suffixed o-grade form *wos-no-. duopsony, monopsony, from Greek neisthai, to buy.
3. Suffixed form *wes--. bazaar, from Persian bzr, from Old Iranian *vah-carana-,“sale-traffic.” 4. Perhaps suffixed form *wes-li-. vile; revile, vilify, vilipend, from Latin vlis, cheap, base.
(Pokorny 8. es-1173.)
(I) Reduced form *wes-.
1. Suffixed form *wes-to-.a. west, from Old English west, west; b. western, from Old English westerne, western; c. westerly, from Old English westra, more westerly. a–c all from Germanic *west-.
2. Possibly Germanic *wis-,west, in Late Latin Visigoth, “West Goths” (Goth, the Goths): Visigoth.
(II) Basic form *wespero-.
1. pipistrelle, vesper, vespertilionid, from Latin vesper, evening.
2. Hesperian, Hesperides, Hesperus, from Greek hesperos, evening.
(Pokorny esperos 1173.)
Spring. vernal; primavera1, from Latin vr, spring (phonologically irregular).
(Pokorny es- 1174.)
To blow, inspire, spiritually arouse. Related to w-. Oldest form *2wet-.
Derivatives include Wednesday and atmosphere.
1. Lengthened-grade form *wt-. a. Woden; Wednesday, from Old English Wden, Woden; b. Odin, from Old Norse dhinn, Odin; c. Wotan, from Old High German Wuotan. a–c all from Germanic suffixed form *wd-eno-, *wd-ono-, “raging,” “mad,” “inspired,” hence “spirit,” name of the chief Teutonic god *Wd-enaz;d. wood2, from Old English wd, mad, insane, from Germanic *wdaz; e. Celtic *wt-. vatic, from Latin vts, prophet, poet, from a Celtic source akin to Old Irish fáith, seer.
2. O-grade form *wot-. wedeln, from Old High German wedil, fan, from Germanic suffixed form *wath-ila-.
3. Suffixed variant form *wat-no-.fan1, van3, from Latin vannus, a winnowing fan.
4. Oldest basic form *wet- becoming *awet- in suffixed form *awet-mo-. atmosphere, from Greek atmos (< *aetmos), breath, vapor.
(Pokorny 1. t- 1113.)
1. Suffixed form *wet-ru-. wether; bellwether, from Old English wether, wether, from Germanic *wethruz, perhaps “yearling.” 2. Suffixed form *wet-es-. a. veteran; inveterate, from Latin vetus, old (< “having many years”); b.veterinary, from Latin veternus, of beasts of burden, of cattle (perhaps chiefly old cattle); c. etesian, from Greek etos, year.
3. Suffixed form *wet-olo-.veal, vitellus, from Latin vitulus, calf, yearling.
Apart, in half.
1. Suffixed form *wi-ito-. wide, from Old English wd, wide (< “far apart”), from Germanic *wdaz.
2. Suffixed (comparative) form *wi-tero-. a. with, withers, from Old English wither, against, with its derivative with, with, against; b. guerdon; widdershins, from Old High German widar, against. Both a and b from Germanic *withr, against.
(Pokorny 1. - 1175.)
Twenty. Compound of wi-, in half, hence two, and *(d)kt- (nominative dual), decade, reduced zero-grade form of dek. Oldest form *wt-,becoming *wkt- in centum languages.
1. vicenary, vigesimal, vigintillion, from Latin vgint, twenty.
2. eicosanoid, eicosapentaenoic acid, icosahedron, from Greek eikosi, twenty.
3. pachisi, from Sanskrit viati, twenty.
(Pokorny -t- 1177.)
Man. Contracted from *wi-ro-,derivative of wei-.
Derivatives include werewolf, world, and virtuoso.
1a. werewolf, wergeld, from Old English wer, man; b. (i) world, from Old English weorold, world; (ii) Weltanschauung, Weltschmerz, from Old High German weralt, world. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic compound *wer-ald-, “life or age of man” (*-ald-, age; see al-2); c. loup-garou, from Old French garoul, werewolf, from Frankish *wer-wulf, “man-wolf” (*wulf, wolf; see wkwo-). Both a and b from Germanic *weraz, from shortened form *wiraz.
2. virago, virile, virtue, virtuosa, virtuoso; decemvir, decurion, duumvir, triumvir, from Latin vir, man.
3. curia, from Latin cria, curia, court, possibly from *co-vir-ia,“men together” (*co-, together; see kom).
(Pokorny ro-s 1177.)
1a. wolf, from Old English wulf, wolf; b. aardwolf, from Middle Dutch wolf, wulf, wolf; c. wolfram, from Old High German wolf, wolf; d. Frankish *wulf, wolf, in compound *wer-wulf (see w-ro-). a–d all from Germanic *wulfaz.
2. Taboo variant *lupo-. lobo, lupine1, lupine2, lupus, robalo; loup-garou, from Latin lupus, wolf.
3. Taboo variant *lukwo-. a. lycanthrope, lycopodium, from Greek lukos, wolf; b. suffixed form *lukw-ya. lytta; alyssum, from Greek lussa, martial rage, madness, rabies (“wolf-ness”).
(Pokorny kos 1178.)
1. vulpine, from Latin vulps, fox.
2. Taboo variant *lpk-. alopecia, from Greek alpx, fox.
(Pokorny p- 1179.)
You (plural). rendezvous, from Latin vs, you.
(In Pokorny 1. u- 513.)
Branch, root. Oldest form *wre2d-, colored to *wra2d-, contracted to *wrd-.
Derivatives include root1, wort, radish, and licorice.
(I) Basic form *wrd-. root1; rutabaga, from Old Norse rt, root, from Germanic *wrt-.
(II) Zero-grade form *wd-.1a. wort1, from Old English wyrt, plant, herb; b. Gewürztraminer, from Old High German wurz, plant, root; c. mangel-wurzel, from German Wurzel, root (< *wurzwala, rootstock; *-wala, a roll, round stem; see wel-2). a–c all from Germanic *wurtiz.
2. Suffixed form *wd-y-. wort2, from Old English wyrt, brewer's wort, from Germanic *wurtj-.
3. radical, radicle, radish, radix; deracinate, eradicate, irradicable, from Latin rdx, root.
4. Suffixed form *wrd-mo-. ramose, ramus; ramify, from Latin rmus, branch.
5. Perhaps suffixed reduced form *w()d-ya. rhizo-, rhizome; coleorhiza, licorice, mycorrhiza, from Greek rhiza, root.